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BACCHUS DETHRONED. 



Pi\izE Essay. 



BT 

FREDERICK POWELL. 

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** If alcohol wero nnknown, half the sin, and three parts of the 
poverty and unhappiness in this world woald disappear." — Fbo- 
FESsofi Fabkes, M.D., F.B.S. 









NEW YORK: 
National Temperance Society and Publication House, 

No. 58 READE STREET. 

1874. 



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• • • 

• ••• 

!• • • 



THE JAMES TEARE PRIZE ESSAY. 



The Committee acting on behalf of Mr. Teare^s trustees, in 
giving the appended award of the Adjudicators, feel it due to a 
number of the competing writers, to state that the Adjudicators 
also expressed the opinion that several of the unsuccessful essays 
were of great value, and highly deserving of publication. 

On opening the sealed communications, it was found that the 
writer of the essay to which the first prize had been awaided is 
Mr. Frederick Powell, of Newcastle, and the writer of the essay 
to which the second prize is awarded is the Bev. Dawson 
Burns, M.A., of London. 

AWARD OF THE ADJUDICATORS. 

We, the undersigned, having been selected by the trustees of 
the late James Teare to act as adjudicators for the prizes left by 
him for the best essays on Temperance, unanimously agree that 
the first prize [of seventy guineas] be given to the writer of the 
essay bearing the title " Bacchus Dethroned.'' 

We also agree that the second prize [of twenty guineas] be 
given to the writer of the essay having for its motto, *' Hear me 
for my cause.'' 

Hbnrt MuNROBj M.D., F.L.S. 
Charles GabrM^. 
John Kirk. 
6 



diesis 



CONTENTS. 



I. — The Qebat National Cuesb. paqb 

The plagne of the Drink-sysiem : its ravages upon the IndiTidaal 12 

The moderate-drinker a diseased man : his risk of drunkenness 16 

The drunkard's appetite a disease: its nataro and name 19 

Predisposition to drinking capable of physical transmission 20 

The Causes of drunkenness and the Remedy ', 21 

Effect of Drink upon the Home-life of the people 23 

The Bavages of Drink upon the Nation at large 24 

The vast extent of Intemperance, and the other seqttences of Drinking.. 25 

Police returns, though defectiye, demonstrate their increase 26 

The statistics for Manchester and for England and Wales 29 

The drinking-systtm a producer of diieate andpremature deaVi 29 

Drunkards and traffickers short-liyed: authorities cited 30 

The number of deaths resulting from drinking 31 

The various diseases induced by intemperance 33 

Insanity, delirium-tremens, and predisposition to disease 35 

The drinking-system regarded as a crime-producer 37 

Cringe measured by the consumption of strong-drink 38 

Crimes specially fostered by drink 39 

Violence to the person, murder, suicide, and prostitution 40 

The traffickers constant and notorious violators of the law 42 

The drinking-system as a cause of pauperism 44 

Evidence of the Convocation Report of the Church 45 

Expenditure of the Working- classes upon in toxicants 46 

The drinking-system antagonistic to trade and commerce 47 

It employs little Labor, and abstracts much Capital 48 

At war with the interests of Manufacturers 49 

The world's great Industries related to each other 50 

The liquor- traffic an exception to this rule 51 

England seventeen millions of pounds poorer in 1868 than in 1867 56 

Scarcity without whisky better than Plenty with it 57 

A National Commercial Balance Sheet 58 

7 



8 A: ;•'! :••: C* *: : ..: f<5«fT^T8. 

Lots anddiiOBter oeeaaioned through the Drinking -aystem 61 

Loss of productive labor and of property 61 

Loss to the government from the inefficiency of the army and navy... 62 

The Drinking -system obstructs Education and Iteligion 63 

The attitude and duty of the Christian Church 67 

The evils depicted flow necessarily from the Drinking-system 68 

A respectable Public-house, impossible with the drink 69 

An example: and several impartial Testimonies 70 

Evidence of a Divine, a Statesman, a Judge, a Thinker, and a London 

Brewer 72 

The Drinking-system more deadly and devastating than War 75 

More destructive than Pestilence, more cruel than Famine 76 

More demoralizing than Slavery, more fatal than the Opium-plague.... 77 

The consumption of Opium on the increase in Britain 77 

The Alliance American Commissioner and Dr. Oppenheim cited 78 

II. — The Supposed Dietetic Value op Alcoholic Bevebages. 

The nature of the inquiry instituted, and Food defined 81 

The Elements of which the Human Structure is composed 81 

The physiological Changes which the body undergoes 83 

Classification of Foods, in regard to the ends they subserve 84 

Alcohol not a flesh and tissue-forming food 87 

Alcohol not a fuel, or warming food 87 

Alcohol no£ an auxiliary or blood-forming food 88 

Alcohol cannot supply the place of Water 88 

Alcohol impedes Digestion : experiments of Dr. Munroe 89 

Cannot take the place of potash, or peroxide of Iron 89 

Alcohol lacks all the distinctive features of food 90 

Five Objeotioits Aitswebed. 

" If Alcohol be not food, the beverages containing it are" 91 

" Bread itself c<mtoin« Alcohol" 93 

"Many other articles of Diet contain Poison" 93 

"General custom is in favor of Alcohol as diet" 94 

" That there is no broad distinction between food and poison" 95 

" That patients live upon Brandy a considerable time" 96 

Dr. Lankester's Classification of Food 97 

A high state of Civilization exemplified 98 

Intoxicating liquors, both needless and injurious 99 

III. — The Physiological Relations of Intoxicatiitg Liquobs. 

Physiology and the physical properties of Alcohol 100 

Alcohol the common principle of fermented and distilled liquors 101 

Alcohol not the product of life or growth 101 

Vokumt]/ one of th« properties of Alcohol 102 



CONTENTS. 9 

FAQB 

Experiments of Professor Binz, and others 103 

Alcohol an Irritant of the vital tissues 104 

The sensation of warmth the signal of inflammation 104 

Alcohol a Ifarcotie poison 105 

Action of Alcohol npon the Blood and Tissues 106 

Stimulant and Depressant defined. Alcohol not tha former 109 

The action of Chlorodyne; a startling case Ill 

Is alcohol a <6(2a^it;« / confusion in medical nomenclature 115 

Alcohol a Brain Poison 116 

Effects of moderate drinking ; 117 

How it lowers vitality and induces a feeling of weariness ^ 118 

Best, the sole remedy for the exhaustion of overwork 119 

Detracts from the power of the body 120 

The habitual use of Alcoholics injures the brain and shortens life 124 

Prevents the Constitution from adapting itself to Climatic changes 126 

Evidence of the Temperance and General Provident Institution 130 

Moderate drinking condemned by non-abstainers 134 

IV. — The Social and Political Aequmbnt. 

Natural appetite and variety of foods 136 

Acro-aromatics and Bitters meet a distinct want 137 

No natural appetite for Alcohol in the human constitution 138 

No food grown ever contains Alcohol 138 

The Old World demand for intoxicating liquors 139 

Ancient attempts to control and' arrest its development 140 

The discovery of distillation, and the eulogium of Doctors increase it 142 

The origin of UceTning the traffic in strong-drink 143 

The demand fostered by Social Usages 143 

The great influence and responsibility o( Females... 144 

The legalizing of the traffic increases the demand 144 

Supply and demand in relation to the necessaries of life 145 

For luxuries the demand increases with the supply 145 

Why the liquor;market knows no glut 146 

Fallacies of Liquor Vendors, Brewers and Distillers 147 

"Live and let live," a good maxim badly applied 149 

V. — The Manufacture op iNxoxicATiisra Liquob ah Immobalitt. 

Three inspired volumes and the harmony between them ', 152 

The Will of God regarding food, as expressed in Providence 153 

How brewing destroys food. The process explained 154 

Vast extent of the waste in brewing and distilling 156 

Intoxicants necessarily injure both Body and Soul 15T 

Our Poor-law system a pxemium upon vice, «tc 158 



10 CONTENTS. 

PAav 

The natire of Alcoholics tends to disease and degradation 159 

The action of Syoadamua upon the hodj 160 

The effects of Opiam and Laudanam compared 161 

VI. — Teetotalism a SciESTiPio Tbuth. 

The doctrine of expediency defined 162 

The original foundation of the Temperance enterprise 163 

Teetotalism in the beginning, a gigantic experiment 164 

Science sacceeded experience and confirmed its teachings 164 

What Chemistry has done for Teetotalism ^ 164 

Teetotalism in its relations to Physiology and Sygiene » 165 

The Medical aspect of the Temperance question 166 

Christian Morality in relation to Teetotalism 169 

Christianity teaches us to rule the Life by regulating the Heart 169 

It calls us from sensuous gratification to mental and moral aims 170 

It inculcates the practice of the milder virtues 170 

It demands self-abnegation for the good of others 173 

In all these respects abstinence does the same 174 

The New Testament inculcates the practice of true Temperance 174 

Signing the Pledge in harmony with Christian morality 177 

The Pledge defined, explained and defended 178 

Is it a Sin to drink a glass of Ale 7 180 

VII. — Teetotalism iit Relation to the Bible. 

The argument a priori, staled by Dr. Lees 182 

The Medical declaration, and the World's Temperance Convention 182 

At the Creation no want for Alcohol, and no Alcohol provided 183 

Noah's fall shows that the grace of God will not save a drinker 183 

Moderate drinkers more spiritv>ous than spiritual 184 

The case of Lot, a second warning 184 

The Israelites in ICgypt and their subsequent temptations 185 

A teetotal Priesthood, and teetotal Sacrifices 185 

The Children of Israel teetotalers for forty years 187 

Their National declension through drink 188 

Attempts made to correct the evil 192 

The Essenes and Tberapeuts: teetotal communities 194 

Was Jesus Christ an abstainer? 194 

The Miracle at Cana in Galilee, examined 195 

The Supper of the Lord and the Passover Wine 19ft 

The Temperance Bible Commentnry cited 199 

The ca&e of the Corinthian Church 201 

Total-abstinence passages in the New Testament 201 

Objection — "The Bible recommends wine" 203 



CONTENTS. 11 

PAGE 

Different kinds of wine Generic and ^edfic terms in the Bible 204 

The use of unfermented wine prevalent in ancient times 211 

iSucA beverages nowhere condemned in the Bible 213 

Intoxicating wines nowhere sanctioned in the Bible 213 

Modern Wines analogous to the condemned " mixed wines" 213 

Oijection. — " Paul prescribed a little wine to Timothj" 215 

The testimony of Athenseus as to medical-wine 215 

Direction. — " Moderate drinking implied in many texts" 216 

Examples of the absurdity of this argument 216 

Objection. — "The new-wine burst the old bottles" • 217 

Facts misunderstood : inference therefore false 218 

Objection, — " That the Bilile nowhere commands abstinence" 213 

Answer. — It teaches abstinence in various ways 220 

VIII. — God's Great Remedy for the World's Great Curse. 

National evils require National remedies 221 

Moral suasion v^r^t^ legal Prohibition 222 

Abstinence for the Individual, and Prohibition for the Community 222 

The remedy applied, lost, and found again 224 

The universal adaptation of the remedy ,. 226 

JExamples. Saltaire — Tyrone — Bessbrook, etc 227 

Two contrasted Northumberland villages 230 

Palliativei Education. Eecreation. Better Dwellings 232 

Prevent adulteration and encourage Aomc-drinking 236 

Preach the Gospel and evangelize the people 236 

Enact Free- trade in drink and impose heavy penalties 238 

Treat habitual drunkards as lunatics 239 

The dreams of the past become the realities of the present 241 

IX.-^-Legislation and the Liquor Traffic. 

The Temperance movement a great political agitation 242 

The ends of Government. Protection of Life. Liberty, and Property.. 242 

The benefit of the Community 243 

Politics and political economy defined 243 

The sphere and limitations of Social Legislation 244 

Preventive Legislation the best sort of law 244 

Beciprocal duties of Governors and Governed 244 

The Liquor traffic opposed to the great ends of Government 245 

A violation of a man's right to his Life 246 

Of a man's right to his Liberty 247 

Of a man's right to the full use of his Property 248 

The Liquor traffic hostile to the welfare of the Commilinity 249 

It corrupts and paralyzes also the executive authority 253 

A Maine Law v«r«tM a Permissive local option Law 253 



12 CONTENTS. 

PAGB 
What the Permissive Bill does not propose to do — 

Not to suppress Public Houses 254 

Not to dictate what people shall eat or drink 254 

Not to take the Licensing power from the Magistrates , 255 

Not to amend the Licensing-system at all ^ 255 

Not to stop further Legislation 255 

The Country fully ripe for the measure 256 

The alleged requirements of the Eevenue 256 

A tax upon vice, "penny wise and pound foolish" 256 

Unjust and unequal taxation involved in the system 257 

The suppression of the Traffic and an increased Revenue 259 

The Permissive Bill a moderate measure 260 

That it is not tyrannical nor impracticable 261 

That it is neither unconstitutional nor justly objectionable 261 

That it will deprive no one of an honest livelihood 264 

The suppression of the Liquor traffic a stern necessity 264 

Internal enemies most to be dreaded by a Nation 266 

The conditions of a true civilization 768 



BACCHUS .DETHRONED. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 



Prop. 1. — *^Thai ike driiiking'Systemy including the manufac* 
iure, saUf and use of Alcoholic liquors as beveragesj is the 
greatest evU in our land,^^ 

" Poor race of men ! 
Dearly ye pay for your primal fall; 
Some flowerets of Eden ye still inherit, 
But tbe trail of the serpent is over them all I" 

'' So spake the pitying spirit of Moore's Paradise and the Pert^ 
as wandering o'er Egypt's land of wonders, she weepingly beheld 
the ravages of that terrible plagae, which, sparing neither age, 
sex, nor rank, engulphed all in one common ruin. 

We go forth, and, hovering as in vision, over the wide field of 
humanity, we also discern amid its sweet flowerets the serpent's 
trail, for we trace the ravages of a deadlier plague than ever 
desolated Egypt, one more fatal to life than that which slew 
her first-born sons — a plague which, coming down from remote 
ages, spares neither age, nor sex, nor class, and unlike that 
eastern pestilence, demoralizes and degrades while ft destroys. 

We propose here to trace the ravages of this terrible plague, 
— the drinking system of our land, — first upon the individual, 
then upon the home-life of the people, and finally upon the 
nation at large. 

First let us trace its ravages upon the individual. 

The vice of intemperance is a most disgusting and demoraliz- 
ing one, and leads to every species of abomination and crime. 
Yet we are so sadly familiar with it, that we appear scarcely to 
realize its demoralizing and destructive character. IntempeP: 
ance, however, is the most loathsome and ruinous of vices, and 
an intemperate man is the most pitiable spectacle upon which 
any thinking person can gaze. 

2 18 



14 THE GREAT NATIONAL CUHSE. 

There are many sad scenes in this world — scenes so sr.d as to 
cause the tear to roll down iron cheeks, and make even hearts 
of ndamant feel ; but none are half so sad as that of a poor 
degraded sot. 

The drunkard is a degraded man, intellectually. Our Creator 
has endowed us with mental faculties, that we may work out the 
higher purposes of life, and fulfil our grand destiny. He has 
endowed us with judgment and understanding, that we may 
inquire into the causes of things, and by comparing one thing 
lyith another, arrive at truth. He has also endowed %us with 
imagination and fancy, that we may, as it were, revel in a world 
of beauty of our own creation. He has endowed us with memory, 
that we may treasure up events and facts, and thus garnish our 
mind with mental wealth. Now intemperance obscures the judg- 
ment, and weakens the understanding, so that a man is unable 
to discover or to appreciate truth. It distorts the imagination, 
and fills the chambers of the soul with pictures obscene and 
foul. It perverts and paralyzes the memory, which instead of 
treasuring up useful knowledge, becomes a receptacle for the 
dregs of knowledge, and thus adds to the souPs pollution. Thus 
intellectually, the drunkard is a degraded man. 

Man has also a moral constitution. There is conscience, that 
faithful monitor implanted in the human breast. When we 
attempt to do wrong, conscience says, *^ Beware I and think of 
the divine law and the consequences I" When we walk upri«^htly 
and do well, then we seem to hear her sweet voice crying, *'Well 
done!'* There is also that keen appreciation of the good, the 
beautiful, and the true, and those noble .affections that so adorn 
and bless human nature. But intemperance hurls conscience 
from her lofty seat, and her voice ceases, or sounds unheeded; 
those noble sentiments of rectitude and purity are weakened, 
the kindly affections of the human breast become withered, 
whilst every evil passion and vile propensity are fostered into 
frightful development and ruinous exercise. Thus in his moral 
nature the drunkard is a degraded man. 

Man has also a physical constitution, a body; which is indeed 
a noble structure, and fit tenement for the immortal principle 
that occupies it How expressive the human countenance I 
Now glowing with bright intelligence and thouo;ht, now beaming 
with satisfaction and delight, and anon beclouded with sorrow 
and care. The body also upright, with/ brow turned to the sky, 



ITS RAVAGES UPON THE INDIVIDUAL. 15 

as though indicating that we were designed for something nohler 
than a mere animal existence. But intemperance sadly dis- 
figures and conupts our frame. The countenance loses its fine 
expression, and, hloated and marred, becomes a terrible reflec- 
tion of the ravages going on within that man*s higher nature. 
The body is crushed earthward, but not with the weight of 
years ;. a terrible palsy seizes upon it, and stripped of beauty, 
symmetry, and strength, and corrupted by disease, it sinks pre- 
maturely into the drunkard*s grave. 

Thus intellectually, morally and physically, the drunkard is a 
degraded and brutalized man. Upon the altar of intemperance 
he sacrifices all that can make life beautiful and desirable, his 
manhood and his freedom, and he becomes a miserable slave, 
bound to the rock by the chain of his own vices, and lashed by 
the in-rolling waves of despair. While the intemperate man is 
a slave, the hand that has bound him is his own. His slavery is 
the result of a voluntary act, of which the frequent repetition has 
enthralled him. Not the less does the law of narcotism make 
him the slave to a lawless and uncontrollable passion, to gratify 
which, he is willing to sacrifice his health and honor, even self- 
respect and natural affection, and to quench for a time the bright 
light of reason. ** What,'* says Dr. W. E. Channing, **is the great 
essential evil of intemperance? The reply is given, when I say 
that intemperance is the voluntary extinction of reckon. The 
great evil is inward or spiritual. The intemperate man divests 
himself for a time of his rational and moral nature, casts from 
himself self-consciousDCSs and self-command, brings on frenzy, 
and by repetition of this insanity, prostrates more and more hi? 
rational and moral powers. He sins immediately and directly 
against the rational nature, that divine principle which dis- 
tinguishes between truth and falsehood, between right and 
wrung action, which distinguishes man from the brute. This is 
the essence of the vice, what constitutes its peculiar guilt and 
woe, and what should particularly impress and awaken those who 
are laboring for its suppression. All the other evils of intemper- 
ance are light compared with this, and almost all flow from this; 
and it is right, it is to be desired, that all other evils should bo 
joined with and follow this. It is to be desired when a man lifts a 
suicidal arm against his higher life, when he quenches reason and 
conscience, that he and all others should receive solemn, start- 
ling warning of the greatness of his guilt; that terrible outward 



16 THE GREAT NATIONAL CUBSE. 

calamities should bear witness to the inward ruin which he is 
working; that the handwriting of judgment and woe on his 
countenance, form, and whole condition, should declare what a 
fearful thing it is for a man, Qod's rational offspring, to renounce 
his reason and become a brute/' 

The drunkard is not only a degraded man, he is also a diseased 
man. This fact is often overlooked. 

We must remember, however, that the terrible aspect of the 
drunkard, and all those repulsive crimes that render him an 
object of disgust and terror, flow from a disease, the power and 
horror of which none can know but those who suffer from it. 

When we gaze upon the drunkard as a diseased and suffering 
man, he becomes an object, not of unmitigated contempt, but of 
profound commiseration. We feel almost inclined to forget 
his vices in our pity for his sorrows*, and we long to tell him, 
that though we cannot tolerate his vice, we can and do sym- 
pathize with his weakness and pain, and desire to lend him a 
helping hand, in order to restore him to health and sobriety. 

We say that the drunkard is a diseased man, and so, also, is 
the (so called) moderate drinker. The latter suffers exactly 
from the same disease as the former; there is no difference 
whatever in kind, only in degree. The moderate drinker has 
this disease in a mild form, and in him it shows itself in its 
earlier stages. The drunkard suffers from it in a severer form, 
and in its advanced stages. Where the moderate drinker now 
stands, boasting of his strength, and heedless of that disease 
which has already begun to v ork in his body, there once stood 
the drunkard, boasting likewise. Where the drunkard now lies, 
hopelessly enslaved, many moderate drinkers will assuredly lie 
in future years. 

It has been computed that one-thirteenth of all moderate 
drinkers eventually die drunkards? How many then, think you, 
become drunkards? The moderate drinker, as he sips his ruby 
wine or foaming ale, thinks not how dangerous and fascinating 
is the enemy he. is introducing within the citadel of life. lie 
now boasts of his firmness of purpose and strength of resolve, 
and fancies that he is perfect master of the situation — that 
he can take a glass or leave it at his pleasure, and even pities 
those silly, weak fellows, who can't restrain their appetites, but 
are continually plunging into excess. But will he always be 
able to stand thus firm? Alas I experience warrants us in 



THE DBUKKABD'b DISEASE. 17 

declaring that a great many drinkers will not be able to do so ; 
that one-thirteenth of them will find a drunkard's grave ; and 
that perhaps two or three others will become drankards. The 
dan<];er, in fact, is greatest to those among them who are of 
a highly sensitive, or sociable nature, men full of generous 
sympathies and warm impulses. When a moderate drinker 
informs me that there is no fear of his becoming a drunkard^ 
the reply is, that in such case it must be owing to the preventive 
operation of some powerful ruling passion, such as avarice, or 
to the absence of some physical and social qualities necessary 
to make him a drunkard. He may be of a heavy lymphatio 
temperament, and of a very even temper, subject to no nervous 
excitement, alternating with depression, on whom narcotics do 
not appear to act as upon other men. He can resist their action 
well, and it takes a large dose to affect him. Such persons do 
not readily become drunkards, but they are capable of becoming 
that which is quite as disgusting, though perhaps, not quite so 
dangerous ; they can become soakers. 

Now, here are four men before me, moderate drinkers, taken 
from the life. 

A. is a coarse, brutal-fellow, whose only idea of happiness is 
the gratification of his passions. The higher joys of life he 
knows not, and, therefore, has no relish for them. His mental 
powers are uncultivated, and his moral nature is a barren 
Vrilderness. In fact, he is low mentally, low morally, but very 
strong in his animal nature. 

B. is a very easy sort of a fellow, of even temper and heavy 
temperament. He eats well and sleeps well, and concerns him* 
self little as to how things are going on around him. It takes a 
great deal to excite him, and not a little to depress him. His 
favorite adage is, " Come day, go day, God send Sunday.'* 

G. is a fine thoughtful fellow, if anything, of a metaphysical 
turn of mind. He finds his pleasure in mathematics and philo- 
sophy. He is a man of strong common sense, and can take a 
common-sense view of things. Clouds to him are clouds, 
whether they be gray or gilded with all glorious hues. His 
mind is not tinged with romance, and though he may be able to 
appreciate good poetry, he is not of a poetic turn of mind. Ha 
is characterized by calm thought, soundness of jud«;ment, and 
tameness of the imaginative faculty. In fact, he is of such stuff 
as maUiematicians and savans are made of. 



18 THE GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

D. IB a man combining in his temperament the nervous and 
sanguine elements. He possesses a lively fancy, a powerful 
imagination, and is the creature of romance and of poetio 
frenzy. lie is full of generous sympathies and strong emotions, 
and delights to give vent to them in music and in song. He is 
strong in his social nature. To his happiness, company is a 
BINE QUA NON, for it IS here he shines, and becomes the idol 
of society. He is not deficient in force of intellect; but the 
strength of his emotional nature, and 'of the imaginative faculty, 
makes him prone to extremes. He is a child of genius and of 
song, and is, in fact, of such stuff as poets are made of. 

Now I ask, which of these four are most likely to fall and 
become drunkards? A. and D., of course ; the other two are not 
so liable, and this is borne out by history aud experience. 
Whilst the poets have erred and fallen, the philosophers have 
remained sober. 

" The passionate heart of the poet, 
It fir^s with folly and vice." 

Hafiz, a favorite Persian poet, thus sings, " The roses have 
come, nor can anything afford so much pleasure as a goblet of 
wine. The enjoyments of life are vain ; bring wine, for the 
trappings of the world are perishable.*' 

The far-famed and musical Anacreon could sing, 

" 'Tis better to lie drunk than dead." 

And after spending a voluptuous life, he died at the age of 
seventy, choked by a grapestone in the act of drinking new wine. 

Our modern poets also, for the most part, have erred, and 
fallen, and perished ; many of the sweetest singers of modern 
times were victims of intemperance. 

The philosophers, however, were sober men, and many of 
them were water-drinkers; and in this respect practically 
exemplified those precepts of sobriety and truth which they gave 
to the world. Witness Pythagoras, Socrates, Diogenes, Epicurus, 
and Seneca, among the ancients; and many of our moiern 
philosophers have worthily emulated tliem. Of the great Locke 
it is said, " His diet was the same as other people's, except that 
he usually drank nothing but water ; and he thought that his 
abstinence in this respect had preserved his life so long, although 
his condition was so weak." 

The drunkard, we have said, is a diseased man. We will now 



THE DBUNKARD's DIS£Afi£. 19 

attempt to describe his disease, to mark its symptoms, and to 
trace its causes. 

The drunkard's disease is known by different names, as, 
Dipsomania (from dipso, thirst, and mania, madness), thirst- 
madness; Oinomania, (from.otno^, wine, and mania,) wine-mad- 
ness ', and Methyomania, a madness for drink. 

The disease is that peculiar state of the nervous system 
brought on by the use of intoxicating liquor, giving rise to an 
irresistible craving for strong drink. 

The diagnostic mark of the disease is, in fact, an irresistible 
propensity to swallow down large quantities of intoxicating drinks. 
This is indeed a true madness, a vinomania. In some persons it 
comes out in paroxysms, and is periodic ; but in others it is 
chronic. The individual affected vrith Periodic Oinomania, 
abstains for weeks or months from all stimulants, and frequently 
loathes them for the same period. But by degrees he becomes 
uneasy, listless and depressed, feels incapable of application and 
restless, and at last begins to drink till he is intoxicated. He 
awakes from a restless sleep, seeks again a repetition of the in- 
toxicating dose, and continues the same course for a week or two 
longer. Then a stage of apathy and depression follows, during 
which he feels a loathing for stimulants, is the prey of remorse, and 
bitterly regrets yielding to his malady. This is followed by fresh 
vigor, diligent application to business, and a determined resolu- 
tion never again to give way. But, alas I sooner or later the parox- 
ysm recurs, and the same scene is reenactcd, till ultimately, un- 
less the disease be checked, he falls a victim to the physical effects 
of intemperance, — becomes maniacal or imbecile, or affected with 
the form of the disease next to be mentioned. — See Dr, Hutchi- 
son, cited in Carpenter's Physiology of Temperance, p. 38. 

In Chronic Oinomania, " The patient is incessantly under the 
most overwhelming desire for stimulants. He will disregard 
every impediment, sacrifice comfort and reputation, withstand 
the claims of affection, consign his family to misery and disgrace, 
and deny himself the common necessaries of life, to gratify his 
insane propensity. In the morning morose and fretful, dis listed 
with himself, and dissatisfied with all around him; wen': and 
tremulous, incapable of any exertion either of mind or body, his 
first feeling is a desire for stimulants, with every fresh dose of 
which he recovers a certain degree of vigor, both of body and mind, 
till he feels comparatively comfortable. A few hours pass with* 



20 THE GREAT NATIONAL CUBSB. 

out the Graying being so strong ; but it soon retarns, and the 
patient drinks till intoxication is prodaced. Then succeed the 
restless sleep, the suffering, the comparative tranquillityf the 
excitement, and the state of inseDsibilitjr ; and unless absolutely 
secluded from all means of gratifying the propensity, the 
patient continues the same course till he dies or becomes 
imbecile. This is that fearful state portrayed by Charles Lamb, 
in which reason revisits the mind only during the transient 
period of incipient intoxication. 

** It must be remarked, that in all these forms of the disease 
the patient is perfectly incapable of self-control ; that he is im* 
pelled by an irresistible impulse to gratify his propensity ; that 
while the paroxysm is on him, he is regardless of his health, his 
life, and all that can make life dear to him ; that he is prone to 
dissipate his propeity, and easily becomes the prey of the design- 
ing; that in many cases he exhibits a propensity to commit 
homicide, or suicide. He is thus dangerous to himself and 
others ; and, however responsible he may have been for bring- 
ing the disease on himself, his responsibility ceases as soon ai 
he comes under the influence of the malady." — Ibid. 

A predisposition to this disease, if not the disease itself, may be 
transmitted from parent to child, and thus all the horrors of the 
drunkard's lot may be handed down from one generation to 
another. Many drunkards have confessed to me that their 
fathers and grandfathers were drunkards, as well as many of 
their brothers and sisters. 

The causes of this malady may be divided into the remote, 
the predisposing, the exciting, and the proximate. 

The remote causes are : — The social drinking usages of society, 
— the legalized facilities for obtaining intoxicating liquor, — and 
a false estimate as to the nature and properties of strong drink. 

The predisposing causes are : — Physical or mental exhaustion, 
however induced, — hemorrhage, — melancholia, and all diseases 
that leave an oppressed state of the nervous system. 

The exciting cause is the actual use of intoxicating liquor. 

The proximate cause of the mental malady, is that peculiar 
state of the nervous system which occasions an irresistible crav- 
ing for strong drink ; and this, in fact, is the disease itself. 

Now the predisposing and remote causes may exist in full 
force, but if intoxicating liquor be abstained from, Oinomania 
cannot be induced. 



CAUSES OF THE DKUKKARD's DISEASE. 21 

Physical or nervoas exhaustion, and the state of convaleaccnce 
after fever, etc., may give rise to a craving for support, just as 
when the body has used up its last supply of food it craves for 
more, but this craving is not specifically for intoxicating liquor, 
unless, indeed, it has been administered with a liberal hand 
during the course of the previous disease. Sach persons, we 
are aware, often fly to strong drink ; but why 7 Because they 
believe it to contain that support, and to be capable of confer- 
ring that relief, which they need. 

But no person ever suffered from Oinomania who did not, in 
the first place, use intoxicating liquor ; and it is the so-called 
VSE of these liquors that produces this disease. What people 
generally term the abuse of strong drink is the effect of this 
disease. The use begets the abuse. 

We cannot too strongly impress upon the mind of the reader 
this fact: — that it is or the nature of intoxicating liquor to 
PRODUCE THE DISEASE JUST DESCRIBED. Heuce all who drink 
them regularly, to any extent, even though it be strictly within 
the so-called bounds of moderation, must expect to suffer; 
indeed, there are very few moderate drinkers who do not suffer 
to a greater or less extent from this disease. 

"Anticipating for a moment a later argument^ I here ask^ 
Does not the nature of the disease clearly point out the remedy? 
That remedy is : 

Ist. — The removal of the remote causes ; the social drinking 
usages of society ; — the legalized facilities for obtaining intoxi- 
oating liquors,~-and the prevailing ignorjmce in reference to 
their qualities. 

2d. — By judicious treatment to meet the predisposing causes. 
Enjoin rest and quiet, and use nature's own stimulants, which 
are mostly of a hygienic character. 

3d. — Abstain entirely from the exciting cause — Intoxicating 
Liquor. 

4th. — Counteract the disease itself by a judicious course of 
treatment, that shall tend to soothe the nervous system, and to 
restore the stomach to its normal and healthy condition. 

Having marked the operation of the drinking system upon 
the individual, let us now follow the inebriate to his home, and 
trace its operation upon the home-life. 

What is home? It does not consist merely of four walls 
covered in from the sky by a rqof ; neither does it consist merely 



22 THE GREAT NATIONAL CUBSE. 

of a certain number of rooms, however comfortublj or splendidly 
furnished. Homes are not places merely devoted to the yarioas 
processes of animo-vegetable life. People may vegetate in these 
places, but they do not live. They eat, drink, and sleep in them, 
but such processes do not realise our ideal of home. What, then, 
is home ? It is that saored spot where affections centre, and 
where domestic joy and purity abound. The domestic state is 
of divine origin, and a necessity of man^s nature. It is that 
to which every young man, and every young woman, aspires. 
They seek congenial companionship, and a home where they may 
take shelter from the rude storms of life, and live and bask in 
the smiles of each other, and of the children deriving existence 
from them. Without home man is not perfect, neither is he 
happy. There are certain affections and sentiments which mast 
lie dormant until called into exercise by the domestic state. 
Were man to attain to the age of Methuselah, there would still 
remain some chord unstrung, till rendered musical by the sweet 
influences of home. The sexes are constituted for the social 
state, and for the society of each other, and we possess affections 
which, if not exercised here, either shrivel up, or seek to attach 
themselves to unworthy objects. 

" The heart, like a tendril, accustomed to cling, • 

Let it grow where it will, cannot flourish alone; 
But will lean to the nearest and loveliest thing 
It can twine with itself, and make closely its own." 

The babe becomes a child, the child a youth, the youth a man; 
and during this progression from the cradle to maturity, the 
budding affections cluster around the sacred precincts of hom s ; 
and when the man goes forth into the world, he carries the 
impression with him, and his noblest and purest thoughts 
become associated with his former home-life. A mother* s tender- 
ness, a sister's love, a brother's counsel — are things he can never 
forget. 

The domestic state is designed for the training and perfecting 
of our whole nature — physical, moral, and intellectual. In 
this arrangement there is something truly beautiful ; and that 
whether we behold it among the industrious classes, or those 
more favored by rank and fortune. Home is, in fact, a nursery 
where noble principles receive early development. It U the heart 
of the social world. Men are what their homes are ; children 
are what their homes make them. The prosperity and greatness, 



ITS RAVAGES UPON THE HOME-LIFE. 23 

the stability and permanence, the strength and grandear of a 
nation depend in great measure upon the purity and integrity 
of the domestic state. The general character of a nation is the 
aggregate of the special character of its home-life. Patriotism 
and love of home are like Siamese twins, and cannot be severed. 
When a nation's homes decay, that nation is in its decrepitude; 
the seeds of dissolution are already sown, and its ruin may be 
read in the downfall of empires. 

A government, therefore, that authorizes any trade or institu- 
tion tending to pollute the home-life of the people, and to weaken 
those strong attachments which ought ever to exist among the 
members of a family, is guilty of a suicidal policy, a policy opposed 
to the honor and prosperity of the nation. It is, in fact, a 
traitorous government, betraying, for the sake of a little apparent 
gain to the exchequer, the best interests of the country, and 
exposing the land of our fathers to future bankruptcy, demorali- 
zation, and ruin. 

Can any one thing be named that tends so powerfully to destroy 
the puri^ of our home-life, and to weaken the tender attach- 
ments of nature, as this Drinking System? Let all other evil 
influences at work in our land be put together, they will not 
form an aggregate half so pernicious and destructive in this 
respect as the Drinking System. Strong drink sets husband 
against wife, and wife against husband ; children against parents, 
and parents against children ; so that a man's most terrible foes 
are those of his own household. The happiness, culture, repose, 
and purity of home vanish, and the home-life of the people 
becomes a scene of misery, strife, and pollution. There are 
thousands of such homes in our land. Our eyes have seen them, 
and our ears have heard their sounds of strife— homes blighted 
and cursed by intxmpjirancb. 

It is not the poverty of the home, neither is it the affliction of 
its inmates, that is to be so much deplored as that which adds 
pollution to poverty, and gives affliction its bitterness — viz.: 
Intemperance. This is the foul fiend diat despoils home of all 
that can make it beautiful. Says Dr. W. E. Channing: — ^* Intem- 
perance is to be pitied and abhorred for its own sake much more 
than for its outward consequences. These consequences owe their 
ohief bitterness to their criminal source. We speak of the 
miseries which the dninkard carries into his family. But take 
away his own brutality, and how lightened would be those 



24 THE QBEAT NATIONAL CUBSE. 

miseries. We talk of his wife and children in rags. Let the 
rags eontinue, but suppose them to be the effects of an innocent 
cause. Suppose the drunkard to have been a virtuous husband, 
and an affectionate father, and that sickness, not yice, has brought 
his family thus low. Suppose his wife and children bound to 
him bj a strong love, which a life of labor for their support, and 
of unwearied kindness has awakened; suppose them to know 
that his toils for their welfare had broken down his frame; sup- 
pose him able to say, ' We are poor in thu world's goods, but 
rich in affection and religious trust. I am going from you, but I 
leave you to the Father of the fatherless, and to the widow's God.' 
Suppose this, and how changed those rags! How changed the 
cold, naked rooml The heart's warmth can do much to with- 
stand the winter's cold; and there is hope, there is honor in 
this virtuous indigence. What breaks the heart of the drunk- 
ard's wife? It is not that he is poor, but that he is a drunkard. 
Instead of that bloated face, now distorted with passion, now 
robbed of every gleam of intelligence, if the wife could look on an 
affectionate countenance, which had for years been the interpre- 
ter of a well-principled mind and faithful heart, what an over- 
whelming load would be lifted from her. It is a husband whose 
touch is polluting, whose infirmities are the witnesses of his 
guilt, who has blighted all her hopes, who has proved false to the 
vow which made her his; it is such a husband who makes home 
a hell, not one whom toil and disease have cast on the care of 
wife and children." Still more sad, however, is the case when the 
intemperance is that of the wife and mother, or when both hus- 
band and wife alike give themselves up to this vice. Then are 
the children neglected, brought up in rags, and poverty, and 
ignorance ; and should they escape the perils of infancy, which 
to them are increased ten-fold, they grow up to follow the 
vicious career of their parents, and, in their turn, to engender 
sorrow and strife. Such homes are, indeed, nurseries of vice ; 
the unnatural parents driving forth their sons to beg and steal, 
or, worse still, selling at a tender age the virtue of their girls, in 
order to secure the means of gratifying an uncontrollable appetite. 

From the home, pass to the Nation, and trace the ranges of 
the drinking system upon .the National Lifb. 

A nation is the union of many homes, the people of which 
speak the same language, possess the same general characteristics, 
and have many interests in common — ^the whole being united 



ITS RAVAGES UPON THE NATION. 26 

ander one head or governxbht. It has also its laws, its great 
national institutions, its literature, its oommeroial relations with 
other lands, and a history of its own, pregnant with instruction. 

A Nation, as an indiridual, should have noble purposes to 
accomplish, and a destiny to fulfil. This includes the protection 
of the people, the development of their resources, and through 
the union in council of their greatest intellects, the blessings of 
education, and of all the loftier forms of civilized life. A Nation, 
in fact, ought to be a blending and union of all the noblest traits 
that adorn our species. There is an ideal of a perfect nation, as 
well as of a perfect individual, and the world is struggling to 
attain it. The revolutions and changes going on among the 
nations are so many steps in this direction, and all, for the most 
part, 80 many expressions of those longings for that perfection of 
society, of which, ever and anon, we have inspiring glimpses. 

Now, it is the prevailing opinion — an opinion based upon stern, 
grim facts, educed by careful inquiry, and confirmed by exten- 
sive observation, that intemperance is the great curse of this 
country, in comparison with which all other evils combined are 
as nothing ; so that, were this one vice eradicated, we should 
attain to a state of unprecedented prosperity and greatness. It 
is acknowledged, even by our Statesmen, that intemperance is 
(he incubus which oppresses the national life, and that to roll 
iihis away would be to set the nation free in a glorious path of 
i)rogress. 

Let us now consider more in detail the operations of the drink* 
ing system : 

I. — In its primary effect, Drunkenness, The wild scenes of 
drunkenness and debauchery visible in our streets, especially on 
Saturday and Sunday nights, are a disgrace to us as a nation, 
and a mockery of our civilization. Yet these sights give but a 
very feeble glimpse of the real amount of intemperance. There 
are thousands of habitual drunkards in our midst, who are never 
seen reeling and brawling in our streets, and tens of thousands 
of occasional drunkards who are never to be found figuring in 
our Police Courts. The number of persons taken into custody 
for being ** drunk and incapable,'' or "drunk and disorderly,'* 
gives no adequate idea of the real facts, since a very small 
proportion of drunkards are taken into custody. The simply 
drunken are rarely noticed, and if the ^* incapably'' drunk has a 
friend with him to help him along, the policeman does not inter- 



26 THE QBEAT NATIONAL CUBfiS. 

fere ; or if the man " riotously '' drunk will only moTe on, after 
being perhaps repeatedly threatened, he also is allowed to escape. 
It is only when they are *Mead drunk," and have no friend to 
look after them, or, when bein^ "riotously drunk/' they threaten 
to assault the constable, that they are taken into custody. Never- 
theless, though the police returns are exceedingly defectiye, they 
are sufficientiy imposing to give us some approximate idea of the 
Tast extent of drunkenness. 

During the six years, from 1858 to 1863, inclusive, there were 
taken up, in London alone, as *^ drunk and disorderly,'* 110,829} 
and in Liverpool, 45,917. In the whole country, in 1861, the 
number of persons committed for drunkenness was 82,196 ; in 
1862, 94,908; and in 1863, 94,745. During the three years, 
1866-67-68, in thirty-four English towns, by no means including 
the worst, out of a popul ation of 999,042, there were proceeded 
agiunst for drunkenness, 14,994 persons. In Birmingham, with 
a population of 295,955, the number of ^* drunk and disorderly" 
in 1868, was 2,310, or one in every 128. Of these, the number 
fined was 1,112, and the number committed, 658. 

The number of drunkards in our midst is truly astonishing ; 
every village, except the two or three thousand prohibitory 
villages, has its confirmed sots, and in our large towns we may 
reckon them by hundreds, even thousands, while the occasional 
drunkards are almost beyond computation. In fact, there is 
scarcely a family that has not suffered from the drunkenness of 
some of its members. 

It has been computed that there are in the United Kingdom 
about 500,000 drunkards ; that is, one drunkard to every sixty 
persons *, or one to every twelve adults, male and female. Now 
we cannot wonder at this when we consider that we have in this 
country hundreds of breweries and distilleries, consuming annu- 
ally above 63,000,000 bushels of grain, and converting it into above 
21,000,000 gallons of gin and whisky, and above 600,000,000 
gallons of beer ; and that to retail all this out to the people, 
together with above 8,000,000 gallons of foreign spirits, and 
15,000,\X)0 gallons of wine, we have established in our midst 
150,000 public houses and beer shops, including 2,000 refresh- 
ment houses selling wine and brandy, and some thousands 
of groceries, selliDg intoxicating liquors of all ktnds, from 
Scotoh whisky to orange wine and table beer. No wonder, 
either, that this evil of drrnkenness is upon the increase, 



ABOUNDING INTEMPERANCE. 27 

especiallj among the young. From the repOH on intemperanee 
of the Lower House of Oonvocation, of the Province of Canter- 
bury, it appears that many children of tender years are addicted 
to this vice, as the following extracts will show : 

No. 4. — "Ten or twelve years old. I caught a boy who 
works at the paper-mill staggering about the fields one day ] he 
was drunk." 

No. 66. — ''Lads of fourteen years of age may be seen, alasl 
on Saturday nights, after receiving their fortnightly pay from 
the works, in a state of intoxication. 7 

We have ourselves known many cases of confirmed drunken- 
ness at the tender age of seventeen. 

This vice, owing to Mr. Gladstone's measures, is also rapidly 
extending among the women, and thus our domestic life is men- 
aced with great danger. 

It is also upon the increase among the men. The consump- 
tion of intoxicating liquor has largely incireasedi and therefore 
drunkenness. 

Archbishop Manning, in his speech at the Alliance Annual 
Meeting, held in the Free Trade Hall, Manchester, October 13th, 
1868, made this statemeiit: 

." I &j£rm. that drunkenness is on the increase, and I affirm it without 
hesitation. When examined, the other day, before the Committee of 
the. House of Commons, I was told that high authorities — the public 
magistrates and others — had given counter evidence; I still persisted in 
that belief. The report of that Committee is now before us. We find 
there a large number of citations from the evidence of witnesses to show 
that drunkenness is not on the increase. I find only three who dec'ared 
the conviction it toas on the increase. Of those three, two of them will 
outweigh, in your judgment, a host of others — Captain Falin, of Man- 
chester, and Major Greig, of Liverpool. I had the happiness, though 
I can add no weight, of being the third. Now, the ground on wliich 
the answer was made that police magistrates were the best and surest 
witnesses, was this — that the statistics showed that the nnmber of com« 
mittals was either decreasing, or not. To this I answered, that which all 
of you are ready to answer, and as the committee of 1854 declared, that no 
official statistics we possess give sufficient information as to the extent of 
it. There are classes of drunkards that never fall into the hands of the 
police at all. The only class of whom the police take cognizance are those 
that are dangerously drunk, or helplessly drunk. 

"Within the last two years, or eighteen months, offences have come to 
my knowledge committed by persons neither dangerously nor helplessly 
drank. There was a miserable woman who returned heme drunk, and 



28 THE 6BEAT NATIONAL CUB8E. 

OTerlald her nnbapUce^ infant. There waA a joung hnsband, who, coming 
home in the morning dmnk, seized his unhappy wife, and threw her out 
of the window on the stones beneath. Neither of these had fallen under 
the cognisance of the police, and these are instances that could be multi- 
plied by hundreds. Therefore, I contend that the evidence of the police 
magistrates is no evidence at all, compared with that of physicians and 
clergymen, who meet with audi cases every day." 

• 

Police Retains, defectire as the/ notoriously are, howerer, 
anffioiently show that drunkenness if increasing. Take, for 
instance, the Manchester Police Retams, printed ander direction 
of the Watch Committee. 

The returns for the ten years from 1860 to 1869 inclosive are 
as follows : 

Total proceeded Indictable 
Tear. i^gainat. Offences. Assaults. Drankenneas. 

1860 9,877 . 1,369 . 1,720 . 2,329 

1861 10,194 1,576 2,006 . 2,284 

1862 12,063 1,688 2,184 3,373 

1863 11,643 1,736 2,114 3,206 

1864 12,784 1,407 2,399 ...... 3,587 

1865 12,566 1,394 2,310 3,679 

^1866 . 15,793 1,335 ...... 2,568 5,631 

*1867 22,837 1,484 2,568 9,742 

1868 23,413 1,404 2,561 9,540 

1869 ...... 28,229 1,397 2,891 11,461 

"It thus appears," says the Chief Constable, "that the persons proceeded 
Against during the year are nearly three times the number they were ten 
years ago. In these offences there is a considerable increase, drunken- 
ness, however, showing most prominently. The persons arrested for this 
offence in 1860 gave 23 per cent, of the total persons proceeded against, 
which has increased tc 40 per cent, during the past year. There are 
many other offences arising immediately out of drunkennett which cannot 
he dossed under this head. Some idea of this may be gathered from 
the fact that 65 per cent, of the persons arrested were drunk when 
taken into custody. The increased demands upon the time of the police, 
which this offence occasions, materiallv interrupts that constant atten- 
tion to their duties which is so necessary for the effectual protection of 
property." 

The Police Returns for England and Wales, for tbe five years 
tnding September 29th, 1868, show a very large per centage of 



IKFLICTINQ DISEASE AND DEATH. 29 



the total Summarj Charges, under the heading—drank and 


diBorderly : 








1863-4 


100,067 


••f** 


23 per cent. 


1864-5 


105,810 


••••• 


23 " 


1865-6 


104,368 




22 *« 


1866-7 


■ 100,357 




21 « 


1867-8 


111,465 




23 •* 



In 1867-8, we find a much larger number of drunk and dia- 
orderlj cases than in the preceding year. 

In 1867-8, the number of cases proceeded against summarily, were 
490,752, and the convictions were 347,458 ; of males 288,177, of females 
59,341. The cases proceeded against were more by 16,087 than those 
of -1866-7; the convictions were 12,099 more, and the proportion of 
femdU cotes toa$ greater. The convictions were followed by 215,174 
fines, and 87,364 terms of imprisonment vsurying from fourteen days to 
above six months. The cases of assanlt were 92,978, of which 2.690 
were "aggravated assanlts on women and children." The cases of 
"drunk and disorderly" were 111,465, making, with the assaults, a 
total of 204,443, or 42 per cent, of the whole number, in almost the whole 
of which strong drink was the instigating cause of the offence. 

There are certain seasons, as at an election, at Christmas, and 
the New-Tear, when intemperance marshals her forces, and then 
wild anarchy and disgusting debauchery spread over the land. 
The Right Hon. John Bright, M.P., when addressing his consti* 
tuents at Birmingham, at his reelection on the 2l8t December 
1869, said: — ''We have had tumult in scores of boroughs. 
Those twin demons, discord and drink, have run riot in the 
streets pf many of our towns. And amongst the poorer classes of 
voters, there can be no doubt that there has been bribery to 
a great extent. There has been treating to a still greater extent. 
• . . The whole picture, as I surveyed it from day to day in the 
newspaper reports, was one really frightful and horrible. I think 
it was humiliating to us to a very great degree, and that every 
one of us should ask himself whether it is possible to Und a 
remedy?" The remedy proposed by the Right Honorable 
gentleman was to close the public-bouses during an election. 
II. — As producing disease and premature dtath. 
As a class, drunkards are short lived. ** No Life Insurance 
Office will accept an insurance on an individual whose habits are 
known to be intemperate; and if it be discovered, after his death, 



80 THE OBEAT KATIONAL CUBSS. 

tiiat he has been aocustomed to the excetsire use of alcohoHo 
liquors, contrary to his statement in his proposal for insurance, 
the policy is declared void. And it is, doubtless, owing in part 
to the superior sobriety of the great bulk of insurers over that 
of the average of the population, that a lower rate of mortality 
presents itself amongst them, than that which might be expected 
according to the calculations founded on the entire mortality of 
the country — to the grelEit profit of the office. Thus at the age 
oF forty years, the annual rate of mortality among the whole 
population of England is about 13 per 1000; whilst among the 
lives insured in Life Offices, it is about 11 per 1000; and in 
those insured in Friendly Societies, it is about 10 per 1000." 
"—Dr. Carpenter; Physiology of Temperance^ p, 79. 

*' It has been ascertained that in men peculiarly exposed ,to 
the temptation of drinking, the mortality before thirty-five 
years of age is twice as great as in men following similar occu- 
pations, but less liable to fall into this fatal habit. It has also 
been shown that the rate of mortality among persons addicted 
to intemperance is more than three times as great as among the 
population at large. At the earlier periods of life the dispropor- 
tion is still greater, being five times as great between twenty and 
thirty years of age, and four times as great between thirty and 
fifty. The annual destruction of life among persons of decidedly 
Intemperate habits has been estimated at upwards of 3000 males 
and nearly 700 females, in a population of nearly 54,000 males, 
and upwards of 11,000 females addicted to intemperance. [That 
is, of males the death-rate is 55 per 1000 per annum, and of 
females 63 per 1000 per annum, while the general death-rate of 
the whole country and at all ages, is only 23 per 1000.] The 
greater number of these deaths are due to delirium tremens and 
diseases of the brain, and to dropsical affections supervening on 
diseases of the liver and kidneys." — Hooper^a Physician^s Vade 
Mecum^ Qth ed., 1858, by W. A, Guy, MM. 

" An intemperate person of twenty years of age, has a proba- 
bility of life extending to 15.6 years ; one of thirty years of age, 
to 13.8 years; and one of forty years, to 11.6 years; while a 
person of the general population of the country would have a 
like probability of living 44.2, 36.5, and 28.8 years respectively. 
Some curious results were shown in the influence of the different 
kinds of drinks on the duration of life : beer-drinkers averaging 
21.7 years ; spirit drinkers 16.7 years ; and those who drink both 



HEAVY MORTALITY OF DRIKKEBS AND VENDORS. 81 

beer and spirits indiscrimiDately 16.1 years. These results, 
however, were not more curious than those connected with the 
different classes of persons. The average duration of life, after 
the commencement of intemperate habits, among mechanics and 
laboring men. was 18 years ; among traders, dealers, and me- 
chanics, 17 years ; among professional men and gentlemen, 
15 years; and among females, 14 years only." — Carpenter' a 
Physiology of Temperance^ p. 76. 

It appears then, that drinkers shorten their liyes just in pro- 
portion to their means for gratifying their inordinate, passion. 
Professional men, gentlemen, and females, on account of their 
larger means, are able to obtain more drink than the mechanie 
or laboring man, and consequently they die earlier. The aboye 
calculations are based upon those of the eminent actuary, 
Mr. Neison, 

Those engaged in the Traffic being very much addicted to 
drink are, as a class, short-lived. In the supplement to the 
Twenty-fifth Annual Report of the Registrar-General, there is a 
table of the mortality of persons engaged in different occupations. 

The following extracts from that table give the annual mor- 
tality per cent, of males at different ages : 

Ages. Ages. Ages. Ages. 

25 to 35 35 to 45 45 to 55 55 to 65 
Farmers and Graziers, . . -877 ... 1244 ... 2*307 ... 5-730 

Grocers, -923 ... 1*280 ... 2*053 ... 4-334 

Carpenters, '980 ... 1*542 ... 2*803 ... 6-95,1 

Shoemakers, 1113 ... 1-577 ... 3*024 ... 6*911 

Laborers, '997 ... 1-398'... 2-617 ... 5-949 

Inn and Hotel Keepers, Pub- ] 

licans. Beer-sellers, Wine [■ 1*912 ... 2*793 ... 4-105 ... 7*446 

and Spirit Merchants, - j 
All England, 1*228 ... 1*767 ... 3*110 ... 6-225 

Thus the mortality of persons in the liquor traffic, from 
twenty-five years of age to forty-five, is twice as great as it is 
with farmers or graziers, and much more at all ages than it is 
with farmers, carpenters, shoemakers, laborers, and the males of 
all England. The high rate of mortality of brewers* draymen, 
pot-boys, and publicans is proverbial. The death-rate per 1000, 
of persons between the age of thirty and forty, engaged in dif- 
ferent occupations, is as follows : 

Tradesmen, 16 per 1000 ; footmen, 18 ; laborers, 18 ; licensed 



82 THE OBEAT NATIONAL CUHSB. 

Tiotuallerfl, 20 ; pot-boys, 29 ; drajmen, 39. — Journal oj 8taH9* 
Heal Society J toI. It., p. 4. 

DmnkardB are also far more liable to accidents than other 
people. In fact, a large proportion of severe accident cases in 
oar hospitals haye their origin here. Very frequently the lives 
of other people are not merely jeopardized, but actually sacrificed 
through the carelessness and recklessness of drunkards. A col- 
lision takes place upon a railway, and many passengers are 
injured and killed ; negligence on the part of the driver or some 
of the officials, caused by the glass of ale blunting their percep- 
tive powers, and rendering them reckless, is discovered to be the 
cause. A ship founders at sea, and nearly all hands perish ; the 
drunkenness of the captain and seamen has occasioned the 
Bad catastrophe. The drunkard's wife and children are slowly 
murdered by continued neglect and want, till at last they too 
swell the sad catalogue of the slain through drink. 

If a drunkard's life is only worth ten years, then nearly 50,000 
persons must perish prematurely every year, from intemperance. 
I am, however, convinced for myself that this calculation is 
below the mark ; and that, if we compute the deaths occasioned 
indirectly by intemperance, and by drinking short of what is 
called drunkenness, the number will approach much nearer 
70,000 per annum. 

If we put down the number of this class of drinkers, not 
drunkards, at 4,000,000, and compute the death-rate among 
them in excess of those who don't drink at only eight per 1000, 
per annum, this will give us 32,000 deaths justly chargeable 
upon the use of intoxicating liquor. 

In our large towns more than one-half of the infant population 
die before the end of the fifth year. Now we can prove that the 
lives of thousands of these little ones are cruelly sacrificed 
through the intemperate habits of their parents. During the 
year 1865, 145 inquests was held in Liverpool alone, on infants 
overlaid or smothered by their mothers; these oases chiefly 
occurred on Saturday and Sunday nights ; thus proving that 
intemperance was the cause. Then too, thousands of infants 
perish annually from cruel neglect and deficient nourishment, 
all arising from the intemperance of mothers. 

The annual number of births in the United Kingdom is about 
700,000. Now of this number one-fourth, or 175,000, will die in 
the course of the first year. We may, with safety, put down 10 



A cobonbb's testimont. 83 

per cent, of the whole, i, «• 17,500, as oocssioned by neglect, &o.) 
owing to the drunken habits of parents. The Registrar General 
informs us that 200,000 persons perish annually in the United 
Kingdom from avoidable disease. How many of these must have 
their origin in intemperance, or be aggrayated by it? 

But we have yet to compute the deaths resulting from the 
negligence of those occupying responsible situations. Patients, 
who might otherwise have recovered, sacrificed through the 
drunkenness of doctors ; the excessive rate of mortality occurring 
in certain diseases from the alcoholic treatment ; deaths by sea 
and by rail, through the drunkenness of ship's officers and crews, 
and of railway officials. 

Says Mr. Wakely, Coroner for Middlesex: "I have seen so 
much of the evil effects of gin that 1 am inclined to become a 
Teetotaler. Gin is the best friend I have; it causes me to have 
annually 1,000 more inquests than I otherwise should hold; and 
I have reason to believe that from 10,000 to 15,000 persons die in 
this metropolis annually from the effects of gin, upon whom no 
inquests are held.^* The inquests for the year ending September 
29th, 1868, numbered 24,774; on males, 17,476; on females, 
7,298. In 320 cases, thirteen in the thousand, the verdict of 
** excessive drinking" was returned. Among the«other verdicts 
were 261 of murder, 235 of manslaughter, 1,546 of suicide, 11,033 
of accidental death, 2,824 of found dead, while 8,094 are ascribed 
to causes unnamed. In 1866-7 the inquests were 24,648, at a 
cost to the nation of £76,520 2s. 7d. Fully three-fourths of the 
above may be charged upon the drinking system of the nation. 
And 'then, too, the amount and variety of disease produced by 
this drinking system are most horrible to contemplate, indeed, 
none can have any idea, save those who have paid special atten- 
tion to the subject, of the vast amount of disease occasioned by 
the use of intoxicating liquor. 

Dr. Trotter enumerates twenty-eight diseases arising from 
intoxicating drinks, vi£: ** Apoplexy, epilepsy, hysterics, convul- 
sions, fearful dreams, gastritis, enteritis, ophthalmia, carbuncle, 
hepatitis, gout, schirrous of the bowels, fatal obstruction of the 
lacteals, jaundice, indigestion, dropsy, tabes, syncope, diabetes, 
lock-jaw, palsy, ulcers, madness, idiocy, melancholy, impotency, 
premature old age, and diseases of infants during suckling. 

Dr. Carpenter thus enumerates the diseases induced by alco» 
hollo excess: 



84 THE GREAT NATIONAL CCB8E. 

1. Diseases of the Nervous System. — Delirium ebriosum 
(drunken madness), delirium tremens, insanity, oinomania, 
mental debility in offspring, inflammatory diseases of the brain, 
apoplexy, paralysis, epilepsy, criminal conduct [including — 
suicidal mania, homicidal mania, pyromania (an uncontrollable 
desire to commit acts of incendiarism), kleptomania (on uncon- 
trollable desire to steal), and erotomania (an irrepressible desire 
to gratify the sexual passion).] 

2. Diseases of the Alimentary Canal, — ^Irritation and inflam- 
mation of the mucous membrane of the stomach, inflammatory 
gastric dyspepsia, disorders of intestinal mucous membrane. 

3. Diseases of the Liver, — Congestion, acute and chronio 
inflammation, alrophy, (wasting), hypertrophy (enlargement), 
hob nailed liver. 

4. Diseases of the Kidneys, — Albuminurea, or Bright's Disease. 

5. Diseases of the Skin. — Carbuncle, boils, erysipelas, acne, 
psora, ebriosum ( Drunkard^ s Itch.) 

6. General Disorders of Nutrition, — Tendency to the deposi- 
tion of fat, diminished power of sustaining injuries, liability to 
epidemic diseases, gout and rheumatism, diseases of heart and 
arteries. 

Here, then, we have a catalogue of the nlost terrible diseases 
that can afflict mankind, all of them induced by the use of alco- 
holic liquors, and some of them never occurring except in those 
who drink. 

Two of the above-named diseases call for special attention, 
both on^account of the sufferings they inflict, and the frequency 
of their occurrence, viz : Insanity and Delirium Tremens. * 

We have in our public asylums about 50,000 insane and idiotic 
persons ; and according to Lord Shaftesbury, six-tenths are pro- 
duced by drink. He says; — "Here I speak of my own know- 
ledge and experience, for having acted as Commissioner of 
Lunacy for the last twenty years, and as Chairman of the Com- 
mission during sixteen years, and having had therefore the 
whole of the business under my personal observation and care ; 
having made inquiries into the matter, and having fortified them 
by inquiries in America, which have confirmed the inquiries 
made in this country — the result is, that fully six-tenths of all 
the cases of insanity to be found in these realms and in America 
arise from no other cause than from habits of intemperance in 
which the people have indulged.'^ 



INSANITY AND DELIRIUM TREMENS. 36 

" The namber of deranged people in a country corresiK>nds rery 
closely with the amount of strong drink they consume. Till the 
introduotioa of fire-water among the American Indians, insanity 
was unknown. In Cairo, comparatively teetotal, there is one in- 
sane person to every 30,714 of the inhabitants. In Spain, com- 
paratively sober, the consumption of alcohol being only one 
gallon per head per annum, there is one insane person in every 
7,181. In Normandy, consuming two gallons of alcohol per 
head per annum, one in every 700. In Norway, consuming two 
gallons, one in every 551. In England, consuming two and a half 
gallons, the proportion is one in every 430 of the inhabitants.* 
The amount of idiotcy transmitted from drunken parents to 
their offspring is truly deplorable. Dr. Howe, in his celebrated 
Report on Idiotcy, states that out of 300 idiots whose history 
he could learn, 145 had free, habitual drinkers for parents. A. 
Viennese physician, Dr. Bernacki, now of New York, told the 
writer that he had in youth a friend, a doctor to one of the 
Austrian regiments, who possessed the finest intellectual endow- 
ments and moral character at the time of his marriage. His first 
son was a noble, healthy fellow. But the appetite for drink had 
been engendered, and the father went from bad to worse. He 
had five children, tot of these one was imbecile, and all the 
rest absolutely idiotic.*' — See Dr, Lees^ Prize Essay o» ike 
Liquor Traffic, p. 190. 

Of ihe terrible disease, delirium tremens, there died in the 
three years, 1858-59-60, 1,426 persons. In 1867, there died 369 
from the same cause. During the four years, 1864-65-66-67, the 
deaths from alcoholism, inclusive of delirium tremens, are put 
down at 3,784.* The proportional number of deaths from alco- 
holism, in each of the years, 1858-67 to 1,000,000 of population, 
was 37, 46, 39, 33, 35, 41, 52, 50, 44, and 35 respectively. In 
these ten years, the deaths registered amounted to 8,370 — vis : 
from, intemperance, 3,527; and from delirium tremens, 4,843. 

'* Drink has the oharaoteristio of predisposing to attacks of dis- 
ease, and preparing the way for the winged pestilence. Let an 
epidemic appear in our midst, drunkards are its earliest victims, 
and its ravages are most desolating in those districts where drink- 
ing prevails. Dr. Anderson, of Glasgow, states as the results of 

• In 8eotland,in 1867, U was one in every 480: in Ireland one in 630. Paaper 
lanaties in Asylums, orerlooked by Commissioners, now number 48,000. Of 
all olastes we haTe 50,000, including 26,717 females.— £9. 



36 THE GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

his experience in the treatment of 225 patients in the epidemio 
of 1848-9 : — ' I have found the use of the alcoholic drinks to be 
the most powerful predisposing cause of malignant cholera with 
which I am acquainted. So strong is my opinion on this point, 
that were I one of tlie authoritiesi and had the power, I woald 
placard everj spirit shop in town with large bills, containing the 
words, CHOLERA SOLD HEBE.' The mortality of those who were 
represented to him as haying been previoasly of temperate 
habits, averaged 19.2 per cent.; whilst among the habitaally 
intemperate it rose to the enormous proportion of 91.2 per cent. 
One of the most respectable pnd extensive spirit dealers in High 
Street, Glasgow, is stated to have said that ' the cholera has cut 
off at least one-half of my customers.' During the epidemic of 
1832, it was noticed in Montreal, where 12,000 cases occurred, 
that 'not a drunkard who was attacked has recovered, and 
almost all the other victims were moderate drinkers.' In War- 
saw it was found that 90 per cent, of those who died of the 
cholera had been in the habit of drinking ardent spirits to 
excess ; and at Tiflis, in Russia, a town of 20,000 inhabitants, 
every drunkard is said to have been carried off by the disease." 
— See Dr, Lees's Prize Essay, 

Evidence to the same effect is furnished by the marked 
increase in the number of cholera cases which have occurred, 
when occasions or seasons of festivity have induced unusual 
excesses during its prevalence. *' Thus at Glasgow in 1832, the 
jubilee held to celebrate the passing of the reform bill occasioned 
a new and very fatal outbreak of the disease which was previously 
almost extinct; and at Gateshead, the week following Christmae- 
day was signalized by a most terrible fatality, which was obvi- 
ously attributable to the drunkenness that prevailed in the town, 
one of the worst streets of which was said to be swept of con* 
firmed drunkards, from one end to the other, with very few ex- 
ceptions. The influence of alcoholic excesses was scarcely less 
strongly marked in Glasgow, during the second epidemic ; a great 
increase in mortality from cholera taking place during and afler 
the New Year festivities." — Carpenter, Phys, of Temperance, 

Says Robert Martin, M.D., Warrington: **In 1861-2 there was 
an enormous increase of places for the sale of liquor in Liver- 
pool, and a corresponding increase in drunkenness. At the same 
time, trade was very bad, so that there was a fearful amount of 
destitution. Typhus burst forth, and for four years raged as an 



PRODUCING CRIME. 37 

epidemic. In 1856, the magistrates, seeing the terrible blunder 
which had been made, reversed their policy, put an end to the 
experiment which they prepared the publfc for in 1861, and put 
in force in 1862 ; from the greatest laxity they swung round to the 
most rigid control. The result was that the death-rate, which 
had been going up year after yeaV, was suddenly arrested. 
Intemperance toas diminished and disease and death diminished 
also. Liverpool lost, or rather escaped from, the terrible pre- 
eminence which for years it had maintained on the Registrar- 
General's black list." An outbreak of cholera occurred in Liver- 
pool in 1866. The first victim was an Irishwoman ; her death 
took place on Sunday night, July Ist, and the body was *^ waked" 
amidst a scene of shocking drunkenness until Tuesday. Br. 
Trench, the medical officer of health, visited the scene on the 
Monday, and found the corpse surrounded by persons who were 
indulging in "drunken and profane ribaldry." He says, "When 
I again visited on Tuesday morning, to try either by threats or 
persuasions to hasten the funeral, I found the whole place reek- 
ing with tobacco smoke, and with the loathsome and disgusting 
emanations of drunken and unwashed bacchanals. The three 
houses (in the court) were crammed with men, women, and 
children, while drunken women squatted thickly on the flags 
before the open door of the crowded room where the corpse lay. 
. . . Before the period of a week had passed, John Boyle, the 
husband of the woman, was also amongst the dead, and before 
the end of July forty- eight persons had died from cholera within 
a radius of 160 yards from the courts which had been the 
scene of the ill-timed revelry. The commencement of the epi- 
demic dates from the period and place of Mrs. Boyle's death." 

III. — As to the extent of Crime produced by the Drinking system, 

A crime is an offence against society or a violation of those 
just and beneficent laws enacted for its regulation and benefit. 

The number of habitual criminals in the United Kingdom 
has been computed at 140,000, or one in every 214 of the popu- 
lation ; besides an innumerable array of occasional criminals, 
costing the nation to maintain and look after, about £6,000,000 
per annum. 

Now, it can be proven from the concurrent testimony of all 

having to deal with our criminal class, that from three-fourths 

to eight-ninths of their number are the product of drinking. 

It is a very rare thing, indeed, to see a teetotaler figuring as a 

4 



88 THE GBEAT KATX017AL CUBSE. 

criminal in a police court, or languishing in a jail. Mr. Sim« 
mons, governor of the Canterburj prison, thus writes : 

" The nnmber of prisoners who have been committed to the prison 
with which I have been connected daring the last 15 jeara amounts to 
22,000. Among them I have come in contact with ministers of the 
gospel, nambers of persons who were once members of Christian 
Churches, as also children of pious parents; but 1 never met with a 
prisoner being a teetotaler. From the experience I have had, I calcu- 
late that from 90 to 92 per cent of all crimes are committed through 
taking intoxicating drinks, in a direct or indirect manner." 

The Bev. W. Caine, M. A., late Chaplain of the Salford Hundred 
jail, in his report to the General Quarter Sessions in 1861, states:—- 
" I now proceed to lay before you an analysis of the preWous lives of 
1,000 prisoners oat of the 1,500 into whose antecedents I have carefully 
inquired. Of the 1.000, the number of females is 296, and of males 704. 

" T am grieved to be obliged to tell you that of the 296 females, 165 
confessed that they are drunkards, and 54 of them have drunkards as 
their husbands. Of the 704 males 480 admitted that they are drunk- 
ards. and many of these are not yet 20 years of age. I have learnt in 
prison that boys of 13 and 14 years are drunkards. How many of the 
other 355 may be in the same condition, I could not discover, for many 
prisoners, like the majority outside, have very strange ideas as to what 
constitutes drunkenness ; they think they are not drunkards unless they 
are constantly or very frequently drunk. The sooner this fearful mis- 
take is corrected amongst all classes of the community, the better it 
will be for our country. What would be the state of society if all 
other vices and crimes were looked upon with as much indifference as if 
drunkenness — the parent of so many of the other crimes." 

The amount of crime is yery closely regulated by the quantity 
of intoxicating liquor consumed. Diminished consumption show- 
ing a decrease in crime ; increased consumption an increase. 

During the seven years between 1812 and 1819, both inclusive, 
the annual consumption of British spirits in England and 
Wales was 5,000,000 gallons, and the annual average number of 
prisoners committed for trial was 11,305. During the seven 
years between 1826 and 1832, the annual average consumption 
had risen to nearly 9,000,000 gallons, and the annual average 
commitments to 21,796, both items almost double ; while from 
1812 to 1832f the population had increased only about one-third. 
The amount of crime then is not so much measured by the 
increase of population, as by the increase in the consumption 
of intoxicating liquor. 

During the four years succeeding 1820, th« consumption of 



INCBEASEB FACILITIES SHOW INCREASE OF CRIME. 39 

Spirits in England and Wales amounted to 27,000,000 gallonSi 
the number of licenses granted was 351,647) and the number of 
criminals committed for trial was 61,260. In the four years 
ending 1828, the consumption had increased to 42,000,000 
gallons, the number of licenses granted being 374,794, and the 
number of committals rose to 78,345. In the next four years 
ending 1832, the amount of spirits consumed was 48,000,000, the 
number of licenses 468,438, when the number of commitments 
increased to 91,366. 

Thus during the eight years from 1824 to 1832, the committals 
had increased 30,000, or 50 per cent., and the consumption of 
spirits increasing in the same time 77 per cent., with a very 
decided increase also in the consumption of beer, while during 
the three periods, the licenses had increased from 351,647 to 
468,438, being an increase, of 116,794. 

" In Scotland, in 1823, the whole consumption of intoxicating 
liquors amounted to 2,300,000 gallons; in 1837 to 6,776,715 
gallons. In the meantime crime increased 400' per cent., fever 
1,600 per cent., death 300 per cent., and the chances of human 
life diminished 44 per cent." — Dr. Nbtfs Lectures, p. 25. 

In Ireland when the distilleries were stopped (1808) crime 
decreased amazingly. Again, when in 1810 they recommenced 
operations, the commitments increased nearly four-fold. 

In 1840, owing to the Great Temperance Agitation conducted 
by Father Mathew, the public-houses within the police bounds 
of Dublin had lessened by 237, and the prisoners in the Rich- 
mond Bridewell, which had numbered 136 on the 1st September, 
1839, were reduced to 23, or one-sixth in November, 1840. In 
consequence of 100 cells being empty in the Bridewell, the 
Smithfield prison was closed. 

Lord Morpeth, when Secretary for Ireland, gave the following 
statistics in a speech on the condition of Ireland, delivered after 
a public dinner in Dublin. Of cases of murder, assault with 
attempt to murder, outrageous offence against the person, 
aggravated assault, cutting and maiming, there were in 

1837 12,096 1839 1,097 

1838 11,058 1840 173 

It further appears that the number of persons charged with 
murder within the police boundaries of Dublin, was in 

1838 14 1840 2 

1839 4 1841 1 



40 THE GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

From 1838 the Temperance Agitation had been going onj^ and 
on the lOth October, Father Miithew had inscribed in his roll 
of teetotalers upwards of 2,500,000 names. The consumption 
of spirits for the year 1840 (ending 5th January 1841), had 
fallen, in round numbers, to 7,000,000 gallons; whereas in 1838 
it was 12,000,000 gallons. Hence the falling off in the calen- 
dar.'* — Teetotaler's Companion^ p. 385-6. 

Now, whilst a very large proportion of crimes in general, flows 
from the use of intoxicating liquor, crimes of violence, suicides, 
and prostitution, have almost their sole cause here. 

Judge Wightman, in his address to the Grand Jury, at the 
Crown Court, Liverpool, in August, 1846, said, "Of ninety- 
two persons whose names were on the calendar, six were charged 
with wilful murder, twelve with manslaughter, thirteen with 
malicious injury to the person, sixteen with burglary, and eight 
with highway robbery, accompanied with violence to the person. 
He found from a perusal of the depositions, one unfailing cause 
ofs four-fifths of these crimes was, as it was in every other, the 
besetting sin of drunkenness. In almost all the cases of 

PERSONAL VIOLENCE AND INJURT, THE SCENE WAS A PUBLIC-HOUSl 
OR A BEER-SHOP." 

It is when men*s passions are excited, and their better natures 
blunted by strong drink, that they commit these terrible crimes, 
and shed the blood of their fellows. These crimes of violence 
and bloodshed flow, indeed, from that terrible homicidal mania 
induced by the use of intoxicating liquors. 

Take, for instance, the confession of Dr. Pritchard, of Glasgow, 
executed for the murder, by poison, of his wife and mother-in- 
law. In his first confession to the prison authorities he states : 

" Mrs. Pritchard was much better immediately after hei 
mother^s death, but subsequently became exhausted from want 
of sleep. I accounted for this by the shock produced by her 
mother's death, and, hardly knowing how to act, at her own 
request, I gave her chloroform. It was about midnight: Mary 
McLeod was in the room, and in an evil moment, — being, besides, 
SOMEWHAT EXCITED BY WHISKY, — I yielded to the temptation to 
give her sufficient to cause death ; which i did.^* In his second 
confession he says : 

" I, Edward William Pritchard, in the full possession of all my senses, 
and understanding the awful position jn which I am placed, do make 
free and open confession that the sentenee pronounced upon me is just: 



fiUICIBE, AND THE SOCIAL BVIL. 41 

that I am gnilty of tbe death of mj mother-in-law, Mrs. Taylor, and of 
my wife, Mary Jane Phtchard; that I can assign no motive for the 
conduct which actnated me beyond a species of terrible madness and the 

USE of ABDBBT BFIBITS." 

From alcohol instigating the murder of others, go to alcohol 
prompting to suicide. — 'What a dark, hopeless crime is this of 
self-murder! A man rushing, blood-stained and unbidden, into 
the awful presence of his Judge. How black must be the 
despair, how wild the anguish, of those who thus throw wantonly 
away, Heaven's choicest gift of life. In London alone, 500 cases 
of suicide occur annually. In 1868, there perished by self- 
murder in the United Kingdom, 1,546 persons. Tes ! 1,546 
weary of life, and heedless of the unseen future, in the intensity 
of their misery and the terrible frenzy of their minds, put a 
sudden end to their earthly existence. *' In France, in 1841, out 
of 2,814 cases of suicide, 185 are expressly said to have com- 
mitted the fatal act either while drunk, or after drinking. This 
shows drunkenness even there, to be the most frequent of 
THE KNOWN CAUSES OF SUICIDE, with the oxceptiou of domestic 
grief and physical pain. Probe these again, to their causes, 
and drink takes first rank. People confound motives with 
causes. — A man destroys himself under a certain notion or 
IMPRESSION — that is insanity — but, perhaps drink is the cause. 

Of 38 cases of suicide carefully reported at 
Aberdeen, the assigned causes were insanity, disappointed love, 
and family quarrels (vexation) ; but it is added that twenty 
were intoxicated before the act, and seventeen were habitual 
drunkards." — Dr, Lees^s Prize Essay^p, 202. 

Take the Social Evily of which strong drink is the fruitful cause, 
and the public-house its main support, for drink both originates 
and sustains it. Public-houses and brothels are not only 
intimately related, but in a great many instances, identical. It 
has been ascertained that in England and Wales there are 2,123 
public-houses, and 2,034 beer-shops, used as brothels. The 
Society for the Protection of Females informs us that there are 
twenty-nine public-houses in Newcastle-on-Tyne, where private 
rooms are kept for thirty-three women of loose character. 

In London, with its more than 3,000,000 inhabitants, there 
are now above 10,000 women of this class. 

According to the First Report of the Constabulary Force 
Commissioners (1839), there were in London, 6,371 prostitutes, 



42 TBB QBSAT NATIONAL CUB8E. 

to a popalation of 1,516,593, or 1 in 237 ; in Bath 393 to m 
population of 59,000, or 1 in 150; in Hall 418 to a popalation 
of 60«000, or 1 in 143; in NewcasUe-on-Tyne 451 to a popu- 
lation of 55,000, or 1 in 121 ; in Bristol 1,267 to a population 
of 110,000, or 1 in 86 ; in Liverpool 3,600 to a population of 
213,000, or 1 in 59. The ayerage proportion of the whole is 1 
prostitute to eyery 132 of the popalation. Reckoning the number 
of adult females as one-sixth of the whole population, this gives 
us 1 prostitute to every supposed 22 virtuous women. 

It has been computed that the average duration of life of this 
class is from 4 to 10 years ; half-way between the two extremes 
gives an average of 7 years. Now the social evil has not dimin- 
ished ; in fact, it has grown with our growth, or rather with the 
growth of the liquor traffic. At the present time there are, plying 
their deadly trade in all our large centres of population, about 
90,000 prostitutes. And the bulk of these pass away in- seven 
years — and how ? Some perish by their own rash hands ; others 
perish forlorn and forsaken, a mass of loathsome disease ; and 
yet their number is not diminished ; other 90,000 are found to 
have taken their place, to pass through the same brief and 
blighted career, and in their turn to meet the same sad end. 

As we gaze upon this diseased and degraded sisterhood—many 
of them still lovely amid their ruin, we are led to inquire, Whence 
come they ? And the answer is too clear to be mistaken. They 
a/0, for the most part, the product of our Ruinous Drink System. 
It is in the public-house that many of them receive their first 
taint The social glass blunts their moral perceptions, and throws 
them off their guard, and thus they become an easy prey to the 
wiles of the seducer. Thousands of them come from their sweet 
country households, in all their health and beauty, blooming as 
the heather upon their native hills, or the roses that adorn the 
walls of their cottage homes. Led astray through the terrible 
agency of strong drink, they flock to our large towns, and there 
commence their sad career. To drown the pangs of conscience, 
the bitterness of remorse, and the deep sense of shame, they fly 
to strong drink, and thus become confirmed in vice. In a very 
short time, a few months in some, a few years in others, their 
bloom and beauty fade, and they become cither bloated and bias* 
pheming monsters, with every womanly attribute eradicated, or 
poor emaciated and diseased ou toasts, homeless and hopeless. 

The Publicans, as a class, are notorious violators of law. Few 



PUBLICAKS NOTOBIOUS YIOLATOBS OF LAW. 43 

• 

of them indeed comply with the conditions of their licenses; 
and, what is worse, the magistrates, by the tolerant manner in 
which they treat these offences, providing they do not affect the 
tevenue, connive at them, and are thus partakers of publicans* 
transgressions. 

The law, toQ^lax as well as its administrators. An important 
Publican Appeal case was heard at Durham Quarter Sessions, on 
Wednesday, January 5th, 1870. Mr. William Campbell, the 
landlord of a publio-honse near the Market- Place, South Shields, 
had appealed against the decision of the Mayor of South Shields 
and Mr. Alderman James, before whom he had been summoned 
for allowing drunken and disorderly conduct in his house, and 
was convicted and fined. The evidence went to show that men 
were drunk when served with drink; that one of them had 
been refused drink in another public-house, and that they were 
disorderly in the house; but what was the decision of the 
magistratesf Mr. Meynell (one of the magistrates) submitted 
that there was no case. The appellant was convicted of ** IcTKm- 
ingly allowing drunken and disorderly conduct in his house,*' but 
by the evidence called on behalf of the respondent, it was shown 
that no directly disorderly conduct took place. Mr. Wharton 
(another magistrate) wished to look into the particular wording 
of the Act of Parliament. Mr. Meynell said the publican must 
^'knowingly and wilfully" allow drunkenness in his house before 
he could be convicted. If a person entered a public-house who 
had had drink, and stood quietly at the bar, how was the person 
serving him to know that he was drunk? Mr. Wharton (having 
looked over the law with the other magistrates) said the magis- 
trates did not think that the evidence showed that the defendant 
had knowingly and wilfully allowed such drunken and disorderly 
conduct in his house, and they therefore quashed the convic- 
tion. Hence it is almost impossible to convict in offences of 
this kind, because however drunken and disorderly people may 
be in a public house, it cannot be proven that such drunken and 
disorderly conduct is " knowingly and wilfully allowed 1*' 

During the three years ending September 29th, 1866-7-S, the 
number of public-houses and beer-shops proceeded against, and 
fined, and the number of licenses withdrawn in a certain number 
of towns in England, excluding some of the most notorious, as 
Liverpool, Manchester, and Hull, was as follows: 

Of 33 towns with a population of 9,990,921, the average numbei 



44 THE GREAT NATIONAL CUBSE. 

of poblio-hoases and beer-ahops, for each year, was 4,583 publie* 
bouses, and 3,112 beer-shops. The average number proceeded 
against each year was 396 public-houses, and 606 beer-sbops. 
The average number fined was of public-houses 319, of beer« 
shops 487. The average number deprived of license was of 
public-houses 17, of beer-shops one, in the course of three years. 
Til: at Newcastle-nnder Lyue. 

Here, then, we have a large number of offences committed 
agiunst the License Act, a large number of fines, but yery few 
licenses suspended, showing at once the criminality of the 
traffickers, and the leniency of the magistrates. 

lY. — The Drinking System is the cause of pauperism. 

In the United Kingdom there are nearly 1} million of paupers, 
or one in twenty of the entire population. To maintain these 
we haye to pay annually Ih poor rates about £10,000,000. 

In London alone, containing a population of 3^ millions, there 
are 300,000 persons in receipt of parochial relief, being only a 
trifle short of 1 in 10 of the population. 

Mr. Duncan McLaren, M. P. for Edinburgh, recently stated in 
Parliament that the poor rates of Scotland had risen nearly fiye- 
fold since 1837. He quoted from the Report of the Poor-Law 
Board, the statement that out of a population of only 3,100,000 
in Scotland, as many as 350,000 [or 1 in 9] had received paro- 
chial assistance. 

Now we have very strong evidence that fully three-fourths of 
this pauperism is produced by drinking. 

We interrogate Parliamentary Reports upon Intemperance; 
we interrogate Committees appointed by large and influential 
denominations of Christians ; we interrogate Masters of Work- 
houses, and those whom duty or philanthropy call to mingle 
with the poor ; and the uniform testimony of all is, that three- 
fourths to eight-ninths of our pauperism is occasioned by the 
reckless expenditure on the part of the people- in that one perni- 
cious article — Intoxicating Liquor, 

Take, for instance, the following testimonies from the report on 
intemperance, of the Lower Housp of Conyocation, Canterbury. 

Testimony of Clergy: 

788.— This Union, consisting of 80,000 persons, has to support eight 
pauper lunatics, at a charge of £20 per annum each. About two-thirds 
of these cases have been traced to drink. Two or three cases of pauper 
lunacy occur every year. 



FRODtTClNO PAUPERISM; 46 

Testimony of Governors of Workhouses : 

811. — As a Poor Law officer in this Union of twenty years standing, 
and an abstainer of seventeen years standing. I feel sure that ninft-tenths 
of the paupers who have come under my cognizance have been the victims 
of intemperance .... We have had many who were once in affluent 
circumstances ; at the present time we have one who not very long 8inc« 
was a Warden of a Parish Church, and a well-to-do farmer, bat drink hat 
brought him here. 

816 — The proportion of adult paupers in the workhonse who have 
become the victims of intemperance is very great — ^probably about 80 per 
cent, of the entire number. I am also sorry to add a great number of 
them have never been married, thus showing that a long life of sixty or 
seventy years has been spent in drunkenness and improvidence. 

This remark applies chiefly to men. The aged women here are paupers 
mainly because of the inability of their friends to provide for them at 
home. Of the younger women, the whole of them (with the exception of 
two or three imbeciles) have brought themselves to their present degrada- 
tion through profligacy, the increase of which throughout the country 
generally is becoming very alarming. 

869. — Nineteen-twentieths of the able-bodied men, two-thirds of the aged 
men, three-fifths of the able-bodied women, one-fifth of the aged women, 
are victims of intemperance. 

On the contrary, in localities where this yice does not obtain, 
the liquor traffic being suppressed, little or no pauperism is to be 
found. Take the following testimonies extracted from the same 
Report. 

2173. — One habitual drunkard. He is the only person I have ever 
known to be drunk in the parish for the last twenty years. No case of 
crime or lunacy for many yeara. No paupers, except a few worn out 
people. Under God. I attribute this satisfactory state of the parish in 
respect to this evil, mainly to there being no public-house or beer shop. I 
cannot speak too strongly on the influence for good that the circumstance 
of there being no public-house or beer-&hop has exercised on the popula- 
tion. I may say the same of C , of which I am incumbent, in which 

there is no public-house or beer-shop. 

2179. — Never had a public-house or beer-shop of any description in the 
parish, or within a mile of it. I have never seen or heard of intoxication 
except in hay-making and harvest in the hottest summer. Crime rare; 
only one person apprehended within the last twenty years, for arson. 
Cost very small for maintaining the poor of this parish. 

2180. — No crime, pauperism, or lunacy. , 

We cannot wonder at pauperism being produced by the drink 
trafficy when we consider that the moat desolating faminM 



46 THB GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

attended with great loss of life, have been produced by it. 
Daring the reign of Philip and Mary, such was the rage for 
'^ Usquebaagh " in Ireland, that the inhabitants of that country 
converted their grain into spirit to such an extent as not to leave 
themselves sufficient for food to sustain life. Famine and priva- 
tion were the result, and to prevent a recurrence of this state of 
things, the Legislature passed an act to check the practice of 
free distillation. When famine again desolated that ill-fated 
land in 1847-8, and the greatest distress and privation were 
experienced by the poor, it was distinctly proved that we had an 
ample supply of grain to meet the necessities of the people ; but 
instead of being brought into the market to be disposed of as 
food, it was locked up in the granaries of breweries and distil- 
leries to be wantonly destroyed in the manufacture of intoxi- 
cating liquor; as a terrible result, half a million of people 
perished of starvation. 

Every drink-cursed country is in a state of chronic famine, 
which stalks the purlieus and courts of their large towns, 
causing tens of thousands oT the people to lack the common 
necessaries of life, and pine away and die. 

Neither can we wonder at the huge proportions of pauperism 
in our midst, when we consider the large sums of money ex- 
pended every year by the laboring classes upon intoxicating 
liquor. 

Professor Leone Levi estimates the annual earnings of our 
working classes at £418,000,000, distributed among 12,000,000 
workers, and that this class expends annually £50,000,000 in 
intoxicating liquors : that is, about i of the entire income ; and 
that working men earning 25s. i^ SOs. per week expend upon 
the average 5«. a week in drink. This calculation is based upon 
the excisable value of the liquor consumed amounting to 
£80,000,000, and makes no allowance for dilution and adultera- 
tion. 

Mr. W. Hoyle computes the expenditure for 1868 at 
£102,886,280. Assigning the same proportion as before to 
the working classes, viz : five-eighths of the whole, the amount 
expended will be £64,303,925, or a little less than one-sixth of 
their whole income. If from this estimate we deduct the teeto- 
talers, the proportion of earnings expended in drink by the 
drinkers must be very much greater. I am acquainted with a 
working man, a moulder, earning £2 10s. a week, £2 of which he 



OBSTBUGTINa TRADE AND COMMEBCB. 47 

expends in drink, leaving 10#. only to support his wife and 
family. In consequence, the children are poorly fed and clad, 
have neither shoes nor stockings to wear, and the miserahlo 
apartment they occupy is hut scantily furnished. There is not 
a chair in it that is not broken. 

Many of the puddlers, shinglers, rollers, &c., working at the 
iron works in the North of England, earn from £3 to £6 per 
week, and yet, for the most part, their homes are bare of furni- 
ture, and their children are poorly fed and thinly clad, nearly 
the whole of their large income being expended upon intoxicating 
liquor. Indeed, it is not at all unusual for men of this stamp, 
when they have only a small pay to take, say from ZOa. to £2, 
to go to the public-house and spend it all in a single day. 

V. — The Drinking System as obstructing Trade and Commerce. 

That the drinking system is at war with the interests of 
labor, we have already seen. It demoralizes the working-man, 
and incapacitates him for continuous toil ; hence he loses timcj 
and mono/. But the drinking system also lessens the employ- 
ment of labor, and, by throwing a larger number of the unem- 
ployed into the labor market, loweiss wages. The rate of wages 
is regulated very much by the degree of competition in the 
labor market. When the number of laborers far exceeds the 
demand, wages are low ; when laborers are scarce, then wages 
rise. When supply and demand in the labor market are in 
■equipoise, wages attain a mediocrity, and the working man can 
at least obtain ^' a fair day's wage for a fair day's work.'' 

Evidently it is to the interest of the working class to lessen 
competition as much as possible in the labor market, and • so 
to raise the price of labor. Any traffic which, on account of its 
peculiar and pernicious character, gluts the labor market, by 
lessening the demand for labor, must be antagonistic to the 
interests of the working-man. We shall now show that the 
liquor traffic does this. 

1. — It invests capital in such a manner as to employ the least 
amount of labor. It has been urged that " the traffic employs 
labor." True ! But it debauches and ruins those it employs, 
and at the same time it employs very little labor in proportion 
to its capital. In the Scotsman newspaper for January 2d, 
1869, there is a description of the Caledonian Distillery at 
Edinburgh. In this distillery we learn that 40,000 gallons of 
spirits are manufactured weekly, or 2,000,000 per annum. At 



48 THE GREAT NATI02fAL CURSE. 

16s. per gallon, this would be over £1,500,000 ; the quantity of 
grain consumed is 800,000 bushels j the number of men em- 
ployed is stated to be 150 only. Now, if this £1,500,000 were 
spent upon manufactured goods, or in building houses, or drain- 
ing waste land, it would give employment to from 12,000 to 
15,000 persons; and if the whole sum spent in intoxicating 
drinks were appropriated to such work, it would find employ- 
ment for at least 1,200,000 more people than are at present 
enoraged. — Hoyle ; An Inquiry into the Causes of the present 
Depression in the Cotton Trade^ pp, 12, 13. 

Thus, if the liquor traffic was entirely suppressed, employ- 
ment could be found not only for those now employed in it, but 
for far more than all the able bodied unemployed in the country: 
the labor market would be at once relieved, competition for 
men would increase, and wages rise. 

2. — In the manufacture of intoxicating liquor a large propor- 
tion of the capital invested goes to .the government and the manu- 
facturer, and thus again does it prove antagonistic to the 
interests of the working-man. 

It has been computed that in the manufacture of a pound's 
worth of intoxicating liquor, sixpence only falls to the share of 
the laborer, whilst the average amount paid for labor in the 
manufacture of articles of utility and commerce amounts on the 
average to about 8«. 6(2. in the pound. 

Take, for illustration, one gallon of gin containing about 51 
per cent, alcohol. This the publican reduces by dilution to 
about 37 per cent^, and retails it out to the consumer at 16«. 
per gallon, or 22s. for the one gallon as received direct from the 
distillery. Now of this sum 10^. goes to government as duty. 
The manufacturer pockets 2s. 6(2. for raw material, working 
expenses, and profit. Sixpence is given to the laborer, and 9«. 
finds its way into the publican's till as profit 

Professor Kirk, of Edinburgh, puts the prime cost of 300 
gallons of whisky at £20, the Caledonian Distillery selling it 
wholesale at \s. 4cd. a gallon. Government lays on a charge in 
excise dues and license fees to the amount of £155. The 300 
gallons of whisky thus costs the publican £175. To reduce 
this whisky to the ordinary drinking strength, there is added 
133j^ gallons of water. The liquor thus reduced is sold (at I6s. 
a gallon) for £346 13^. 4d, The publican pockets out of that 
amount, £171 13«. 4(2. Hence in the manufacture and sale of 



AT WAK WITH THE WORKING-CLASSES. 49 

300 gallons of whisky, lOs, only goes to labor, £19 10^. to 
the capitalist, £155 to goyemment, and £171 13«. 4d. to the 
publican. 

Now take £20 worth of cutlery purchased retail. Of this 
£8 10s, is paid to labor; £7 goes as profit to the hardware man, 
and £4 10s. only to the capitalist for purchase of raw material 
and for profit. 

For £1 in value, in the manufacture of silk, 7s, goes to labor; 
in shoes 7s, 4d, ; earthenware Ss, ; linen yam 9s, Sd, ; fine woollen 
cloth 129.; table cutlery 13«. ; coals 18«.; scissors 19«. 24. ; while 
in the manufacture of pins, needles, trinkets, watches, and other 
delicate articles in metal, the amount is even greater. 

Thus we see, that by employing but little labor, and by 
sharing with that labor only a very small proportion of the 
profits, the liquor traffic is at war with the interests of the work- 
Ing-man, and its destruction becomes a working-man's question; 
and we also see that every working-man that expends his money 
upon intoxicating liquor is guilty of a suicidal policy against 
the interests of his class, for he circulates his money in a 
channel that brings the smallest possible returns to his own 
class; In every pound he expends upon drink, he only gives his 
brother workman sixpence, whilst for every pound he expends 
upon other classes of products, of a useful and necessary char- 
acter, he gives his brother workman upon an average eight and 
sixpence. 

"Now, the available wealth of the community is, in three 
ways, calculated to be increased by the diffusion of teetotalism— 
first, by preserving that portion at present lavished on intoxicat- 
ing liquors, which considered commercially, may be said to be 
thrown away ; secondly, by increasing the average wages of the 
working-man through a more regular attention to labor; and 
thirdly, by raising the scale of wages. The first and second 
points were well exemplified after Father Mathew^s visit to 
Waterford, at the Knockmahon mines in the neighborhood, 
where about 1,000 persons were employed. Previous to his visit, 
the earnings of these mines averaged £1,900 per month, but the 
monthly average of the year following was not less than £2,300, 
an addition of £400 per month, or £5,200 per annum ! Formerly 
the same number of people spent £500 of their month's wages 
in drink, by which their available wealth was reduced to £1,400 
per month. After the introduction of total abstinence very 
5 



60 TUE GREAT ITATIONAL CUBSB. 

little was spent in drink, but allowing this yerj little to hare 
been £100 monthly, the money at the disposal of these 1,000 
persons would bo still £800 per month, or £10,400 yearly, more 
than it had been I Under the drinking system the total availa- 
ble money of these people was £18,200 annually, under the 
teetotal system it amounted to £28,6001 Well, indeed, might 
the commerce of Waterford be doubled after the visit of Father 
HsktheWf'^-^TTie Tuiotdler'9 Companianf by Peter Burnet p. 486. 

The liquor traffic is also at war with the interests of manufac- 
tures anfjL capital. 

It is generally supposed that the interests of labor and of 
capital are antagonistic, and that if labor receive benefit, capital 
must suffer, because such benefit must be at the e:cpen8e of 
capital. In a limited sense this is really the case, but here, 
however, their interests are identical. 

The prosperity of the mercantile and manufacturing interests 
depends qpon two things principally. 1st. The general character 
of the workman. 2d. A good market, which means a good 
demand* 

Now, anything that detracts from the skill, steadiness, energy, 
and reliability of the workman must most obviously be opposed 
to the interests of the employer. But the drinking system does 
this. The excessive use of intoxicating liquors, to which so 
many of our ablest artizans are addicted, blunts the observing 
powers, and detracts from that fineness of touch and steadiness 
of hand so necessary in many departments of manufacture. It 
also detracts from their energy and steadiness. The workman 
who drinks cannot infuse the same degree of energy into his 
work as the man who does not drink. Then, too, he of 
necessity incurs loss of time; his debauch on Saturday and 
Sunday incapacitates him for work at the commencement of 
the week, so that he is compelled to keep Saint Monday, and 
sometimes Saint Tuesday also; and however skilful he may 
be, this is a very serious check to its efficient exercise. Says 
"W. E. Hearn, LL.D., in his Plutohgy, ** However great may be 
the natural powers of the laborer, or however ^consummate his 
skill, or however bright his general intelligence, the industrial 
importance of these qualities maoifestly depends upon the mode 
in which they are exercised. It is not the mere existence of 
natural or acquired powers, but their actual employment, that 
determines their utility. The principal regulator, therefore, of 



AT WAR WITH MANUFACTURE AND CAPITAL. 51 

the efficiency of labor is the habitual energy with which the 
laborer pursues his work. It is not enough that a man should 
on an emergency be capable of making great exertions. Such 
fitful efforts are generally followed by a corresponding reaction, 
and, at best, fall far short of the effects of steady and constant 
work. In every occupation we daily see the success which 
attends patient perseverance, and the occasional failure of even 
great natural powers when irregularly exerted. The clever work- 
man who wastes half the week in idleness and dissipation, but who 
in the remaining half can earn what is sufficient for his support, 
is gradually left behind by his less quick but more persevering 
competitor. Similar results are familiar in professional life." 

The drinking system also detracts from the reliability of the 
workman. Indeed, what dependence can be placed in a drunken 
servant, who regards the gratification of his appetite as of far 
greater importance than the interest of his employer? As a 
rule, he does all he can to shirk his work, and to do as little as 
possible for his money. And then, if the work be taken by 
contract, which the employer has to finish at a given date, 
however urgent the case may be, there can be no dependence 
placed in the workman that the job will then be done, for he 
may get drunk in the meantime, and neglect his work entirely, 
to the great inconvenience, or the loss, of the employer. Indeed, 
the greatest losses sustained by employers arise from the general 
unsteadiness and unreliability of the employes, produced by 
their intemperate habits. 

The Select Committee on Drunkenness, of which Lord Althorpe, 
Sir R. Peel, Mr. J. S. Buckingham, Mr. Hawes, and other dis- 
tinguished men were members, estimated that one million out of 
every six of the whole manufactured, mineral, and agricultural 
productions of the United Kingdom, was the loss sustained by the 
commerce of this country from this cause alone. 

In the Minority Report of the Select Committee, to whom Mr. 
J. A. Smith's *^ Sale of Liquors on Sunday Bill " was referred, 
we find the following testimony : 

Mr. Cockbnrn, the foreman of Messrs. Feasors ironstone niinesi 
in Yorkshire, has given evidence (5,951) of a loss of labo -, not 
properly accounted for, of 0.78 out of 5.92, equal to three-fo.irths 
.of a day each man per week, and this he largely ascribes to Sun- 
day drinking. He adds (5,953), "It entails very serious loss 
upon the owners of property themselves, and not only upon 



52 THE GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

them, but upon the ramus works dependioj; upon theirs, as they 
are the produoers of the raw material ; and there is the same 
staff to keep for the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, of clerks 
and officers, and men about the place, as there is on the Thurs- 
day, Friday, and Saturday ; and that giyes sometbin^; like three 
half-penoe more per ton in the working cost for the first three 
days/' And he proceeds to state that '* their being off on the 
Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday is from the effects of their 
drinking, principally on the Sabbath-day/' 

Again, the drinking system is detrimental to the interests of 
manufacture and capital, because it diminishes consumption. 
The man who spends his earnings in strong drink can't afford to 
clothe and feed properly either himself or family ; and he is also 
under the necessity of considerably lowering his standard of 
domestic comfort It is yery seldom that he can treat himself 
to a new coat, or his wife to a new frock or bonnet, whilst his 
children must go without shoes or stockings. His rooms, if 
indeed he occupies more than one, are not overstocked with 
furniture, and there is a sad dearth of those little elegancies that 
adorn the homes of our sober, industrious classes. 

In 1868 £102,885,280 was expended upon intoxicating liquor. 
This lavish and reckless expenditure upon a most pernicious 
and unproductive article, roust prove detrimental to the demand 
for useful and necessary goods. The liquor traffic is not a 
necessary traffic, since many places do exceedingly well with- 
out it; neither is it a useful traffic, for it adds nothing to 
the comforts or elegancies of life. It neither garnishes our 
apartments nor improves our persons. On the contrary, it is 
a dangerous and destructive traffic. Says the Hon. Amasa 
Walker, in his *' Science of Wealth :" — " If labor expends itself 
on objects that do not stimulate to further efforts, or serve as in- 
struments to further production, but rather debauch the energies 
and corrupt the faculties, it is evident that reproduction will be 
lessened and debased, and the whole course of labor will be 
downward. If, on the contrary, labor expends itself on objects 
that present fresh and urgent desires, and excite to renewed aq- 
tivities, it is evident that the course of production is upward, 
and the people will rise economically, with a rapidity and force 
such as signalized the career in the fourteenth century of Flor- 
ence ; in the seventeenth, of Holland ; in the eighteenth, of 
England ; in the nineteenth, of the United States." 



THE BELATION OF GREAT INDUSTRIES. 53 

The above applies with great force to the traffic in strong 
drink. The labor expended in this traffic is worse than thro^ivii 
away. It ''does not stimulate to further efforts/' except in its 
own special department, which of course is a still furthw waste 
and misapplication of energj; neither does it ^' serve as an 
instrument to farther production;'' but it does ^Mebauoh the 
energies, and corrupt the faculties;'' and as a eonsequenoe, 
'* reproduction is lessened and debased, and the whole course of 
labor is doynward.'' 

The world's great industries are intimately connected with 
each other. The prosperity of one generally conduces to the 
prosperity of others. This is invariably so in brisk titfies. Take, 
for instance, the Iron and Coal trades. Iron canH be made 
without coal; an improvement in the former leads to an improve* 
ment in the latter. This even holds good in those industries 
supposed to be antagonistic, as the cotton and wool trades. At 
present we have a great falling off in the ootton trade, and 
certain persons affirm that this arises from the substitutioil of 
trooUen for cotton goods. But this is not so. Says Mr. Hoyle: 
" On comparing the quantity of wool used in 1866--67-68, with 
1859-^0-61, 1 find the increase is only 31,000,000 &s., while the 
falling off in cotton has been 212,000,000 9>s., and if we take 
into account the increase of population, the great quantity of 
wool used for horse-cloths and maniifacturing purposes, we are 
driven to the conclusion that there has been no increase in the 
quantity of woollen clothing used by the population of our own 
country.'' 

This relation of industries holds good also when applied ta 
the shipping, the agricultural, and the mining. 

There is, however, one glaring exertion to the rule, viz: The 
Liquor Traffic. This is opposed to all other industries. In this 
respect it is unique ; it stands alone in horrid grandeur *, for 
before its presence other industries fade and languish, and that 
too without exception. 

The country is full of loud complaints on ^account of the 
present depression in trade, and many causes are assigned tot it. 
Some refer it to the keen competition that has sprung up be- 
tween ourselves and other countries. They affirm that nations, 
at one time far our inferior in certain branches of manufacture, 
now equal, or even excel us ; that they can manufacture the 
same class of goods at a cheaper rate, and consequently that 
6* 



64 THE GBEAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

they are gradually driying us from the great foreign marts, and 
even competing sucoessfully with us in our markets at home. 

Now if this he true, there must he a very serious falling off 
in our export trade, a falling off nearly equivalent to that stag- 
nation we are now suffering under. Then, too, there must he 
an increase in our imports of those manufactured goods before 
supplied by our own manufacturers, an increase sufficient to 
make up the balance of equivalents. But is this really the case ? 
No, indeed. 

The loudest complaints come from the manufacturers of cotton. 
We cannot close our eyes to the fact, that our cotton trade is in 
a very depressed state. But what is the cause of it? It arises 
entirely from a falling off in the home consumption. Mr. Hoyle, 
a cotton manufacturer, in his *' Inquiry into the Causes of the 
Present Long-continued Depression in the Cotton Trade," has 
shown us that the cotton goods exported from this country during 
the last three years, is considerably greater than during the three 
years preceding the Crimean War, which were the three best years 
the cotton trade ever had ; and that our imports in this class of 
goods has considerably decreased during the three years 1866-7-8. 

The expwts, in 1859-60-61, amounted to 7,902,222,910 yards ; 
in 1866-67-68, they amounted to 8,374,428,387 ; an increase of 
472,205,477, or about 6 per cent. 

The imports from France, Holland, the Hanse Towns, and 
Belgium, in 1859^0^61, amounted to 28,972,758 ibs ; in 1866- 
67-68, to 28,265,666 lbs, a decrease of 2^ per cent. So that our 
exports to those countries supposed to be outstripping us in the 
manufacture of this class of goods have increased 6 per cent, 
whilst our imports from them have decreased 2^ per cent. 

In cotton cloths, merely, we exported to the above named 
countries, in 1859-60-61, 354,182,255 yards, at an estimated 
value of £18,093,553. In 1866-67-68, we exported 514,720,336 
yard?, at an estimated value of £34,254,416, showing an in- 
crease in quantity of 45 per cent., and in value of 90 per cent. 

Our exports in cotton goods having greatly increased, and our 
imports having largely decreased, there ought now to be a very 
heavy demand for this class of goods, and our cotton factories 
ought to be in full operation. How comes it that such is not 
the case, but that, on the contrary, cotton operations in many 
localities are only working half-time, and that cotton mills are 
being locked up, and sold for one- third their cost? The answer 



THE BEPBESSION OF THE COTTON INDU8TBT. 65 

is, because, notwithstanding our improved foreign trade and our 
lessened imports, there is a falling off in the home consumption 
to an extent which fully accounts for the depression. 

The quantity of cleaned cotton taken for goods exported ex- 
ceeds in 1866<^7-68, by 21 JC3,000 lbs., at an estimated Talae of 
£42,695,000, the quantity taken in 1859-60-^1 ; but looking at 
the home consumption, we find a decrease of 211,933,000 fts., or 
35 per cent, at an estimated value of £3,466,000. Now how are 
we to account for this falling off? Is it because we are getting 
poorer as a nation, and because wages are low ? No ! But it is, 
as Mr. Hoyle justly remarks, because the people " squander their 
earnings in intoxicating drinks." 

During the years 1859-60-61, the money spent upon intoxica^ 
ing drinks in the United Kingdom was as follows : 

1859 £86,686,366. 

1860 79,541,290. 

1861 85,989,468, 



£252,217,124. 
For the three years ending with 1868, the expenditure upon 
intoxicating drinks in the United Kingdom was as follows : 

1866 £101,252,551. 

1867 99,900,502. 

1868 102,886,280. 



£304,039,333. 

Being an increase upon the former period of £51,822,209, or 
£17,274,069 per annum. 

Uere is an astounding fact ; in three years we spent on intoxi- 
cating drinks £304,039,333, and yet, upon cotton goods our 
staple production, we spent only £28,858,000. 

" Taking the population of the United Kingdom at thirty mil- 
lions, it gives for each man, woman, and child, for the three years, 
£10 29. kid, for drink, and 19^. 6d. for cotton goods; or taking 
the year 1868, we get £3 Ss, 7|c2. per head for drink, and 4*. 7 id. 
for cotton. Taking a family of five persons, we have £1 Ss, Old. 
spent on cotton, and £17 3«. 2id. on intoxicating liquor." 

During the years 1866-67-68, we expended in poor and police 
rates £37,108,827, or £8,000,000 more than the entire value of 
our home consumption of cotton goods for the same time. 

Still more, the drinking system is detrimental to the interests 



66 THE GBEAT NATIONAL CUBSE. 

of manufActare and capital, because it drains the country of 
capital that might be usefully expended in developing our own 
resources. 

To make up for the wholesale destruction of grain in the 
manufacture of intoxicating liquor, we are under the necessity 
of importing large quantities from abroad. In 1867 we imported 
into the United Kingdom, in flour and grain, 65,500,000 cwts., 
at an estimated yalue of £41,364,134 ; and in 1868, 66,750,000 
cwts., at an estimated yalue of £39,000,000. But for the wanton 
destruction of grain, amounting in 1868 to 63,679,575 bnsbels, a 
yery large proportion of this money might haye remained, and 
have been employed in still further advancing oar own in- 
dustries. If, to this expenditure upon foreign grain, we add the 
sums sent away for the purchase of foreign wines and spirits, 
amounting in 1868 to £20,608,776 retail yalue, we may perceive 
the reason of our impoverishment. The money received into the 
country from our exports is not nearly an equivalent for this 
copious outpouring of the national wealth. 

It is the tendency of the liquor traffic to increase our imports, 
and by paralyzing our home industries to lessen our exports. 
Thus are we impoverished both ways. If the money sent out of 
the country for goods imported, were balanced by the money 
returned to us for our exports, there would be a more eqoal 
circulation of the media of commerce, and this would redound 
to the benefit both of ourselves and of those nations with whom 
we have commercial transactions. But if, throngh the wanton 
waste of our own resources, we are compelled to send away large 
sums of money for commodities we should not otherwise need, 
and especially if we are unable to balance this, because by 
paralyzing home industries we have lessened our exports, — it is 
quite clear that other nations must grow richer and ourselves 
poorer. 

The total value from our importSj Foreign and Colonial, 
exclusive of bullion, for 1867, was £275,183,137 ; for 1868, 
£294,683,608. So we sent out of the country in 1868, £19,500,471 
more than the year before. 

The total value of our exports for 1867 was £225,802,529 ; for 
1868, £227,778,454. So that in 1868 our returns from abroad 
merely exceeded the returns for 1867, by £1,975,924, leaving us 
to the bad in 1868, £17,524,547, and that amount poorer to begin 
the year 1869. 



DRAIKI^ THE COUNTRY OP CAPITAL. 



57 



Now, if we deduct from our imports foreign wines and spirits, 
and the grain imported to replace that destroyed in making beer 
and spirits, the balance would be tnrned tn our favor, and 
instead of being j&17,524,547 to the bad, we should have been at 
least, £19,000,000 on the right side of the balance sheet* But 
if the liquor traffic was suppressed, would the money now 
wasted in upholding it be actually expended in sustaining and 
developing our other great industries? A very large proportion 
of it certainly would, at least to the extent of three>fourths. 

When the distilleries were stopped in Ireland in 1809-10-13-14, 
in consequence of the scarcity of grain, trade greatly improved, 
while during the years of plenty succeeding, the distilleries being 
allowed to recommence operations, trade considerably declined. 

Dr. Lees says : '* On reference to the tables of importsf into 
Ireland, and a comparison of the years of the stoppage of the 
distilleries, and the consequent comparative sobriety of the 
nation, with the years when they were in full activity, destroy- 
ing food and demoralizing the people, we arrive at the startling 
anomaly, that a year of scarcity, with prohibition^ is better than 
a year of plenty without it I The years 1809-10 and 1813-14 
were seasons of scarcity, and the distilleries were stopped. The 
average consumption of spirits in the years 1811-12 and 1815-17 
[years of plenty and distillation] was 7} millions of gallons: on 
the other years [1809-10 and 1813-14] not quite 4}. Bat mark 
how the saved 3} millions reappear in the form of an increase of 
the following articles of comfort, which bespeak not simply the 

* Baring the twenty-seven years ending 1857, our exports vastly exceeded 
par importd. Hence the rapid rise of England, and her nnrivailed pros- 
perity during that period. But now, our imports vastly exceed our exports. 
Hence our gradual, but certain impoverishment. The following gives the value 
of our exports and imports during a series of years dating frotnl831 to 1857. 

KXPOKTS. IMPOKTS. 

1831 ......... £69,691,302 £46,245.241. 

1840 ......... 110,198.716 C2,0O4,0(»a 

1850 ......... 190101,394....... 105,101,607. 

1857 280,803,927 136,216,449. 

f Tabu OF Irish Imports.— Extracted and arranged from returns made to 
Parliament, 1822. (See the 4th and 6th Reports of Commissioners of Inquiry.) 



Famine Years 18U9-10-13-14. 



Haberdashery. £140,936 

Drapery (New and Old).. 8J78.614 
Iron. Hardware, and Pots £467,709 

Bianlcets 60,004 

Cotton Goods........ £197.198 

Black Tea. 8,630,043 

Muscovado Sugar........... 881,278 



Value ... 
Yards ... 
Value ... 
Number 
Value ... 
Pounds. 

I/WvSm.... 



Years of Plenty. 



1811-12-16-17. 



£110,936 ... 


£30.000 decreasflw 


2,422,444 ... 


1,356,070 


£337.458 ... 


£129,661 •• 


26.603 ... 


33,401 * 


£1(H,198 ... 


£{|3,000 " 


8,189,132 ... 


341,611 •• 


806,964 ... 


4^824 " 



58 TUB GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

absence of a great curse, but the presence of domestic and 
personal happiness, and of a thriving trade.'* — Priu Essay on 
iJu Liquor Traffic' pp, 127, 128. 

In the days of Father Mathew, a great revival in the woollen 
and other trades took place, consequent upon a large decrease in 
the consumption of intoxicating ]iquor. 

**A gentleman connected with one of the most extensive 
manufacturing firms in Lancashire, stated a year or two ago, 
(about 1844) that, since the great success of Father Mathew, 
their trade with Ireland had increased one hundred per cent.! 
The trade between Rochdale and Ireland is said to have trebled 
in the course of about three years, — where the people of that town 
manufactured 100 bales of goods for Ireland in 1839 or 1840, they 
manufiictured 300 in 1844. And this merely from the proper 
expenditure of the pittances doled out in the form of Irish 
wages." 

Some time previous to Father Mathew's visit to AVatcrford 
(population 23,000), the Corporation examined the houses of the 
P9or and working-classes, and estimated the value of all their 
household and other property at £100,000. Shortly after this 
the apostle of temperance pledged 60,000 persons of the city and 
neighborhood to the practice of total abstinence; and at the 
next examination made by the Corporation (only two years after) 
the estimated value of goods in possession of the same classes as 
before, was £200,000, the trade of Waterford being doubled. 

We may well believe that if the liquor traffic was swept away, 
three-fourths of tlse money now expended upon it would at once 
be applied to the purchase of useful and necessary articles. 
The one-fourth, amounting to £25,721,670, would be put by as 
reserved wealth, and as people now-a-dnys donH like to keep a 
long stocking in the house, the money would be deposited in our 
different banks. This vast sum, in the hands of our bankers, 
would receive profitable investment, and the great banking 
interest would greatly improve ; indeed, we should require far 
more establishments of this kind than we have at present, and a 
larger number of clerks and messengers would find employment. 

Of the other thaec-fourths, amounting to £77,165,010, one- 
tenth, or £7,716,501, would, perhaps, be invested in Building 
Societies, and we should soon see a visible improvement in the 
homes of the working classes^ and a great many of them would 
Burely occupy the'r own cottages. 



IP REMOVED, BUSINESS WOULD BEVIVE. 69 

One-Sixth, or £12,860,835, would most probably be expended 
upon farm produce, so that not only would farmers be enabled to 
dispose of the 54,000,000 bushels of barley now disposed of to 
the brewers and distillers, but a great deal more, though of 
course in a different form. We should have it in the form of 
wheat, beef, mutton, poultry, eggs, butter, and bacon. In fact, 
there would be an unprecedented demand for farm produce of all 
kinds, which farmers would be able to dispose of at a profitable 
price. This would necessitate the cultivation of a larger acreage 
of land, and consequently a reform of the Land laws, by which 
a large portion of the 12,000,000 acres of reclaimable land now 
allowed to run barren, would be brought under cultivation ; it 
would also lead to the utilization of our sewage, now allowed to 
be wasted, and to the breeding of a larger number of farm stock 
of all kinds. The forty thousand acres of ridb. land at present 
devoted to the growth of hops would be made to wave with 
golden corn ; a larger number of farm laborers would find em- 
ployment, and they would get less drink but more money for 
their work ; thus would the great agricultural industry receive 
a grand impetus. 

One-eighth, or i&9,645,626, would doubtless be expended upon 
cotton. This great industry would revive, mills now silent 
would again send forth the pleasant sound of working looms, and 
cotton operatives would receive full employment. Says Mr. 
Hoyle, "£10,000,000 of it applied to purchasing cotton goods 
would at once more than double our home trade, and place us in 
such a position as would banish all complaints of bad trade.*' 

One- tenth, or £7,716,501, would likely be expended upon 
woollen goods, increasing our woollen imports, multiplying our 
woollen manufactories, and finding employment for a larger 
number of woollen workers. 

One-eighth, or £9,645,626, would likely be spent in tea, coffee, 
spices, and general groceries, increasing our imports and replen- 
ishing the coffers of the exchequer without demoralizing the 
people. ^ 

One-tenth, or £7,716,501, would likely be expended upon silks 
and fancy articles, — as watches, jewelry, and ornaments of 
various kinds, and as we should import a large quantity of this 
class of goods from France and Germany, it would repay them 
for our refusal of their winea, etc. 

One-tenth, or £7,716,501, would doubtless be expended upon 



60 THE GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

boots and shoes, and that department of iodastry would greatly 
revive ) and as we import iarge quantities of t]i« raw material, 
as hides, from Eussia, our commercial relations with that country 
would greatly improve. 

One-tenth, or £7,716,501, wculd doubtless be expended in 
furniture, hardware, and upholstery, and as a great deal of the 
raw material required here, as timber, etc., comes from Scandi- 
navia, Canada, South America, India, our commerce with these 
countries would improve, and they in return would be able to 
take more of our own manufactured articles. Of the remainder, 
X4,502,293, would doubtless be expended upon glass, china-ware, 
and mus^al instruments, so that these branches would greatly 
improve. 

And the balance, £1,929,135, would likely be expended upon 
books, prints, and painting, giving greater encouragement to art 
and literature, and improving trade in the manufacture of paper 
and printing. 

Now the £102,886,280 being thus laid out, we should require 
more ships on the sea, to convey to us raw material from abroad, 
and to bear away from our own shores our manufactured goods. 
This then would improve the shipbuilding trade, and find abun- 
dance of employment for all our sailors. 

Then, too, both goods and passenger traffic would greatly 
increase on all our railways, and shareholders would receive 
larger profits upon their shares, many of which at present, upon 
some of our lines, are worthless. 

We should also require a larger number of retail dealers, as 
media of distribution to the public, at least one to every £3,000 
expended ; this then would give 12,000 persons as shopkeepers 
to distribute the products of manufacture and agriculture to the 
consumer, and computing that three persons would be engaged 
in each establishment, this would find a total of 60,000 persons 
with employment. In the drapery and boot and shoe depart- 
ment we should require at least one tailor, one shoemaker, and 
one dressmaker for every £5,000 worth of goods sold. Thus we 
should require about 6,200 of each class over and above those 
now employed. A larger number of sewing machines would be 
needed, thus extending that industry. When we also remember, 
that where the manufacture of intoxicating liquor employs one 
laborer, the manufacture of other commodities employs seven- 
teen, there would be plenty of work both for those now destitute 



INFLICTS LOSS AND I>I8AST£B. 61 

of employment, and also for those, at present en^^nired in the 
traffic, many of whom would be able to convert their drink-shops 
into grocery stores and drapery establishments, and utilize much 
of their capital. 

Under tiiese conditions, pauperism would be almost nil, and 
crimes rarely occur ; two-thirds of our present enormous local 
taxation would be returned into the pockets of the rate-payers, 
still further enriching them ; and thus smiling plenty would 
take the place of dearth and penury, and sweet contentment, of 
discord and wild uproar. Sickness also and disease would greatly 
diminish, especially among the working-classes, so that they 
would be able to establish Benefit Clubs upon a more satisfactory 
basis than at present, and indeed these societies might be so 
regulated as to enable every working-man, on attaining his 
sixtieth year, to cease from labor, and to spend the remainder 
of his days in ease and plenty. 

VI. — The Drinking System cts the occasion of loss and disaster. 

We have already referred to this incidentally in our last seo- 
tion, we now bring it more particularly before our readers. 

(1.) There is the loss of productive labor to the extent of at 
least one day in six, owing to the drunkenness of the working- 
classes. On Professor Levi's estimate of the earnings of this 
class being £418,000.000, the actual loss sustained from this 
cause alone will amount to £69,000,000. 

Then this represents a very heavy loss to the manufacturer, 
according to the Parliamentary Report for 1834, of one million 
out of every six produced. Mr. Levi computes the income of the 
higher classes (land-owners, manufacturers, and merchants) at 
£464,000,000. Now allowing one-half of this only as the amount 
realized by our manufacturers and merchants, this sum repre- 
sents but five-sixths of what they would realize were it not for 
the drunkenness of the employes, so that this loss may be put 
down at £43,670,000, or a total for both classes of £112.670,000.* 

(2.) There is the loss of property both by sea and land. 

Most of the casualties occurring every day are occasioned by 
intemperance. Fires, breakage of machinery, shipwrecks, etc. 
The report of the Manchester Watch Committee states that 
twenty fires took place in that town last year throu«;h intem- 
perance. In the Minority Report of the Parliamentary Com- 

* This approximates, very remarkably, to the calnnlation of Dr. Lees, in 
his Text-Book of Temperance, founded purely on physiological grounds. • 



62 THE 6BEAT NATIONAL CUB8E. 

mittee upon Mr. Smith's Sale of Liquors on Sunday Bill, wc find 
the following:— *' (5,463) Rev. G. M. Murphy.— Before I came 
to London, I was associated with the large firm of Fox and Hen- 
derson, at Birmingham. Sir Charles Fox has stated (and it 
quite hears out my own views) that the large majority of acci- 
dents in connection with their extensive works occurred on the 
Monday, and were the results of unsteadiness occasioned by the 
Sundayls drinking. I had an opportunity of asking Sir Charles 
Fox, within the last fortnight, as to whether he still coincided 
with that opinion, and he said that he did ; and that he should 
be quite willing to ratify anything that he had said upon that 
subject." 

The annual value of shipping destroyed at sea by wreck and 
fire, must be estimated at millions, of which a very large pro- 
portion is chargeable upon the drinking system. 

Mr. John Simpson, an insurance broker and merchant, of 
London, says: — '^I have been in the house that I am the head 
of now, for thirty-five years, and in the habit of covering a million 
and a half sterling per annum of property floating upon the 
water, and generally in the whole of that time it has been most 
lamentable to see the great destruction of property, in a vast 
nufnber of instances notoriously owing to drunkenness.'' 

Captain £dward Pel ham Brenton, R. N., when examined 
before the Parliamentary Committee of 1834, stated that for 
forty-six years he had been acquainted with seamen, and had 
observed their prevailing habits to be that of intemperance. 
During the late war, almost every accident he ever witnessed on 
board ship was owing to drunkenness. This was the cause of the 
burning of the *'George" of 98 guns, in 1759, with 550 of 
her crew; and of the •^Ajax" of 74 guns, in 1806, with 350 of her 
crew. He named also the burning of the ^^Kent," East Indiaman, 
and of the " Edgar" of 70 guns, owing to spirits being on board, 
adding, ** I hold spirituous liquors to be more dangerous than 
gunpowder." 

If the mighty deep could but speak, what revelations should we 
have of ships sunk through intemperance in mid-ocean, or dashed 
to pieces upon the rocks of some bleak and inhospitable coast, 
and of whole crews sent drunk beneath the waves 1 

(3.) The loss sustained to the Revenue, owing to the ineffi- 
ciency of the army and navy from intemperance. Says the 
Parliamentary Report of 1834: — "The comparative ineffi* 



CAUSE OP INEFFICIENCY IN ARMT AND NAVT. 63 

ciENCY OF THE ARMY AND NAVY, ID each of whioh intemperance 
is a canker-worm that eats away its strength and its discipline 
to the very core ; it being proved that one-sixth of the effective 
strength of the navy, and a much greater proportion of the 
ARMY, is as much destroyed by that most powerful ally of death, 
intoxicating drinks, as if the men were slain in battle ; and that 
the greatest number of accidents, seven eighths of the sickness, 
invaliding, and discharges for incapacity, and nine-tenths of all 
the acts of insubordination, and the fearful punishments and 
executions to which these give rise, are to be ascribed to drunken- 
ness alone."* 

We are thus under the necessity of employing in the two ser- 
vices one-sixth more men than we should otherwise require, 
besides the extra expenditure from invaliding, imprisonments, 
and new enlistments. If then, drinking were abolished in the 
army and navy, we should require only five-sixths of our present 
force, and yet have a more efficient service, which would be 
equivalent to a reduction in army and naval expenses of one- 
tenth. Then, instead of employing 129,126 soldiers at a cost to 
the nation of £14,213,400 per annum, and 63,300 sailors, in- 
eluding marines and boys,*at a cost of J&9,996,641, we should 
need only 107,605 soldiers and 52,750 sailors, at a saving to the 
nation of £2,422,704. We must remember that the members of 
neither service are producers, though taken for the most part 
from the producing class. They are consumers only, therefore, in 
proportion to the number of men engaged and drawn from the 
factory and the plough, so must be the injury to our trade and 
national progress ; and we must consider that the men -selected 
for the army and navy are picked men; men of fine build and 
great physical strength ; so that not only does the producing 
class suffer numerically, but also in efficiency, while the pro- 
ducers have to keep all the rest. 

VII. — The Drinking System as obstructive of LiteUectual and 
Religious Progress, 

(1.) It obstructs education. Children are generally kept 
away from school, not because their parents are poor, but because 
they are profligate and drunken. The money that ought to go 
toward decently clothing and schooling the children, is recklessly 

* Besides this, is the disease and waste of power arising from the grog 
rations, still strangely given, in the face of the plainest facts demonstrating 
iheir injury. 



64 THE GBEAT NATIONAL CUR8E. 

spent upon intoxicating liquor. £Ten wliere free-schools abound, 
the children of drunken parents are unable to attend for the want 
of decent clothing. And then, a^i^ain, those children of intem- 
perate parents who do get to school, receive only a very imperfect 
education, as they are taken away to work at a very early age, to 
provide their unnatural parents with the means of still further 
gratifying their appetite for gin. 

The Educational question is now making a great stir in oar 
country. At present there are two great schemes before us. 
The one, advocated by the Manchester Union, proposes to still 
further expand and extend our present system, and to render 
education indirectly compulsory by means of Factory Acts, etc. 
The other, projected by the Birmingham League, proposes, with- 
out sweeping away our present denominational schools, to 
establish a grand national system, which shall at once be seen* 
lar, directly compulsory, and free. - 

Though we are fully alive to the importance of establishing an 
efficient system of education, by which the present prevailing 
ignorance may be driven away, and the young and rising genera- 
tion receive that intellectual culture denied to their forefathers, 
we are bold to maintain that whatevei system be adopted, can only 
yery partially succeed, if intemperance be allowed to continue. 

The best educated States in America are the New England 
States, and in five of them the liquor traffic is outlawed, and in- 
temperance is of rare occurrence ; but where it does obtain, its 
legitimate fruit in retarding education is at once seen. To coun- 
teract this as much as possible, benevolent persons are under 
the necessity of providing the drunkard's children with suitable 
clothing. 

At a public breakfast to the Hon. S. F. Cary, ex-Senator for 
Ohio, U.S., held at the Central Exchange Hotel, Grey Street, New- 
castle-on-Tyne, December 15th, 1869, he remarked, that ** The 
drinking customs of the people operated prejudicially in the pro- 
'gress of education. Many persons were in consequence unable 
to clothe their children properly, so that they might attend 
school ; and one of the efforts of their philanthropists, and the 
friends of education in his country, was to take care that such 
children were provided with suitable clothing. Certainly intem- 
perance tended very largely to keep children away from school." 

Even if we could see are the attendance at school of these poor 
ragged outcasts, education for the most part would be lost upon 



OBSTRUCTS EDUCATIOH AND BELIGIOK. 65 

them. The poverty of their homes, the dmnkennees of their 
parents, and the Btarration and ill-treatment through which they 
are called to pass; would almost entirely neutralize their every- 
day tuition at school, and with yery few exceptions they would 
grow up, if not quite so ignorant, yet as depraved as ever. 

The drinking; system also ohstmcts self-education and improve- 
ment when school days are over, and our youth are sent forth to 
act their part on the grand field of labor. 

At present, the public-house and beer-shop are -the only educa- 
tional establishments frequented by largo numbers of our young 
men, and in these places they are schooled in vice and drunken- 
ness. The mechanics' institute, the evening school, and the lit- 
erary entertainment and lecture are neglected. The consequence 
is, the little education obtained at school is soon lost, or rendered 
valueless, not being used as a foundation upon which to build 
knowledge of a higher and more enduring kind. 

(2.) The drinking system obstructs the religions advancement 
of the people. 

We stud our land with churches and chapels; we employ 
thousands of clergymen to preach to the people, and hundreds of 
missionaries to visit them at their homes ; thousands of tracts 
and Bibles are distributed to them gratuitously every year, and 
thousands, of Sunday-schools are established for the religious 
education of the young, yet notwithstanding all these appliances, 
licentiousness and ungodliness abound in our midst, and the 
noblest aspirations of humanity receive some mysterious check, 
and instead of finding expression in a pure and godlike life, they 
are kept under, and vice and drunkenness are pursued. Now, 
how are we to account for this sad state of things ? It is because 
the ministers of religion and morality are opposed by the minis- 
ters of vice and immorality, and buildings dedicated to the 
worship of God are opposed, and vastly outnumbered, by temples 
set apart to the worship of Bacchus. 

The drinking system at once incapacitates people for hearing 
aright the gospel message, engenders a disinclination to attend a 
place of worship, and is also a fertile cause of religious declension. 

The man or woman stupefied by drink is not in a fit state to 
hear God's message; whilst the loss of self-respect, and the 
poverty which intemperance brings, prevent people, during their 
lucid and sober moments, from attending public worship. They 
soon begin td regard themselves as a Pariah class, and shun all 
6* 



66 THE GREAT NATIONAL CUBSE. 

places to which sober, well-behaved, and well-dressed people 
resort. Hence, too, the day set apart for rest and spiritual im- 
provement is spent in wild excesses and disgusting orgies, such 
as would disgrace even a pagan, let alone a Christian nation. 

Drink is also a sad cause of declension on the part of many 
who once enjoyed the blessings of religion. Ministers, learned, 
pious, and eloquent, have fallen through it. I am acquainted 
with two men, once ministers of the Wcsleyan Church, and ex- 
ceedingly popular on account of their undoubted ability and 
eloquence, who fell deeply through this agent. One of them, 
after years wasted in wild excess and debauchery, frequently 
lying out all night under hedges, has since become a teetotaler, 
and, in an humbler sphere of life, is again doing his Master's 
work. The other has become hardened by a long course of 
sensuality and crime, and, at present, there appears no hope 
whatever of his reclamation. 

Members of Christian Churches, including local preachers, 
deacons, and Sunday-school teachers, have fallen through it, and 
have become poor, lost, wandering sheep, straying far away, amid 
vice, sorrow, and shame, from the fold in which they had been 
spiritually reared. There is not, in fact, a single denomination 
that does not suffer largely from this cause^ The Be v. W. Caine, 
M. A., stated before the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science (1869), that "out of 724 Protestant prisoners in the 
County Gaol at Manchester, 81 had been Sunday-school teachers 
for longer or shorter periods, and nine out of ten of them were 
Sunday scholars; and amongst the prisoners were sons of 
clergymen and dissenting ministers.*' He attributes the larger 
proportion of those cases to drink, and the want of good parental 
example. 

The drink system is no less obstructive to missionary opera- 
tions abroad. Missionary Societies are the glory of the age in 
which we live, and one of its most striking characteristics, and 
we cannot also but greatly admire those noble self-denying men, 
who, spurning fatigue and hardships, and fearless of danger, 
forsake home, country, and kindred, in order to carry into remote 
and barbarous climes the blessings of civilization and Chris- 
tianity. But, alast here we find cause for sad reflection and tears. 
The ship which carries the missionary to his field of toil and 
danger, also, alas I carries with it an agent that shall prove mbre 
deadly, destructive, and debasing to the savaga than even their 



A FOE TO MISSIONARY OPERATIONS. 67 

senseless idolatry — that agent is fire-water. Thns do we more 
than undo all that the missionary accomplishes. We carry to the 
heathen the gospel in the right-hand, and the whisky hottle in 
the left, and to every convert made to the former a thousand are 
made to the latter. When we mark how Europeans have con- 
taminated the natives of the Pacific Islands — of the American 
Wilds, and even of India, with the abominable vices and loath- 
some diseases of Britain — we may surmise, that had we never 
touched their shores, but left them entirely to their ignorance 
and their idols, they would not have been in a worse condition 
than they are now. Indeed, how can we expect them to receive 
readily the gospel at our hands, when they know that day by 
day we are inflicting upon them disease and misery. 

Speaking of this Fire- Water, William W. Smith, of Owen 
Sound, Upper Canada, says: — ^^ Indians — men that I love and 
value as brethren — have told me with low an^ melancholy voices, 
of the devastation of this thing. A friend, a few weeks ago, told 
me of an effort he once made to induce a chief of a tribe of the 
Mohawk nation to allow a friend of his, a missionary, to come 
and dwell among them. * What you preach? Preach Christ?* 
'Yes.* * Don't want, Christ I No Christ!' My friend perse- 
vered. At length the chief got warm, and towering to his full 
height, with a volcanic fire in his eye, broke out — 'Once we 
were powerful; we were a great nation*, our young men were 
many, our lodges were full of children*, our enemies feared us; 
but Christ caue and brought the fire-water I Now we are 
very poor; we are weak; nobody fears us; our lodges are 
empty ; our hunting grounds are deserted ; our council fires are 
gone out; we don't want ChristI Gol'" Thus is the name 
of Christ reproached among the heathen on account of the prac- 
tices and vices of those professing to be His disciples. 

Archdeacon Jeffreys, with thirty-one years of Indian experi- 
ence, infoTDis us that among the converts to Christianity in 
India, many had fallen through strong drink; for, says he, 
^' When once the natives break cast and become Christians, they 
were no longer restrained from the use of strong drinks, and 
they became far worse than if they had never embraced Chris- 
tianity. For one really converted to Christianity, as the fruit of 
missionary labor, the drinking practices of the English had made 
one THOUSAND DRUNKARisT- We are further informed that in 
some parts of Hindostan the name Christian and drunkard are 



68 THE GBEAT NATIONAL CUBSB. 

Bynonymous, and that, when a drunken man is seen reeling 
along the streets, they say, ** See ! there goes a Christian I'* 

The Rev. Mr. Ellis gives this testimony : — ^* Since the intro- 
duction of Christianity to the Sandwich Islands by the mission- 
aries, there is no means which the enemies of moriJs and religion 
hare employed more extensively and perseveringly for the pur- 
pose of counteracting the influence of Christian instruction, and 
corrupting and degrading the people, than the importation of 
spirituous liquors; and no means of evil have been employed 
with more injurious e£Fects/' 

The Rev. John Williams said :— '^ In my absence, a trading 
captain brought a small cask of spirits ashore, and sold it to the 
natives. This revived their dormant appetite, and like pent up 
waters the disposition burst forth, and, with the impetuosity of 
the resistless torrent, carried the people before it, so that they 
appeared maddened with infatuation." 

These sad testimonies might be greatly multiplied, but what 
need of further witnesses? Clearly, the work of evangelizing 
our people at home, and of Christianizing the heathen abroad, is 
hindered and counteracted by the drinking system. Yet what 
attitude has the Church of Christ taken in reference to it ? With 
sorrow, be it said, she has embraced the foul monster, identified 
herself with its interests, and, at the same time, has treated with 
supercilious contempt the temperance enterprise, spoken of it in 
terms of disparagement and censure, even branding it as being 
an infidel movement. We rejoice, however, that violent, open 
opposition from that quarter has now ceased, and that thousands 
of her noblest clergy are now most zealously cooperating with ns 
to promote the success of the temperance movement. 

Had the Christian Church, in all its different denominations, 
done so from the commencement; had she, at the origin of the 
movement, made it a great religious question ; had she then put 
forth all her power, and used all her appliances in this direction, 
we should not now have been weeping over the wholesale destruo- 
tion and debasement of our people; nor would that Church 
herself have had to deplore her empty fanes and desolate altars, 
and the increasing indifference of the people to receive instruction 
at the hands of her appointed ministers. But ^' it is never too 
late to mend.'' Let the Church of Christ, in all her different 
departments, take up this great question, and identify herself 
still more thoroughly with it — nailing under the banner of the 



MAIN CAUSE OF OUB NATIONAL CALAMITISS. 69 

cross the banner of teetotalism, — ^and with both waving aboT« 
her, she will march onward to certain victory over licentiooa- 
Dess, inebriety, and " the legions of Sin." 

All the evils that we have thus depicted, flow from the drink- 
ing system of the nation, inchiding the use, the manu/acturef 
and the sale of intoxicating liquor. 

If these liquors were not made, they could not become articles 
of trade ; if they were not sold, they would not be consumed. 
Hence all the evils flowing from the consumption of them is 
chargeable upon the manufacture and sale. But more directly 
are they associated with those houses established mainly or solely 
lor the sale of these pernicious articles. 

Says Dr. Oliver Goldsmith : — '' I never saw a city, or village 
yet, whose miseries were not in proportion to the number of 
its public-houses.*' ' And the Church Report, on Intemperance 
(1869), fully confirms this statement. Hundreds of reliable 
witnesses attest that drunkenness, crime, and pauperism, and 
the houses established for the sale of intoxicating liquor, are 
inseparable. This applies even to the best of them. In fact, a 
respectable public drinking-house is a misnomer. How can 
respectability be attached to the sale of so pernicious and 
destructive an article as intoxicating liquor? 

Some months ago, the author was walking through the beau- 
tiful village of , North Riding of Yorkshire, in company 

with a farmer who had resided all his life upon a farm in the 
neighborhood. The rural scenery around was very beautiful, 
with here jind there touches of the romantic ; presently we came 
to a very respectable looking public- house by the roadside. The 
landlady, a widow, stood at the door, and recognizing my com- 
panion, nodded to him, and he returned the salutation. The 
landlady was a fine, portly looking dame, with black silk dress, 
and gold chain hanging down to the waist, and altogether in 
keeping with the house. I remarked to my companion, '* That 
certainly is a very respectable looking public-house, and a very 
courteous and respectable landla<]y too." My companion replied, 
'^ Tou are quite correct, that public-house is the most respectably 
conducted house in this neighborhood, and that landlady is a most 
respectable woman ; but I wish to tell you something about that 
house. Thirty years ago, that house was licensed for the sale of 
intoxicating liquor, and year after year that license has been re- 
newed. Now, during those thirty years, how many victims, think 



70 THE GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

jou, have perished in consequence of the drink obtained in that 
house?" NotIikin<; to hazard a ^uess, he said, ^MVell, then, I 
will tell you. In the course of those thirty years, to my certain 
knowledge, thirty victims have perished most miserably in 
consequence of the liquor obtained at that house. Some of them 
were opulent farmers belonging to this neighborhood, and others 
were gentlemen of independent fortunes. Some of them, before 
their death, were reduced almost to penury, and most of them 
died young, or in the prime of life. Two or three of them were 
carried out of that house insensible, and died shortly afterwards 
in their own homes, and others of them died of fever, or of 
delirium tremens, supervening on a debauch at that house.'* 

If so much misery be inflicted and so many deaths be occa- 
sioned by a public-house, said to be respectably conducted and 
situated amid beautiful scenery, so well calculated to withdraw 
men from vice and noisy revelry to the quiet contemplation of 
6cd*s works, then what must be the misery inflicted, and the 
deaths occasioned, in connection with those public-houses not so 
respectably conducted, and situated in the neighborhood of fac- 
tories, or in the densely-crowded portions of our large towns? 

Alas ! What tragedies bang around the public-houses of our 
land, and what bad deeds have been perpetrated in connection 
with every one of them. Young women robbed of virtue and 
modesty, and young men of manliness and truth. Wives made 
to break their marriage vow, and husbands transformed into 
cruel tyrants. Homes robbed of peace and furniture, and con- 
verted into arenas of strife, brutality and crime. 

We have read of Pagan temples, and Pagan shrines dedicated 
to obscene gods, whose priests practised the crudest rites and 
darkest orgies. We have in our midst 150,000 temples dedicated 
to intemperance and vice, and upon whose altars are offered up 
the widow's tears, the children's bread, and the virtue and happi- 
ness of the people. These altars are stained with blood ! 

The manufacturers of these pernicious liquors. Lord Chester- 
field calls, " artists in human slaugMer^^^ and of those who sell 
them, John Wesley says, '* The men who traffic in ardent spirits, 
and sell to all who will buy, are poisoners-general; they murder 
his majesty's subjects by wholesale ; neither does their eye pity 
or spare. And what is their gain? Is it not the blood of these 
men? Who would envy their large estates and sumptuous 
palaces? A curse is in the midst of them. The curse of Qod is 



LIQUOR SHOPS A NUISANCE AND A CURSE. 71 

on their gardens, their walks, their groves ; a fire that hums to 
the nethermost hell. Blood, blood is theirs ; the foundation, the 
floor, the walls, the roof, are stained with blood!" 

The Rev. C. H. Spurgeon (in "Sword and Trowel,") says of 
the Gin-palaces, " the fewer of those licensed slaughter-houses , the 
better." 

The Et. Hon. John Bright, in receiving an Alliance Deputa- 
tion, in January, 1870, stated of the liquor traffic, that '' Hitherto 
the law in every Christian, in every civilized country, has 
admitted it to be a business that was as fairly to be carried on as 
any other business." May we not also add, that it is a busi- 
ness that nearly every Christian country has deplored as a curse, 
and which they have anathematized, and occasionally outlawed 
and suppressed. A look at the history of the traffic in this 
country alone, will convince us of this. 

" In the earlier ages of its (Scottish) history, according to 
Hector Boetius, the sellers of strong drink (then chiefly confined 
to mead), were looked upon as public enemies, who made pro- 
vision for the voluptuous pleasures of men rather than for their 
necessities^ and who for profit, generally enticed men to a debauched 
and vicious life. Argadus, administrator of the realm, A.D. 160, 
confiscated their goods, pulled down their houses, and banished 
themselves. Constantino the Second, at a later period, when 
the evil had revived, reenacted this law at Leone, A.D. 861, 
adding the terrible penalty of death, in case the Tavernier 
refused to depart, or resisted the execution of the decree." — Dr. 
Jjees* Prize Essay, p, 78. 

In the reign of Philip and Mary an act was passed suppressing 
in Ireland the traffic in Builcann, a spirit distilled from fer- 
mented black oats. Its manufacture was regarded as a sinful 
and dangerous destruction of the food of the people, and sup- 
pressed accordingly. — Ibid, 

In England, from time to time, attempts have been made to 
suppress, at least in part, this traffic^ and to proscribe it within 
very narrow limits. In the reign of Edward I. (1285) it was 
enacted that taverns should not be open for the sale of wine 
and beer after the tolling of the curfew. In the reign of 
Edward III., only three taverns were allowed in the metropolis. 
This certainly was next door to prohibition. In every period of 
our history, we may add, of the world's history, public drinking 
houses or taverns, have proved themselves a nuisance and a 



72 THE GBEAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

curse. And these houses still retain their ancient character- 
istics, they have grown no better, if anything, worse. Now, as 
of old, they are centres of pollution and dens of infamy, and 
draw together th^ vile of the people, to render them still more 
hopelessly vile ; they are also the means of inflicting the most 
abject misery upon thousands, who otherwise might hare liyed 
Tirtuously, soberly, and godly. 

Testimonials from the highest authorities will show that we 
have not exaggerated the evils of drink and drinking-houses. 

1. — Take the testimony of w teamed divine, the celebrated 
Dr. Thomas Chalmers. He says: — '^ Before God and man, 
before the church and the world, I impeach intemperance; I 
charge it with the murder of innumerable souls. In this country, 
blessed with freedom and plenty, the word of God and the 
liberties of true religion, I charge it as the cause, whatever may 
he the source elsewhere, of almost all the poverty, and almost all 
the crime, and almost all the misery, and almost all the igno- 
rance, and almost all the irreIi;;ion that disgrace and afflict the 
land. I am not mad, most noble Festus, I speak the words of 
truth and soberness. 1 do in my conscience believe that these 
intoxicating stimulants have sunk into perdition more men and 
women, than have found a grave in that deluge which swept over 
the highest hill tops, ingulfing a world, of which but eight were 
saved. As compared with other vices, it may be said of this, 
Saul hath slain his thousands, David his tens of thousands." 

2. — Take the testimony of a celebrated statesman. The 
Bight Hon. W. E. Gladstone, addressing his constituents at 
Wemuth, in 1867, and, after stating that he was not a temper- 
ance man himself, went on to say : ''There was no doubt, 
whatever, that the tendency of excess in drink is a great curse, 
and a great plague to the people of England. Many is the fine 
fellow that is ruined by it *, many is the man that might have 
been among the very best and most useful members of society, if 
it had not been for that one curse and plague.^' ' 

3. — Take the testimony of a great thinker. Goldwin Smith 
g3,yg : — *< It is too clear that tiio rapid extension of the present 
system is threatening the very life of the community, — that it 
is producing a physical and moral pestilence more deadly in the 
deepest sense than any other plague which stalks* the infected 
cities of the east ; that it is bringing great masses of our work- 
ing classes to a self-imposed bondage, more complete and more 



THE TESTIMONY OP A CHURCH CONVOCATION. 73 

degrading than slavery itself; that it is undoing for the people; 
that it is not only filling the present with unspeakahle miserj 
and vice, but blighting the prospects of labor for the future." 

4. — Take the statement of an English bishop. Dr. Temple 
says : — *^ I do not think that it can, for one moment, be denied 
that there is no other evil at present in this country, so deadly in 
it« operation as the drunkenness that prevails among us. Even 
those who altogether oppose all that you are doing, and all that 
I should wish to do^-even those are not prepared to deny what, 
indeed, is the plainest of facts, that far the largest part of all 
the evils which men suffer now, that can be at all prevented by 
human means, comes of the indulgence in this one fearful sin. 
I do not think that I am at all overstating, when I say, that this 
one cause of unhappiness and crime is equal in its bad effects to 
all the other causes put together." — Speech as Chairman of the 
United. Kingdom Alliance Anniversary Meeting^ held in the Free 
Hall, Manchester y October, 1869, 

5. — Take the testimony of a Church Convocation, — ^we refer to 
the report on intemperance of the Lower House of Convocation 
of the province of Canterbury. " The results of intemperance, 
as portrayed in the evidence before your committee, are of the 
most appalling description. In the case of individuals, it is 
shown that loss of health and intellect, decay of strength, disease 
in its most frightful forms, and premature death, are the usual 
products of intemperance; that the temper is soured, the passions 
inflamed, the whole nature brutalized by it — in short, that there 
is no enormity of blasphemy in language, and cruelty in action, of 
which even persons naturally gentle and well conducted, are not 
capable of, and to which they are impelled when under the influ- 
ence of drink. In family life, affections are blunted and oblit- 
erated ; the tenderest relations are outraged and set at nought ; 
children are left without food, clothing, or education, and aban- 
doned or forced to crime by the authors of their being, that the 
means of gratifying the craving for drink may be obtained. 
Husbands are neglected by their wives; wives are subject to 
revolting cruelty and violence; infants are often overlaid and 
killed, and the sin of the parent is visited on a stunted, sickly, 
and debilitated offspring. 

** As to the evils inflicted on society and the nation at large by 
intemperance, these in their nature and amount, as attested in 
the evidence before your committee, are not only harrowing and 
7 



74 TH£ OBEAT KATIOKAL CUBSE. 

bamiliaiing to contemplate, but so many and wide-spread as 
almost to defy computation. In no country, probably, is indul- 
gence in this vice so prevalent as in our own. It may be truly 
said of our body politic, that the whole head is sick, and the 
whole heart faint. And, unless remedies be speedily and 
effectively supplied, consequences the most disastrous to us as a 
people cannot be averted." 

6.*~Take the testimony of an eminent Judge, Says the Lcnrd 
Chief Justice, Sir W. Bovil, in a letter to the Venerable Arch- 
deacon Sanford i-^—" I have no hesitation in stating that in the 
North of England, and in most of the large towns, and the 
manufacturing and mining districts, intemperance is directly or 
indirectly the cause of by far the largest proportion of the crimes 
that have come under my observation. 

'^ Amongst a large class of our population intemperance in early 
life is the direct and immediate cause of every kind of immorality, 
profligacy and vice, and soon leads to the commission of crime. 
It is frequently very painful to find honest and well disposed; 
and hard-working men, who do not belong to the criminal class, 
placed in the dock for serious crimes committed under the in- 
fluence of drink, and who, if they had been in possession of their 
senses, would never have thought of committing such crimes ; 
and still more painful to a judge, to have to sentence such men 
to long terms of imprisonment, to the ruin of themselves and 
families. The cost to the country for the maintenance of the 
prisoners and their families likewise becomes a matter of very 
serious importance. Considering the amount of pauperism as 
well as crime which is thus occasioned, it would seem to be the 
imperative duty, as well as the interest of the state, to endeavor 
to provide some remedy^ which will check so frightful an evil.'' 

7. — Lastly, take the testimony of a noted Brewer, Mr. Charles 
Buxton, M. P., in his pamphlet, " How to Stop Drunkenness," 
says: — *^It would not be too much to say, that if all drinking of 
fermented liquors could be done away, crime of every kind would 
fall to a fourth of its present amount, and the whole tone of 
moral feeling in the lower orders might be indefinitely raised. 
Not only does this vice produce all kinds of wanton mischief, 
but it has also a negative effect of great importance.- It is the 
mightiest of all the forces that clog the progress of good. It is 
in vain that every engine is set to work that philanthropy can 
devise, when those whom we seek to benefit ar«» habitually tarn- 



WORSE TflAIff WAB, F£STILEKCE AND FAMINE. 75 

periDg wltii their faculties of reason and will — soaking their 
brains with, beer, or influencing them with ardent spirits. The 
struggle of the School, the Library, and the Church, all united 
against the beer-house and the gin-palace, is but one development 
of the war between heaven and hell. It is, in short, intoxication 
that fills our gaols — ^it is intoxication that fills our lunatic 
asylums, and it is intoxication that fills onr workhouses with 
poor. Were it not for this one cause, pauperism would be nearly 
extinguished in England. We are convinced that if a statesman 
who heartily wished to do the utmost poesible good to his copntry, 
were thoughtfully to inquire which of the topics of the ftty de- 
served the most intense force of his attention, the true reply — the 
reply which would be exacted by full deliberation — ^would be, that 
he should study the means by which this wortA Qf plagues eon be 
ttayed. The intellectual, the moral, and the religious wel&re of 
our people, their national comforts, their domestic happiness, 
are all involved. The question is, Aether millions of our 
countrymen shall be helped to become happier and wiser — 
whether pauperism, lunacy, disease and crime shall be dimin- 
ished — ^whether multitudes of men, women and children shall 
be aided to escape from utter ruin of body and soul ? But what 
«oe would throw out for consideration is the question, Whether it 
should not be allowed, that when five-sixths of the rate-payers of 
a parish demand the entire extinction of all the places for the 
sale of fermenied liquors, their prayer should be granted, and all 
licenses then existiug should expire, after a fair time had been 
allowed for the publieans to make other arrangements." 

Our proposition states that the drinking system is the greatest 
evil in our land. And where indeed, for villany, immorality, 
and:deetructivene88, shall we find anything comparable to it? 

Its ravages extend down the stream of time coming from the 
barbarous tribes once inhabiting our country, but gathering 
strength, from age to age, until now it threatens to overwhelm us 
with the greatest evils that can menace a people. To the mead- 
drinking Saxons succeeded the wine-drinking Normans, and the 
beer-drinking of the agglomerated races forming the Ens^Hsh 
people. To this was added the drinking of ardent spirits in the 
sixteenth century, and to that again the consumption of various 
kinds of intoxicating liquors, rendered more complicated and 
deadly by the addition of stupefying drugs. 

Intemperance is an evil nwre desolating than war. It is true the 



76 THE GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

ravages of war are terrible, and when its dark thunder cloada 
burst upon a country, woe to the inhabitants thereof. When 
•Mars rides forth in his, blood-red chariot, rapine and violence, 
pestilence and famine, bring up the rear. But the longest and 
most disastrous wars terminate at last, and the people have 
rest. Overthrown cities arise again, and desolated plains wave 
afresh with luxuriant harvests. Not so with intemperance : its 
ravages never cease, whilst all that is horrible and cruel in war, 
the after-pillage, violence, murder, and outrage, are aggravated 
and intensified by intemperance. 

It is an evil more destructive thcen fhe pestilence. When the 
pestilence devastates a land, some of the noblest and most 
heroic virtues which adorn humanity are developed and ex- 
pressed, but strong drink demoralizes and corrupts all who yield 
themselves to its influence. Repeated visitations of the pesti- 
lence — at one time as the terrible plague, then as the sweating 
sickness, or, lastly, as the ghastly cholera — have taught men wi&« 
dom, and by improved sanitary arrangements, and certain sci- 
entific appliances, pestilences have been deprived of their former 
terrors, and their destructive ravages are confined within nar- 
rower bounds, and were it not for its dread ally, intemperance, 
we should have little to fear; but it is strong drink that prepares 
the way for the pestilence, and that adds to its fatality. 

Intemperance is more cruel than famine, for it destroys the food 
that ought to be applied to feed a famine-stricken people. 
Nature is unchangeable within certain narrow limits, and she 
produces sufficient food, though not always equally distributed, 
to meet the wants of all her children. A bad harvest is suc- 
ceeded by a plentiful one, and dearth in one land is balanced by 
superabundant plenty in another. What one country may lack 
another provides. 

"Each climate needs what other climes produce; 
And offers something to the general use; 
No land but listens to the common call, 
And, in return, receives supply from all." 

Man is endowed with intelligence, that he may prepare for the 
occasional fluctuations of nature, and that he may be the dis- 
tributer of that food so amply, if not so uniformly provided, 
conveying it from the land of plenty to the land of dearth. But 
how can this be done, when a fourth part of the food produced 
in certain countries is wantonly destroyed by conversion intc 



IKTEMFERANCE THE MONSTEB EVIL. 77 

intoxicating liqaor. Famines only recnr at rare and distant 
intervals, and are chiefly confined to districts remote from the 
civilized world; hat where intemperance abounds you have a 
chronic famine. Day by day thousands starve, pine, and die, 
because those who ought to provide for them waste their sab- 
stance and expend their means upon intoxicating liquor. 

Intemperance is an evil more demoralizing than slavery. lb 
corrupts the heart, the fountain of human affections, and sinks 
man lower in the scal^of being than slavery of itself can do. 
Its victims, too, are more numerous, and suffer much more 
intensely. The links of this chain eat more deeply into the soul. 

In short, this evil is more destructive to the general well-being 
of society than any other vice, or than all other vices put to- 
gether. For the most part, indeed, other vices and evils spring 
from the drinking system, and their most revolting features are 
borrowed from it. Apart from drinking, they are comparatively 
manageable, or disappear altogether. Gambling, prostitution, 
and other abominations, flourish most luxuriantly, but with the 
luxuriance of the nightshade, where intemperance abounds. 

The drinking system is a more deadly and demoralizing evil 
than the opium plague of the far East. The consumption of 
this drug, indeed, is not confined to the Chinese and Moham- 
medans. Its use, in fact, is very largely extended in this 
country, altogether apart from its legitimate use as a medicine. 
For many years now it has been extensively administered to 
infants by monthly nurses, or by ignorant, idle, and unnatural 
mothers, in the form of Godfrey's Cordial, and other soothing 
syrups. In consequence, thousands of these little ones suffer 
from almost constant narcotism, and are either poisoned out of 
the world ere they have seen the end of their first year, or they 
grow up sickly, with depraved appetites and weakened intel- 
lects, to fall victims in after years to the vice of intemperance. 
It is our conviction, founded on extensive observation, that the 
injury done to the nervous systems of children by the adminis- 
tration of these nostrums, leads, in after years, to the develop- 
ment of the drunkard's appetite, and the misery of the drunkard's 
career. 

The use of opium is also increasing most alarmingly on the 
part of our adult population ; not, as was once stupidly asserted, 
amongst the teetotalers. * We are acquainted with several con- 
firmed cases of opium eaters. Some take it in the form of 
7* 



78 THE GREAT NATIONAL CURSE. 

parejB^oric elixir, others in the form of laudanum, and some, again^ 
gulping down the solid drug. It is no doubt used excessively in 
adulterating beer nnd ale. 

Dr. Fereixa says: — "There is great reason to believe that the practice 
of opium-eating is very common in this country among the lower, as well 
as the middle classes. The consumption of opium is very great, and 
wholly disproportionate to the quantity required for medicinal purposes. 
From an official report just published (1853), it appears that during the 
last five months the enormous quantity of G3,384 lbs. had been imported 
into the country, the quantity for the last month was 9,699 lbs." — Materia 
Mediea. 

Says Dr. Alfred Taylor io the Timet (1864). speaking of certain dis« 
triots not remarkable for temperance, and referring more particularly to 
Korthampton, Plymouth, and Merthyr-Tydvil : — "Immense quantities 
are sent into these districts, and the retail druggists often dispense as 
much as 200 lbs. of laudanum' a year. In one district the average 
annual oonsumption is calculated to be at least 100 grains of opium per 
head. It is sold in penny sticks or pills ; and a well accustomed shop 
will serve 300 or 400 customers on Saturday night. A man in South 
Lancashire complained that his wife had spent £100 in opium since she 
was married." 

These are sad disclosures, and it would seem we are in danger 
of being inundated with the ravages of opium-eating, even as wo 
are now with the ravages of alcohol-drinking. The same law 
of narcotics — that use generates abuse — governs both practices, 
as well as tobacco-smoking. Whether the late Act to Regulate 
the sale of Poisons, which came into force on January 1st, 1869, 
has had any effect in checking this evil, we have not yet been 
able to ascertain. 

As a warning to our readers, we shall now describe the effect 
of opium-eating upon the Chinese, they being more addicted to 
this vice than perhaps any other nation. 

The Alliance American Commissioner (Dr. Lees), writes to 
the AUiance Kews^ under date November 27th, 1869, as follows : 
''At Chinese camp, in California, I took pains to go among 
the Chinese, not only to their shops, where I saw many buying 
opium, but to their homes, where I saw them smoking it. I 
also visited an hospital, and saw two men dying of the atrophy 
which the habit brings on. It was a sorrowful scene of ' death- 
in-life.' Already dead to all work, all emotion, all thought. I 
saw a few gleams of memory light up their parched faces and 
dulled eyes as, in smoking the drugs at intervals, tliey doubtless 



THE EFFECTS OF OPIUM-EATING. 79 

thought themselves once more in the far, familiar home which 
they would never again behold I And yet this baneful habit 
does not produce the horrible effects of alcohol — does not so 
endanger society, and disturb the foundations of govemment| 
because it does not so disturb, demoralize, and xdemonize the 
soul." 

In the British and Foreign Medical Review, (vol. iv. p. 394), 
Br. Oppenheim thus describes the effects of opium-eating upon 
the inhabitants of Turkey and Persia : 

" The causea leading to the use of opium are many, Mid among them 
may be reckoned the following: — Long continued diarrhoBa, as a remedy 
for w^ich opium is used in the first instance, and its use afterwards con- 
tinued from habit [no craving;] chronic coughs, in which opium is also 
used as a popular remedy; habitual drunkards also Jreqfunily hcm^ 
recourse to opium as a new stimulus, after they have abjured wine in a fit 
of repentance. Persons holding high offices, or dignities in the state, have 
also recourse to opium, when the preservation of their character forbids 
them the use of wine ; some very strict believers also take opium as a 
restorative in cases of great exertion, as the Tartars {couriers), who travel 
with astonishing celerity. Opinm-eaters generally begin with doses of 
from half a grain to two grains, and gradually increase the quantity till 
it amounts to two drachms, and sometimes more, a day ; they usually take 
the opium in pills, hut avoid drinking any water after having swallowed 
them, as this is said to produce violent colic. To make it more palatable, 
it is sometimes mixed with syrups, or thickened juices; but in this form 
it is less intoxicating, and resembles mead ; it is then taken with a spoon, 
or is dried in small cakes, with the words Mash AUah, ' the work of God,' 
imprinted on them. 

" The habitual opium-eater, is instantly, recognized hy his appearance. 
A total attenuation of body, a withered, yellow countenance, a lame gait, 
a bending of the spine, frequently to such a degree as to assume a cir- 
cular form, and glassy, deep-sunken eyes, betray him at the first glance. 
The digestive organs are in the highest degree disturbed; the sufferer 
eats scarcely anything, and has hardly one evacuation in a week; his 
mental and bodily powers are destroyed — ^he is impotent. By degrees, 
as the habit becomes more confirmed, his strength continues decreasing, 
the craving for the stimulus becomes ever greater, and to produce the desired 
effect, the dose mv^t be constantly augmented. When the dose of two or 
three drachms a day no longer produces the beatific intoxication so eagerly 
sought hy the opiophagi, they mix the opium with corrosive sublimate, in- 
creasing the quantity till it reachesv to ten grains a day ; it then acts as 
a stimulant. After long indulgence the opium-eater becomes subject to 
nervous or neuralgic pains to which opium itself brings no relief. These 
people seldom attain the age oj forty, if they have begun to eat opium at 
an early age. The fasts in the month Eamadan are for them fraught with 



80 THE GREAT NATIONAL CUBSE. 

the most dreadful tortures, as during the whole of that month l^ej are 
not allowed to take anything daring the day. It is said that to assuage 
their sufferings they swallow, before the morning prayer, besides the usual 
dose, a certain number of other doses wrapped up in particular papers, 
having previously calculated the time when each envelope shall be un- 
folded, and allow the pill to produce the effects of their usual allowance. 
When thia hanejvl habit hat been confirmed, it is almost impos8iJ>le to break 
it off; the torments of the opium-eater when deprived of this stimulant, 
are as dreadful as his bliss is complete when be has taken it; to him night 
brings the torments of hell, day the bliss of paradise. Those who do make 
the attempt to discontinue the use of opium, usually mix it with wax, and 
daily diminish the quantity of the opium, till the pill at last contains 
nothing but wax." 

The opium curse is indeed great and terrible) and in the con- 
fessions of English opium-eaters, to wit, Be Quincey and 
Coleridge, we may form some idea of the miseries it inflicts upon 
its victims; first beguiling them with pleasant reveries, then 
enchaining them in hopeless slavery, and finally inflicting upon 
them indescribable torments. But great and terrible though 
this curse be, it must yield the palm to the still greater and more 
terrible curse of our drinking system. Where opium lulls the 
passions, alcohol arouses them, and where opium brings prostra- 
tion and inanition, alcohol urges on to deeds of violence and 
murder. 



BACCHUS DETHSONED. 61 



CHAPTER II. 

TDK DIETXTIC YALUK OF ALCOHOLIC BIYSK AGIS. 

Prop. IL — *^That all intoxicating liquors are perfectly useless for 
every purpose of life, as articles of dieL^^ 

Is alcohol food? This is now the great qaestion before us, 
and in seeking its solution, we must inquire— What is Food? 
and then — Does alcohol answer to this reply ? 

Any substance coutaining the elements of which the human 
body is composed, in such a state of combination that the body 
can appropriate them, is food. If then we take up any sub- 
stance, we must seek to ascertain these two things : — 1st, Does 
it contain those elements of which the body is composed? And 
2d, Does it possess them in such a state that the body can use 
them? Now to ascertain this, we must inquire, (1) Of what is 
the body composed ? (2) What are those physiological changes 
which render food necessary ? And (3) Does chemical analysis, 
carefully conducted experiment, and experience conjoined, attest 
that any substance called '^food'^ fulfils the necessities required? 

Ist — The human body, examined chemically, is found to be 
composed of a variety of compound substances, each of which is 
capable of being reduced to simpler forms. We find albumen 
in the blood and nerve matter, which when analyzed gives pro- 
tein ten parts, sulphur two parts, and phosphorus one part; 
fibrine found in the muscles and in the blood, gives protein ten 
parts, sulphur one part, and phosphorus one part. The protein 
again may be ultimately resolved into carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, 
and hydrogen, combined in different proportions. 

Fat is found in the blood, and in the cells of the adipose tissues, 
giving rotundity and comeliness to the body. Proximate an- 
alysis shows this substance to be composed of stearine, oleine 
and margarine; while ultimate analysis resolves it into the 
simple elements — carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 

Gelatine is found in the cartilaginous tissues, but not in the 
blood. 



82 DIETETIC VALUE OP ALCOnOLIC BEVEBAGE3. 

» 

The body also contains water, which can be resolved into 
oxj!];en and hydrogen. The body, in fact, is mainly composed of 
water. A man weighing 154 S>s. will be composed of about 88 lbs. 
water, and only 66 fibs, of solid material. Water enters into the 
formation of all the tissues, and without it the body would 
crumble to atoms. The blood contains about 80 parts water, 
which is the yehicle for conveying to the different tissues those 
nutritive products they from time to time require, and for 
removing those obnoxious products of waste which must be 
thrown out of the body as fast as formed. 

We also find in the blood a variety of earthy and saline mat- 
ters, as phosphate of lime forming the principal part of the 
earthy matters of bone. Silica found in the nails, hair, and 
enamel of teeth \ carbonate of lime also entering into the com- 
position of bone *, peroxide of iron existing in the red globules of 
the blood. There is also creatine and creatinine contained in 
the flesh ; they are nitrogenous derivatives of flesh, and resemble 
in their nature, quinine. There is also to be found chloride of 
Bodium, or common salt; sulphate of potash; sulphate of soda; 
and other saline ingredients. In fact, one gallon of blood con- 
tains 420 grains of saline matter. 

Such then are the materials of the human body; and any 
article claiming to be food must contain one or more of those 
Rubstances entering into its composition, or it must contain those 
elements which ^o to form them, in such a state of combination 
that the body can appropriate them. It is not what goes into 
the mouth that nourishes a man ; but what the stomach can 
digest, and the body work up into its own structure. Now it is 
a sine qua non^ that the mineral ingredients be in a state of com- 
bination either with animal or vegetable products, in order that 
the human body may appropriate them. Vegetables may thrive 
upon the raw material, but animals cannot. There is but one 
exception to this rule, and that is salt. We read indeed of 
certain people possessing very curious appetites for certain crude 
products, that have not yet been transformed either into animals 
or vegetables. Sometimes they eat coal (carbon), sometimes 
slate-pencil (silica), etc?. But they don't improve upon this diet j 
nay, rather, they become thin and waste away. 

We know of but one perfect typical diet, milk. One pound 
weight of which contains 13| ozs. of water, J oz. of mineral mat- 
ters, f oz. of sugar, i oz. of butter, } oz. of caseine, a substance 



PHTSIOLOGICAL CHAKOEIi. 88 

• 

analo^as to albumen. In fact, it contains all the elements the 
body reqaires, and, withal, in such a form that the body can 
readily appropriate them. 

2d. — We inquire what are those physiological operations 
going on within the body, necessitating and indicating food? 

The first is that of combustion. By means of this process 
the body is preserved at a given temperature, 98° Fahrenheit, 
whatever the external temperature may be. Tou may place a 
man in a room heated to 300°, only supply him with plenty of 
water and atmospheric air to breathe, and he will neither bake 
nor burn; but the internal parts of his body will still indicate a 
temperature of 98°. Or place him upon a field of ice amid polar 
snows, only supply him with an abundance of fatty food, and 
though the thermometer may indicate 20° below sero, yet will 
the body internally still give 98°. 

This process of combustion is carried on in the lungs, and in 
the cellular membranes and ultimate tissues of the body; in fact, 
there is no portion of the body where it is not being continuously 
carried on. 

Another process is that of (usimilation, by which the body 
^orks up into its own tissues, food which is fitted for that end. 

Another process is that of d4^integration^ or the pulling down 
process. 

These processes are continually being carried on in the body. 
We cannot conceive an idea, speak a word, or move a muscle, 
but we wear away some portion of this delicate and complicated 
machine. The involuntary movements going on within are also 
a source of constant change. As the constant dropping of water 
wears away the stone, so the constant friction arising from the 
action of our nervous and muscular power is continually wearing 
away the body. To repair this constant waste, it is necessary 
that the system appropriate fresh material, and build it up into 
its own tissues. These changes, called meiamorphasis, are so 
extensive and incessant, that in about seven years we must have 
a bran new body, no single particle of our former structure 
remaining. 

Dr. E. Lankester calculates that a human being loses about 
the fortieth part of bis weight every day, and on that reckoning, 
the. vital organs are renewed every forty days. 

Disintegration is more active during the day; assimilation^ 
during the repose of slumber. 



84 DiirrETic value op alcoholic beyebag^. 

It appears to us that the particles forming the human body 
can only remain a certain time in a healthy -condition. Any- 
thing, then, retarding these changes, or hastening one and 
retarding the other, must prove inimical to the health and vigor 
of the body. 

Another essential process is elimination^ called also depu- 
ration, whioh is a throwing out from the body of those worn out 
particles, the retention of which become a nuisance, and a 
source of danger. As disintegration goes on, albuminous strao- 
tures are resolved into lithate of ammonia, and the gelatinous 
into lactate of urea. Now these are poisonous, and if suffered to 
remain in the circulation beyond a certain time, they poison as 
certainly as though they had been introduced into the system 
from without Ucea, for example, is a brain-poison. If its 
excretion by the kidneys is checked, as. in some cases of typhus, 
it rises to the head, and circulates through the brain; the breath 
smells of it, the patient sinks into a profound stupor, and dies 
comatose, poisoned with urea. If lithate of ammonia be retained, 
not only may it resolve itself into lithic acid, but also into 
certain combinations of cyanogen, that act as subtle poisons. 
From this we see how important it is that no check should be 
placed upon the natural and vigorous performance of the pro- 
cesses of elimination. That the body may be thoroughly cleansed 
from all impurities, the body is provided with a perfect sewer- 
age system. In this respect it resembles a town, the sanitary 
arrangements of which are complete. The sewerage pipes are 
the veins, and the outlets are the bowels, kidneys, skin, and 
lungs. Every moment of our existence nature is engaged in 
burning up, or throwing out the different products of disintegra- 
tion, thereby keeping the body aweetj healthy^ and pure. 

Now to build up the tissues, to support combustion, etc., 
three kinds of food are needed. 1. Tissue-forming foods, 2. 
Heat-giving foods. 3. Auxiliary foods ; or such as aid the funo- 
tions of the other two. 

Class I., or Tissue-forming foods, include all articles of diet 
containing nitrogen; as, albumen, fibrine, and caseine. These 
are also called the protein compounds, proteine being the sub- 
stance common to them all. Albumen has this peculiarity: it 
cannot be formed in the body save from a protein compound ; 
so that it is impossible to transmute water, fat, starch, or sugar, 
which do not contain it, into muscular and nervous tissue. 



HEAT-GIVIKO FOODS. 85 

Class II^ or Heat-giving foods, inclade substances which, by 
combustion, are the source of heat, such as starch, sugar, fat, or 
oil. (These are sometimes called carbonaceous compounds.*) In 
the body, heat is generated in the same way, essentially, as in the 
burning of a coal fire, or of a tallow candle. For instance, the 
fat of tallow is composed of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, while 
the cotton wick contains also some ash. These form a compound, 
locking up, as it were, in reserye, caloric or latent heatf Now 
in order to liberate that latent heat, you must reduce that com- 
pound into simpler, and lower forms of matter.^ The intensity 
of the heat evolved depends upon the energy of the combusiive 
process. Now apply flame to the wick of the candle, and com* 
bnstion at once begins* The oxygen of the air in part combines 
with the hydrogen of the tallow, and forms water, (as you can 
test for yourselves, by holding a cold tumbler over the flame); 
while other oxygen of the air combines with the carbon, and 
forms carbonic-acid-gas. (This also you can test thus : — Put an 
inverted bottle over your burning candle and allow the flame to 
burn toithin the bottle till it goes out for want of air. Withdraw 
the candle, and fasten up your bottle secure, with a cork, in 
which you have previously placed a quill, the end of which was 
stopped with a little plug. Have some lime-water prepared; 
remove your plug ; insert a funnel, and immediately pour in the 
lime-water. This will immediately become milky, and after 
standing a short time, an insoluble substance, carbonate of lime 
[cAaZA;], will fall to the bottom. How are we to account for this 
change? Why, the carbon of the carbonic-acid produced from 
the carbon of the candle and the oxygen of the air, unites with 
the lime, oxygen flies ofi^, and chalk is the product which remains.) 
In the wick the same process goes on, but, as it contains earthy 
materials, these, instead of flying off, remain in the form of a 
black ash, which we remove from time to time with a pair of 
sntiffers. Thus the candle, a compound substance, is entirely 
changed; its elements being separated and transformed into 
lower and simpler forms of matter, in the course of which changes, 
light and heat are given out.^f 

* AH organic sabst-anees aXike contain carbon, which in fact is the skeleton- 
matter of them ; hence this name is a misnomer. — Ed. 

f Strictly speaking, there is no such thing. Heat is matter in motion— i. e., a 
form of force. — Ed. 

X What really happens is, that the force of chemical cohesion is transformed 
into Tnotion, — JBd. 

f To drop metaphorical language, we should say, thcte very chnnga e^Ud 
emnbtutiont {nrodace the sensationi called light and neat.— Ed. 

8 



86 DIETETIO VALUE OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. 

Kow the same kind of process is carried on in the body as in 
the burning of the candle; but it is less yigorous, and more 
graduated. The lighted candle has a temperature of 700°, the 
human body 98° only. We take the fael-foods into our body, 
and they are oxidized (or burnt ofiT) partly in the lungs, and 
partly in the capillaries, or fine blood-vessels oi the body. As 
the process of breathing in oxygen goes on, our fuel-food obvi- 
ously undergoes a change, for we never see it in the same form 
again ; it passes away, by breath &nd transpiration, in the form 
of vapor and carbonic-acid-gas, thus maintaining the temper- 
ature of the body. Of this completeness of the parallel we may 
assure ourselves at any time, by breathing upon polished metal, 
or a piece of glass, when we see the vapor ; and by breathing 
into a bottle containing lime-water, when exactly the same change 
will take place as from the carbonio-acid-gas of the candle. 

There is a secondary kind of fuel-food. Every particle of 
tissue pulled down by the disintegrating process, is a source of 
animal-heat ; for where the albuminous and gelatinous structures 
are resolved into the lower forms, heat and force result ; so that 
in all the minute cells of the body the process of combustion 
is going on. The ash left behind, — the mineral matters of the 
food, which can be resolved neither into vapor nor gas, — are re- 
moved from the body by the operation of the kidneys and bowels. 

Class III., or Auxiliary foods. The matters coming under 
this head are very numerous — water, common salt {chloride of 
sodium,) which is found in the blood in the proportion of three 
drachms to one gallon. Its great function is to hold fibrine and 
albumen in solution, and to aid the absorption of fluids into the 
system. Probably also it produces the chlorine of the hydro- 
chloric acid of the gastric juice : — thus playing a most impor- 
tant part in the animal economy. Then there is peroxide of iron, 
80 necessary to the vitality of the blood. There are also all 
those mineral products that form the ash of plants and animals.* 

* Food may be also classified according to the proportion in which the dif- 
ferent dietetic principles are foand in it. (1.) Agueotu; as water, and tea, and 
coffee, because they consist almost entirely of water. (2.) An^laceout; con- 
taining a large proportion of starch, as rice, potato, sago, arrowroot, etc. Sae- 
eharine ; containing a large proportion of sugar; as beet-root, carrot, sugar, etc. 
The amylaceous and saccharine contain about 40 or 50 per cent, of carbon- 
aceous maiter. (3.) Oleaginous ; con taining a large proportion of oil.-^as cocoa, 
bacon, butter, etc. These contain from 70 to 80 per cent of combustible 
matter. (4.) Fibrinotu ; containing a large proportion of fibrine ; as the cereals, 
and cooked flesh, meat, etc. (A.) Catein<nu; containing a large proportion 



r _ 

ALCOHOL KEITHER FORMS FLESH NOB GIVES HEAT. 87 

Having explained the nature of food/' and classified it, we are 
now prepared to inquire — Is alcohol food? To those who answer, 
Yes! we ask them, please point out the class to which it belongs? 

1. — Is alcohol a flesh-forming food f Uncomplimentary science 
declares, No! It contains no nitrogen, and cannot therefore 
nourish the muscular and nervous tissues. 

Baron Liebig says : — *' Beer, wine, spirit, etc., famish no ele- 
ment CAPABLE of entering into the composition of blood, mus- 
cular fibre, or any part which is the seat of the vital principle." 

Dr. W. B. Carpenter says: — "Alcohol cannot supply anything 
which is essential to the due nutrition of the tissues." — Manual 
of Physiology, 4th ed., 1865, p. 327. 

Dr. Lionel Beale, F. R. S., Physician to King*s College Hos- 
pital, and an eminent Microscopist, says: — ** Alcohol does not 
act as food ; it does not nourish tissues ; it may diminish waste by 
altering the consistence and chemical properties of fluid and 
solids. It cuts short the life of rapidly growing cells, or causes 
them to live more slowly. Thc remedies which act favorably, 

REALLY SEEM TO ACT, NOT BY INCREASING VITAL POWER, BUT BY DS- 
CREASINQ THE RATE AT WHICH VITAL CHANQES ARE PROCEEDING."* 

Hence we see, that while alcohol is not a tissue-forming food, 
it retards the nutrition of the body. 

2. — Is alcohol a fuel-food f Again science declares. No I for 
it contains no fat, no starch, and ito sugar. " But," says an ob- 
jector, ^* it must act as a fuel-food because it contains elements 
which enter into the composition of fuel-foods, as carbon and 
hydrogen." Truel so do certain corrosive mineral acids, but 
who would attempt to use them as fuel foods, for instead of acting 
as fuel to the body they would convert it into fuel by burning up 
its tissues. Alcohol, instead of acting as fuel in the body, con- 
verts it into fuel. James Heygate, M. D., F. R. S., says : — " I 
have often said that brandy ought never to have left the apothe- 
cary*8 shop . . . When used as an ordinary drink, not even in 
very great excess, I know of no agent so destructive to the tissues 
of the body. Brandy drinkers are notoriously short-lived."—' 
Brit, Med. Journal, Nov, 9thj 1862. 

Again, though alcohol contains carbon and hydrogen elements, 

of caseine, as the leguminous plants, pears, milk, cheese, etc. The Fibrinous 
and Caseinbus are rich in nitrogen, and are therefore valuable as flesh- 
formers. 

*For many other testimonies, to the same effect, see Doetort, Drug$, and 
Drink, by Dr. F. R. Lees. 



88 DIETETIC VALUE OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. 

it does not contain them in such a state of combination that 
the body can readily and innocently appropriate them. 

If alcohol was /i fuel-food, we should reasonably expect to find 
that when taken internally, it would increase, or at least, not 
diminish, the exhalation of water, and of carbonic-acid-gas, these 
being the products of combustion ; and that it would also main- 
tain the temperature of the body at 98°. But such is not the 
case. The amount of water and of carbonic-acid-gas passing 
away from the lungs is lessened, and the temperature of the 
body is (generally) somewhat lowered, and often remarkably so* 
— See Chapter III, 

Dr. £. Smith says : — ^' The action of the skin is lessened. It 
(alcohol) neither warms nor sustains the body, (though) the 
sensation of warmth is increased.'' 

Dr. Yierordt, of Carlsruhe, says, as the result of experiment: 
— " The expiration of carbonic acid, after the (moderate) use of 
formented tViquoraj is considerably diminished, and does not re-* 
turn to its normal quantity for the space of two hours." Alcohol, 
then, is not a fuel-food ; for instead of aiding combustion and 
maintaining the heat of the body up to its healthy standard, it 
retards combustion and lowers temperature. 

3. — Is alcohol an auxiliary food f Science and experience 
alike answer, No I It cannot take the place of water. For though 
water, like alcohol, is not traosformed in the body, but is elimi-* 
nated unchanged, it is a necessary part of the body, and -enters 
extensively into the formation of all the tissues ; it is also neces- 
sary for the carrying on of all the vital processes. Now, as Dr. 
Lees has observed, all that water is to the body, alcohol /« not. 
For the body strives to get rid of it as quickly as possible by 
every available outlet. Dr. Carpenter thus shows the uses of 
water in the animal economy. *^ It is water which holds the 
organizable materials of the blood either in solution or suspen- 
sion, and thus serves to convey them through the minutest capil- 
lary pores into the substance of the solid tissues. It is watet* 
which, mingled in various proportions with the solid compo- 
nents of the various textures, gives ,to them the consistence 
they require ; and it is water which takes up the products of 
their decay and conveys them, by a most complicated system op 
SEWAGE, altogether out of the system . . . No other liquid can 
SUPPLY ITS PLACE; and the deprivation of water is felt even more 
severely than the deprivation of food . . . Alcohol cannot answer 



ALCOHOL NOT AN AUXILIABT FOOD. 



89 



any one of those important purposes for which the use of voter 
is required in the system ; whilst, on the other hand, it tends to 
ANTAGONIZE If ANT OF THOSE PURPOSES hy its powBT of precipitat- 
ing most of the organic compounds whose solution in water is 
essential to their appropriation by the living body." 

Neither can alcohol take the place of salt This substance 
exists in the blood of all animals, whether they take it in its 
pure state or not. It is also to be found in most foods ; but 
alcohol forms no portion of natural food ; neither can it be de- 
tected in the blood unless it has been imbibed as alcohol, and 
then it appears and acts as a foreign agent, and a general dis- 
turber of the vital functions. Salt variously aids digestion ; it 
provides chlorine for the hydrochloric acid of the gastric juice, 
and combines with that acid to increase its dissolving power. 
Alcohol never acts thus. On the contrary, it retards digestion 
by hardening the food in the stomach, and by arresting the 
chemical action of the gastric juice.* 

Neither can alcohol take the place of potash, or of peroxide of 

iron: — both found in the blood, and necessary to its proper 

oxidation. Take away potash from the food, and scurvy is the 

result ; take away iron, and wasting, and anaemia ensue. But 

* Says Di. Dandas Thompson : — "It is a remarkable fact, that alcohol, when 
added to the digestive fluicf, produces a white precipitate, so that the fluid la 
no longer capable of digesting animal or vegetable matter." Says Todd and 
Bowman : — *^The use of a'coholic stimulants retards digestion by coagula- 
ting the pepaine (an essential element of the gastric juice), and thereby inter- 
fering with its action — were it not that wine and spirits are rapidly absorbed, 
the introduction of these into the stomach, in any quantity, would be a com- 
plete bar to the digestion of the food, as the pepsine would be precipitated 
from solution as quickly as it was formed by the stomach." — This fact is 
fully attested by the experiments of Dr. Munroe, F.L.S., who had bottlea 
containing finely minced beef, with gastric juice taken from a caifs stomach. 
In one little the gastric juice was mixed with water; in another with 
alcohol; and in a third with pale ale. The temperature was maintained at 
100°, and the contents were churned, to imitate the movements of the 
stomach during the process of digestion. The following table gives the result: 



Finely minced 
beet 



I. 

Gastric juice and 

water. 

IL 

Gastric juice and 
alcohol. 

III. 

Gastric juice and 
pate ale. 



2d 
Hour. 



Beef 
becomes 
opaque. 



No 

alteration 

perceptible. 



No change. 



4th 
Hour. 



Digesting 

and 
separating. 

Slightly 
opaque but 
beef un- 
changed. 



Cloudy with 
fur on beef. 



6th 
Hour. 



Beef 

much 

lessened. 

Slight 
coating 
on beef. 



Beef 

partly 
loosened. 



8th 
Hoiir. 



Broken 
up into 
shreds. 

No 
visible 
change. 



No 

further 
change. 



iOth 
Hour. 



Dissolved 
like soap. 



Beef solid 
on cooling; 

pepsine 
precipitated. 

No diges- 
tion ; on cool- 
ing, pepsine 
precipitated. 



8* 



90 DIETETIC VALUE OP ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. 

alcohol retards the oxidation of the blood. Prof. Miller Bays i 
** Prout and others have experimentally ascertained that less 
carbonic acid than nsual is evoked during the presence of alcohol 
in the blood, and that that fluid is decidedly darker than in 
persons untainted by the poison. It woald almost seem as if 
alcohol, circulating in the blood to a considerable extent, sus- 
pended for the time the chemico-yital processes proper to the 
fluid in its normal state. Thus the oxidation of the phosphorus 
of waste tissue is sometimes so interrupted by alcohol, that the 
body of the drunkard smells of phosphorus, his breath presents 
a yisible phosphorescence, and his urine is luminous in the 
dark," — ** k/coAoZ, its place and power, ''^ 

Alcohol, then, is not food ; for it neither warms nor nourishes 
the body, nor aids in doing so. In fact, it possesses no one of 
the great distinctive features of an aliment, and the body always 
treats it as a foreign irritating substance, to be got rid of as soon 
as possible. 

A distinctive feature of food is, that it is used np in the body, 
and never reappears in the same form. Having passed through 
various changes in the body, and having, by these changes pro- 
duced force and heat, it is reduced into lower and simpler forms 
of matter, which are thrown out of the body as carbonic acid, and 
urea, etc. Now the experiments of Lallemand, Perrin, and Duroy, 
and of Dr. £. Smith, prove that little, if any alcohol, is troM* 
formed in the body ; and that some of it is driven out in exactly 
the same form as it entered. By means of the chromic acid 
test, which is good when rightly applied, ihej were enabled to 
detect alcohol unchanged in aU the different excreta^ during many 
hours after its imbibition in moderate quantities ; but in no 
instance were they able to detect its derivatives, aldehyde and 
acetic acid. It is true, M. Lallemand states, that acetic acid is 
sometimes produced in the stomach from the transformation of 
alcohol by tho gastric juice; but Dr. E. Smith calls this in. 
question — " The presence of Increased acidity in the stomach is 
very comraonf quite apart from the use of alcohols, and follows 
the use of anything which disturbs the digestion ] it is not, how- 
ever, produced from such agencies, but is secreted more abun- 
dantly under their influence.* It is by no means common to have 
any evidence of the presence of increased acidity in the stomach 
after the ordinary use of alcohols, and hence it is, on that mode 

* An important distinction, which also applies to the formation of fiit in 
drinkers. — Ed. 



FOISOKED WATEB. 91 

of reasooing, fiir more likely that, when it occars, it is produced, 
not from the transformation of the alcohol, but from the process 
by which the acidity occurs in the ordinary conditions where 
alcohol is absent" — Brit. Med. Journal, Nov. 2d, 1861. 

The following are Mr. Perrin's final conclnsions: — "Alcohol 
may unreseryedly be stated not to be an aliment, because — Ist, 
it exists anchanged in the blood ) 2d, no trace of its transform- 
ation or destruction ean be discovered ; 3d, it is eliminated 
unchanged by all the excretory organs ; 4tb, the phenomena it 
gives rise to, in whatever do$fe taken, its accumulation in the 
nervoas system, and its well known toxical and pathogenic 
action, demonstrates it to be a modifier of nervous force, and 
negatives the alimentary character atitibtUed to it;* 5th, the objeo* 
tion drawn from the inability to reproduce the total quantity 
taken, cannot be received by physiologists. At most, this shows 
that some portion becomes lost daring the peregrination of the 
alcohol through the economy, but it in no wise proves that it has 
been burnt or destroyed.*' 

Dr. Markham sums up as follows : — " It (alcohol) is, to all 
intents, a vorbion aoent, which the bodt gets rid or as soon 
AS IT CAN. . . Alcohol is not a supporter of combustion. Part, 
probably the whole of it, escapes from the body ; and none of it, 
80 far as we know, is assimilated. It is, therefore, not a food in 
the age of science."— J5rt<. Med. Journal^ Nov. 23c?, 1861. 

We will now consider some of the more plausible objections 
urged against our positions by the defenders of the bottle. 

1. — " Though alcohol be not in itself a food, yetthe beverages contain- 
ing it are, since they contain water, holding in solution a considerable 
amount of nuritive aliment." 

True, these beverages contain water, but it is poisoned water, 
and stands related to the animal economy as sewage water, 
which, of course, we should never think of drinking. We do not 
then object to the water as water, but as water impregnated with 
poison. It is also true that these beverages hold in solution 
certain nutritive material, in very minute quantities ; not at all 
sufficient to rank them among the foods. Homoeopathy may do 
very well when applied to medicine, but it wont at all answer 
when applied to food. For where is the person that can live 
npon infinitesimal portions of aliment? 

* In all definitions of food, this condition must be considered. It mu«t bo 
innocent — Ez>. 



92 DIETETIO VALUB OF ALOOHOLIO BETEBAOES. 

Dr. £. Lankester says :— '^'Beer contains bat one per cent of 
natritive matter, and is, therefore, not a thing to be taken for 
nutrition at all." 

Dr. £. Johnson says: — '^ If yon evaporate a i^lass of wine on a 
shallow plate, whatever solid matter it contains will be left dry*, 
and this will be found to answer to about as much as may be 
laid on the extreme point of a pen*knife blade ; and a portion, 
by no means all, bat a portion of this solid matter I will readily 
concede, is capable of nourishing the body — a portion which is 
about equal to one-third of the flour contained in a single grain 
of wheat** 

Prof. Lyon Play fair says : — '^ 100 parts of ordinary beer or 
porter contains 9*5 parts of solid matter, of which only 0*6 parts, 
[half of one part] consists of flesli-forminc; matters ; or, in other 
words, it takes 1,666 parts of ordinary beer or porter to obtain 
one parjt of nourshing matter. . . Beer is not taken as a beverage 
for its nutritious ingredients, but wholly for its alcohol."* Of 
barley, from which beer is manufactured, he thus speaks: — '* A 
good specimen of barley-meal, with its husks mixed, I found to 
contain as mitch as 14 Ws, of albumen^ or flesh-forming principle^ 
in every 100 lbs,, while the substances adapted to support the 
body amounted to 68 fts. in the 100 fts. 

Baron Liebig informs us that, **730 gallons of the best Bavar- 
ian beer contains exactly as much nourishment as a 5 &». loaf, 
or 3 ft>8. of beef." So that if a man consume daily 8 quarts of 
beer, he will in the course of a year have imbibed as much 
nourishment from that source, as can be obtained in a 6d. loaf, 
or 2s. of beef.f Now to make the above quantity of beer, 
1,200 fts. of barley must be converted into malt, and destroyed ; 
a quantity sufficient to feed two men for a whole year! Further; 
this nutritive aliment, small as it is, is presented to us in its 
very worst form. The extractive matter of beer consists prin- 
cipally of gum, which the stomach can only very partially digest 
If you give a person 40 grains of gum you can detect 38 grains 
of it unchanged in the foeces. And then this extractive, contains, 
besides all the adulterating ingredients, most of which are 
highly deleterious, and the whole is saturated with alcohol. In 
fine, beer and wine contain very small quantities of nutritive 
material, and that corrupted and poisoned. 

• See Dr. Mackenzie's Condensed Temperance Facts for Christiana. 
t See Dr. Lee's Glass of pale ale, (1866.) 



NO POISOK IN POOD. 93 

2.^-" If we reject intoxicating liquors on accoant of kba alcohol ihej 
contain, we must also, if consistent, abstain from tfa« use of bread, as it 
also contains alcohol." 

Well-baked bread does not contain any aloobol. Daring the 
process of doagh-fermentation, a small quantity of alcohol is 
formed ; so small, indeed, as to be scarcely appreciable. This, 
however, is so completely expelled during the process of baking 
by .the heat of the oven, that in a loaf of well-baked bread, not 
even a trace of alcohol can be detected.* 

8. — " Many useful articles of diet contain poison, and if we reject intoxi- 
cating liquors on that account, we ought also to reject those." 

Water is cited as an example, and the objectors inform ns that we can- 
not drink any quantity of cold water without swallowing down a whole 
menagerie of animalculse, and a whole nursery of microscopic plants. 

Now, if water indeed contains poison, we at least don't drink 
it on that account, but try to secure it as pure as possible. Not so 
with the drinkers. They drink intoxicating liquor solely hmctuse 
of the contained poison, and were we to distil out the poison, 
they would not touch the liquor. Moreover, the animalculse, and 
microscopic plants (as oxytricha^ paracemium, filaments of conr 
fervoe, and stems of authcsphysce) are no^ poisonous ; nay, 'for 
anything we know, they may be as wholesome food as beef and 
potatoes. Gold fish, at any rate, can live a considerable time 
upon tlienu These animalculse and plants, however, indicate 
the presence of organic matter, in a state of putrescence or fer- 
mentation in the water, and it is here where the precise danger 
lies. But as we are taught by instinct to abstain from putrid 
meat, and decomposing vegetables, so are we taught to reject 
water containing them. Again : ordinary food does not contain 
poison, though, of course they contain the elements. Salt, for 
instance, contains chlorine, a suffocating gas, and sodium, a 
poisonous mineral *, but salt is neither chlorine nor sodium. 

* Dr. E.Lankester says: — "From my own experimental conclude that 
the alcohol formed is exceedingly smalt. I have taken dough and fermented 
it,and pat it into aves!>iel, and tried toascertain thequantity of carbonic-^ cid- 
gas given off. But as the bread rose, no CNrbonic-aoid-gas escaped, and all 
that was formed was contained in the bread [dough]. Now the quantity con- 
tained in a loaf of bread isreally very small. 1 dwell upon thi8,V)eeaiise there 
has been a statement made, that unfermenred bread was a great snving of the 
starch. — that fermentation was a wicked process, on account of the waste of 
the Htarch. It is also stnted that gluten is destroyed. This in not the case. It 
is al^o stated, as a proof of the destruction of the gluten, that ammonia was 
formed in the baking of the br<)ad. I have not been able to detect any.during 
the rising of bread, and I believe that also to bean error." As the braad, 
however, ie permeated with gas cells, a corresponding quantity mast have been 
fbrmed, even if not delectable by theTtoctor.— Ed. 



94 DIETETIC VALUE OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. 

In intoxicating liquor the poison exists aa alcohol. If its 
elements were combined differently^ it would be no longer 
alcohol, but something else, even as chlorine in salt is no longer 
chlorine, but an essential part of salt. 

4. — ^Bni alcoholic liquors mnst in some way or ether act as food, since 
those consuming them eat less than those who abstain. Dr. Inman 
says: — " If, when I dine, drinking water alone, I require fonr good slices 
of mutton, or other food, ere my natural wants are stayed, and while 
so living retain my usual bulk and strength [?1 : and if when drinking a 
pint of ale with my dinner, two such slices of meat suffice for my wants, 
and while so living my bulk and strength remain the same [?], is it 
not clear that the pint of ale contains as much nourishment as two 
slices of pork V* 

This by no means follows ; for though the use of beer is quite 
compatible with increase of bulk, seeing that it prevents the 
elimination of water and the combustion of fat and waste tissue, 
ani^may thus bloat and puff outa man, yet all experiments and 
experience go to prove that those who live in part upon beer, hick 
the strength and power of endurance possessed by abstainers ; so 
that, if any sickness or accident befal them, they prove far more 
troublesome to the doctors. Moreover, though teetotalers possess 
uniformly better appetites than drinkers, does this prove that the 
beer taken is a substitute for the portion of food which would 
otherwise have been consumed? If so, then tobacco-juice is 
very good food, since smokers do not at all possess such good 
appetites as non-smokers. We knew a man, a smoker, who for 
thirty years had regaled himself with the weed. He, however, 
took it into his head to lay aside the pipe. Before doing so he 
ascertained exactly how much on an average it cost per week to 
maintain him in food. Upon laying aside the pipe, he informed 
his wife that if a sum equal to that expended upon tobacco 
were really saved, he would lay it aside and purchase a pig. 
Though several years have elapsed, that pig has not yet been 
purchased. The man's appetite so greatly improved that the 
tobacco money was all of it spent upon extra food. But* does 
this prove that tobacco smoking, during all those years, was an 
equivalent for the food which would otherwise haye been taken? 
And yet if this objection have any force, such must have been 
the case. Are we to make no allowance for evident improve- 
ment in health and spirits? It is a remarkable fact, that those 
teetotalers who ibrmerly lived in part upon beer, all but unani- 



DBUNKEKNESS AND GLUTTONY. 95 

moQslj confess that since they adopted abstinent principles, 
their appetites, health, and enjoyment, have vastly improved. 

5. — Dr. Inman further says : — " For any one who wishes to cooyince 
himself of the strict worth, say of ale, let him first dine without it for a 
week, then for another week take his pint daily, and repeat the process 
for the sake of certainty. If he he in good health, he will find that when 
he drinks water, he will eat double the quantity he does when he takes 
beer, and he may then elect whether he prefers to run the risk of being 
a glutton or a drunkard. I will not say that either is probable, but I 
do know [?] that teetotalers have killed themselves by over-eating, just 
as tipplers have died with over-drinking." 

We demur to this fallacious mode of conducting the experi- 
ment. If a man one week takes a pint of beer per day and eats 
less during that week, his body is impoverished. If the week 
following he abstains from beer and eats double, why the body 
is merely making up for the mischief and starvation inflicted 
the week before. But drunkenness is a far more serious affair 
than gluttony. Gluttony does not nerve the assassin's arm; 
drunkenness does. Gluttony does not fill our gaols, our lunatic 
asylums, and our workhouses ; but drunkenness does. Hence, 
if I must take my chance of risks, I will be a teetotaler, and 
incur the risk of becoming a glutton, rather than take beer and 
incur the risk of becoming a drunkard. 

It is not true, however, that teetotalers are more prone to 
gluttony than drinkers. The fact is the other way. 

Many drinkers over-eat themselves before they are aware of it, 
having deadened the sensibility of the stomach with alcohol. 
And then, when they begin to feel the burden of an overloaded 
stomach, they take a little brandy to aid a weak digestion 1 

Prof. Miller says : — " If you have eaten salmon to such an 
extent as to require brandy, it is a sign that you have eaten too 
much actlmon, and if, in consequence, a remedy is necessary, you 
have selected the wrong one. Dip your hand again into the bag 
of the Materia JHedica, and if an emetic should turn up, you will 
find it infinitely more appropriate." 

There are two reasons why the appetites of drinkers are not 
80 uniformly good as those of teetotalers. (1) Their digestive 
organs are impaired, and weakened by the imbibition of alcohol ; 
andy (2) The processes of animal life are carried on with less 
regularity and vigor, from the same cause ; so that the body is 
continually taking up and using over again, waste material re« 



96 DIETETIC VALUE OF ALCOHOLIC BEYEBAQES. 

taincd in the circulation, and which ought long ago to have been 
excreted from the system. 

6 — Again.* — "Cases are of frequent occurrence where, for weeks 
together, no solid food has been taken, and the patients have been 
supported, and kept alive daring the whole of that time entirely upon 
brandy.'* 

Brandy, as generally used, contains nearly 60 per cent, of 
water. Hence, to be correct, we must say that the patiept was 
supported, and kept aliye upon water and alcohol. But which 
was the most sustaining? the water — or the alcohol mixed with 
it? We know several cases where, for weeks together, patients 
have been kept alive with brandy minus alcohol, that is, with 
water alone, but little solid food having been taken during the 
whole of that time, and yet ultimately the patients recovered. 

It is utterly impossible then for medical men to prove that, in 
the brandy oases cited, the patients were kept alive by the brandy, 
since if no alcohol haxl been given, they would probably have 
got on just as well, if not a great deal better. 

Even should we admit, for the sake of argument, that patients 
have been kept alive apparently by the administration of brandy, 
yet the objector cannot prove that they were really nourished and 
fed by it. As Dr. Markham, F. R. S., says : — ^' The clinical facts 
which some writers have produced as demonstrative of the food- 
nature of alcohol, are, as such, worth absolutely nothing. The 
proof here must be rigid — one of the scale- and-balance kind. Let 
us be told what the weight of the patient was before the experi- 
ment was commenced, and what after. Let us know how much 
water was swallowed with the alcohol, and be satisfied that 
nothing but diluted alcohols were taken while the experiments 
were going on — that rigid abstinence from [all] other things was 
positively maintained. The analyses of such facts would enable 
us to arrive at Bometh'in^ positive upon the subject. We have no 
hesitation in saying that, to call alcohol food, in the present state 
of our knowledge of its effects, is an abuse of knowledge. 

^^ Those who affirm it to be, should give us something like a 
tangible proof of the fact — something beyond the mere vague 
surmises of their own opinions. Let them show that a body fed 
solely on alcoholic drinks for several days, has gained, or at least 
not lost in weight ; and they will have some facts upon which to 
found the assertion. But to say that an emaciated creature who 
rises from his bed of sickness^ and has swallowed during his 



DB. £. LAKK£8TEB'fl APPEAL TO GENERAL ITBAOE. 97 

sickness large quantities of alcohol and water, is a living proof 
that alcohol is food, is manifestly an unfounded assumption."—* 
Brit Med. Journal^ June lith^ 1862. 

Failing in special reasons, the objectors attempt to defend 
their position bj an appeal to general usage, and univerMl 
custom ? 

Br. E Lankester says : — " I will Dot enter into the question of whether 
we ought to ca.Il alcoholic beverages food. It is sufiicient for mj purpose, 
that in one form«or another, it enters largely into the diet of [some of] man- 
kiTid, and the question is, as to whether such use is, on the whole, henefi- 
cial or deleterious." 

This is quite true; words in themselyes are nothing*-facta 
and effects are everything. Now, first, an argument drawn from 
general usage, and universal custom, is just as conclusive for the 
dietetic value of tobacco, opium, arsenic, or hashish, the use of 
which, however, though sanctioned by custom, is, nevertheless* 
condemned by impartial science. 

Secondly. — Dr. Lankester, the objector, plays upon the words 
health, disease^ food, medicine, and poison. In one place he 
cf^ls alcohol a ^^ food-poison,'^ (Diet, p. 356); a poisoned-food 
would be more to the point. In his classification of food-^ 
coined apparently to meet his theory — ^he divides food into three 
classes. Ist. Alimentary, or necessary, as water, sugar, albumeni 
etc. 2d. Medicinal, or auxiliary, as alcohol, tobacco, alkaloids, 
opium, etc. 3d. Accessory, as cellulose, gum, gelatine. He 
calls alcohol and opium medicine, because they act as many 
medicines do, and meet rather those wants of the system which 
resulted from a tendency to a diseased condition. {Diet, p. 179.) 
No foods are medicinal to the healthy body, and no medicines 
are foods to it. In diseased states, foods may act abnormally, 
and medicines may act as foods, by supplying some of those 
elements in which the blood may be deficient. 

The following remarks of Dr. Lankester are, therefore, very 
true : — " The more one investigates the relation of food to the 
human system, the greater must be the conviction that food 
is not only capable of maintaining healthy life, but by proper 
modification, can be made the means of curing disease. Our 
life is so essentially dependent on food that we may increase its 
activity by increase of food, and decrease it by decrease of food, 
and change its character by a change of food. Diseases manifest 
themselves ia an increase, or decrease, or a change of vital 
9 



98 DIETETIC VALUE OP ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. 

action. It must be evident, therefore, that in the manajiement 
of food, we have the pjreat means for the cure, and removal of 
disease." (p. 354.) When, however, he asks, " Who is to distin- 
guish the narrow line, even if that exists, which separates health 
from disease?" and adds, "a man who has waited two hours 
longer than is usual for his dinner, is sliding into a state of 
disease which will kill him in a limited number of hours," we 
oan only smile. To call a hungry man a diseased man, is 
surely to palter with words. The famine-stricken may be 
diseased, but not the merely hungry. It is like calling warmth a 
" slide into burning." We know that foods may become medicines, 
and that medicines may merge into poisons. That health may 
gradually slide into disease, so that the exact line may be most 
difficult to determine. But, for all this, the differences between 
health and disease, food and medicine, are quite sufficiently clear 
to satisfy any reasonable mind, and to enable us to arrive at the 
conclusion that alcohol is not food. 

But what does Dr. Lankester seek to evolve out of these hair- 
splitting distinctions?" Why, "That our civilization may have 
brought us to a condition, which, as compared with that of 
gorillas and savages, may be said to be morbid or diseased, and 
that, in order to remove the tendency of this condition, to bring 
on more serious departures from health, doses of alcohol, varying 
from half an ounce to two ounces, every twenty-four hours, mciy 
be most healthful and beneficial!" Is, then, a high state of 
civilization incompatible with the development of man's physical 
energies, or conservation of his health ? No 1^-civilization is to 
man, what proper soil dnd a congenial clime is to a plant. If 
you wish to bring up a plant to its highest degree of perfection, 
you pay great attention to its cultivation, and surround it with 
those conditions of soil and climate fitted to produce the desired 
end. A high state of civilization fulfils these conditions of develop- 
ment in reference to man, and is^ therefore, perfectly compatible 
with the fullest and freest development of man*s physical energy, 
as well as of his moral and intellectual excellence. 

That men, called civilized, suffer from nervous prostration and 
disease, and that thousands live in a state constantly bordering 
upon disease, we admit, but this arises from the savagery found 
in connectioiv with our imperfect civilization, and principally the 
SAVAGE custom of drinking alcoholic beverages. Exclude these 
savage elements of our imperfect civilization, and man will 



BTBONO DBINK NOT NECESSARY TO CIVILISATION. 99 

attain to a still higher degree of civilization by cnltiTatiDg his 
whole nature. 

Against the yagne reasoning of this objector, we will put the 
deliberate judgments of two celebrated physicians. 

Prof. Parkes, M. D., says : — " I must candidly say, with regard 
to the stronger alcoholic liquids, that what study I have been 
able to give to this subject, and the causation and treatment of 
disease generally, has led me more and more to adopt the views 
of Carpenter and others, that the use of alcoholics in health is 
not only unnecessary, but absolutely injurious.'' 

Dr. Markham, F. B.S., says : — '* Well would it be for the practice 
of medicine if every one would do away with that very common 
sentence passed upon this or that medicinal agent — that it, at 
all events, will do no harm if it do no good. There is a patent 
error in that saying, for a little consideration will show us that 
every medicine — that is, every exciter of an abnormal action in 
the body — must do harm pro tanto, if it do not do a service by 
exciting such abnormal action. It is scarcely possible to read 
fairly the works of the distinguished physiolo^^ists who have 
discussed this question, without feeling that they have been, 
spite of themselves as it were, driven, by their hox^^st adhesion 
to the legitimate consequences flowing from their premises, to 
the conclusion that alcohol is unnecessary and injurious to the 
human body.''— £raY. Med, Journal^ October 5^A, 1861« 



100 BACCHUS DETHBONED. 



CHAPTER IIL 

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ALCOHOLIC LIQUORS WITH ESPECIAL 

REFERENCE TO MODERATE DRINKING. 

Prop. III. — " That all alcoholic drinks are injurums to the 
health of the body and the tnindf even when taken in great 
moderation^ 

Phtsiologt treats of the different fanctions of the healthj 
body, and points out the offices of each organ in the animal 
economy. Preliminary to seeking to determine whether the 
action of alcohol upon the different organs and fanctions of the 
body be innocent and beneficial, or injarious and destructive, 
we shall investigate its physical properties. Elhylic alcohol^ or 
" spirits of wine," is the objectionable element of our intoxicating 
liquors, by whatsoever name they may be called ; and from this 
a«;ent these beverages derive their strange power of fascination. 
Deprive them of their proportion of spirits, and their charm 
vanishes; people will refuse them as being unpalatable, and 
even nauseous. 

Fermented and spirituous liquors differ from each other mainly 
in their proportion of alcohol and water, but they differ also in 
coloring matter and flavor, sugar and gummy extractive, and 
in various foreig n and adulterating ingredients added during tho 
process of manufacture, or afterwards by the vendor. 

Prof. Brandes' analysis shows the proportion in which spirit 
(specific gravity *S25) exists, in 100 measures of the following 
liquors : 



SPIRITS. 

"Whisky 54'11 per cent. 

Rum ^ 53-68 " 

Brandy 5339 " 

Hollands 5160 " 

WINES. 

Baisin 2512 " 

Madeira 2417 « 

Poet , 22 96 •• 

Gbpe I. 20ai • 



Tenerlffe 1979 per cent. 

Sherry 1917 " 

Bucellas 1849 " 

Claret 1510 *« 

Burgundy 14*57 *• 

Champagne 12-80 " 

Gooseberry 11 '84 ** 

Hock 12 08 •• 

Orange . 1126 •• 

£ilder'.«M«.M.*M.««M 8*79 * 



> J J 



-• _l J J 



ALCOHOL NOT A PRODUCT OF GROWTH. 101 

ALES, ETO. 



Cider. 754 per cent. 

Perry 726 

Burton Ale 888 " 

Edinburgh Ale 620 " 



Brown Stoat 6 80 per cent. 

London Porter 420 " 

SmaU Beer .... 128 •• 



Even the British and home-made wines contain a considerable 
proportion of alcohol, and are not, therefore, teetotal drinks ; 
raiiin-wint^ indeed, contains a larger proportion than port, while 
elder-wine almost equals the strongest of ales. 

Alcohol, in the above liquors, is not in a state of '* chemical 
combination," as some people suppose,* but it exists in a free 
state, that is, in a state of simple mixture only. 

The term alcohol, originally limited to one substance, yiz i 
'' spirit of wine,'' is now applied to a large number of organio 
eompounds, many of which in their external characters exhibit 
but little resemblance to ordinary alcohol. They are all, how- 
eTer> analogously constituted, ** having the composition of 
saturated hydro-carbons, in which one or more of the h^rdrogen 
atoms are replaced by hydroxyl." , 

Alcohols are classified in series, according to the number 
of equivalents of hydrozyl they contain. 

Among the Mon atomic alcohols are Methyl j H 4 ; Ethyl, 
2 H 6 O ; and Propyl, C s H g 0. Then there is Amylic alcohol 
containing Amyl, an acrid volatile oil, made by destructive dis-^ 
dilation !rom the starch of potatoes, etc. 

Ethyl alcohol is the lightest and most ethereal of the series. 
When intoxicating liquors are adulterated with any of the 
heavier alcoholS) though they may not intoxicate so rapidly, yet 
they are more stupefactive, and people drinking these liquors 
are much longer in recovering from a fit of drunkenness. A few 
years ago it was discovered that a good deal of the trashy stuff 
called *^ port,'' supplied to dispensary patients, was adulterated 
with methylated spirit, obtained by the destructive distillation 
of wood. 

Ethyl, the intoxicating principle of our intoxicating liquors, is 
not the .product of growth. It cannot be found in the purple 
grape — the golden corn — the rosy apple — or the juicy pear. 
Prior to fermentation we may apply to the expressed juices of 
these fruits our most delicate chemical tests, but no alcohol can 

* If it were, it would not be alcohol. See the absurd tract of W. Cooke, 
D.D.--Ei>. 
9* 






• ^ • 






• • • 



• « • 
• • • 



m * . • * 

* • _ • _• • 



102 THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ALCOHOL. 

we discover. Alcohol is in reality a product of decomposition. 
When these juices begin to ferment, under the influence of the 
yeast fungus, and to turn to rottenness, then, and not till then, 
alcohol is generated out of the destruction of the organic sugar. 

When death ensues, then certain natural forces, which, in the 
living state were resisted, come into operation, and disintegration 
begins, and continues till the organism returns to its original 
elements. '^ Dust thou art, and to dust shalt thou return,*^ is as 
true of the world of plants as of the world of animals. So, when 
fruits become crushed, then these constituents, albumen and 
sugar, which exist apart in different cells, become mingled by 
the rupture of these cells, their contents become exposed to the 
atmosphere, charged with the spores of the yeast plant, which 
soon begins to feed upon it, and to be visible by the aid of a 
microscope. The change progresses until the albumen is con- 
verted into yeast, 

Beer-yeaat contains two species of fungus, called Torula Cere- 
visioe, and Penicillium Glaucum. 

The yeastplant acting upon the sugar causes it to split up-« 
the temperature rises, carbonic-acid-gas, called in chemical 
language carbon-dioxide^ is given off, and alcohol is also formed. 
Thus by decomposition, sugar is converted into two new pro- 
ducts — carbonic-acid-gas and alcohol. This is the first stage of 
the decomposition of sugar. If the temperature be further 
raised, and fermentation continues, acetic acid, or vinegar, is 
formed, and the alcohol disappears. This is the second stage. 
If the process is still allowed to go on, with an elevation of 
temperature, tlrcn putrefaction sets in. This is the third stage, 
from which the transition to those gaseous and earthy elements 
which entered into the original composition of the organism, is 
most rapid. 

The composition and parentage of alcohol, however, prove 
nothing as to its physiological action. We might, indeed, con- 
jecture that a product of decay, and a twin sister of carbonic 
acid, could not prove very friendly in its action upon the body; 
but this would still remain a mere conjecture. We must, there- 
fore, test it by experiment; for only by experiment and attentive 
observation can we ascertain the properties of things, and learn 
to coirect false theories and erroneous conceptions. 

Take then, some alcohol (rectified spirits of wine) and poor a 
little upon the back of the hand. Look at it attentively, and 



ALCOHOL AS A BEFRIOERATOB* 103 

k>I in a short time it disappears. Now what has become of it? 
Has it soaked into the skin ? No I It has evaporated in the 
form of a very subtle, and, therefore, invisible vapor. This 
shows that alcohol is a very volatile substance. Volatility, then, 
is one of its properties. Now what sensation does it produce 
upon the back of the hand ? That of intense cold. In the act 
of evaporating it abstracts heat in a very sudden manner from 
the part to which it is applied, giving rise to the sensation of 
coolness. 

Thus alcohol is a refrigerating agent. We might, in fact, freeze 
a person to death in the hottest day in summer by exposing him 
in a state of nudity to the full rays of the sun, and sprinkling 
him all over plentifully with alcohol. 

When taken internally it does not warm the body, as ignorant 
people imagine, but, on the contrary often cools it» Shortly 
after being introduced into the body it begins to escape, in 
virtue of its excessive volatility, through the medium of the lungs 
and skin, having, in the meantime, retarded the combustion of 
the carbonaceous compounds in the blood, and inflicted serious 
injury upon the great nervous centres. 

Take a small thermometer, and apply the tube to the root of 
the tongue, then mark the number of degrees*, drink two or 
three glasses of whisky, and again apply the thertnometer, and 
you will find that the temperature of your mouth has sensibly 
decreased. 

The experiments of Dumeril and Dermarquay long since 
showed that intoxicated dogs were greatly reduced in tempers^ 
ture. An article by Prof. C. Binz, of Bonn, '*0n the Influence of 
Alcohol on the Temperature of the Body,*' published in the 
'Practitioner for September, 1869, informs us of the results of 
numerous experiments made with the centigrade thermometer, 
with the view to determine the action of non-poisonous doses of 
alcohol upon the temperature of the body. The experiments 
proved that small quantities of alcohol lowered the temperature 
considerably. Half-a-glass of light hock, or a small glass of 
cognac, caused a fall of from 0*4° to 0*6° in a very short time. 
In experiments upon dogs with poisonous doses there was a fall 
in the temperature amounting to between 4** and 5°, in from one 
to two hours, at which period death took place. 

Again : saturate a piece of rag in alcohol, and apply it to the 
arm, preventing evaporation by means of an oil silk bandage ; in 



1 



104 THE PHTSIOLOQICAL ACTION OF ALCOHOL. 

a short time the part becomes hot, painfal and inflamedy then 
blistered, so that you are compelled to remore the rafi;. This 
proves that alcohol is an irritant; that is, possesses the property 
of inflaming. When taken into the stomach a similar effect is 
produced upon the mucous membrane ; the blood flows to the 
part in contact with the alcohol, and the surface becomes con- 
gested ; mucus is also thrown out by the membrane, to lubri- 
cate the inflamed part, and preserve it from irreparable damage. 
The increased flow of blood to the surface acted upon by the 
alcohol induces a sensation of warmth. This is the real meaning 
of that *^ comforting of the stomach'' after a glass of spirit, which 
beguiles the drinker. If more alcohol be taken, the inflammation 
extends, the mucous membrane ultimately becomes ulcerated, 
and blood exudes from the gorged and ruptured vessels. That 
alcohol thus effects the stomach has been proved by ocular de- 
monstration in the case of Alexis St. Martin, operated upon by 
Dr. Beaumont. As the stomach is only sparingly supplied with 
nerves of sensation, these ravages may continue for a consider- 
able time, while the victim is almost entirely ignorant of it. 
After drinking freely of ardent spirits for eight or ten days in 
succession, Dr. Beaumont examined St. Martin's stomach through 
an external orifice, and thus reports : — ^^Juiy2S, (1833), 9 o'clock^ 
A.3L Stomach empty — ^not healthy — some erythema and aph- 
thous patches on the mucous surface. St. Martin has been drink- 
ing ardent spirits pretty freely, for eight or ten days past — 
complains ofnopain^ nor shows symptoms of any general indis- 
position — says he feds wdlt and has a good appetite." 

Now, as spirit is rapidly absorbed from the stomach by the 
absorbent veins, and carried into the general circulation, it finds 
its way to the heart in company with the venous blood, and here 
again its acrid property comes into play, irritating the inner 
surface of the heart, and exciting it to increased action in order 
to get rid of the intruder *, so for a time the heart pumps ofnay 
with greater force and rapidity, and at times with considerable 
irregularity, as indicated by the pulse. Now it is a well ascer- 
tained physiological law, that no organ can be habitually excited 
to an increased action, without becoming impaired and diseased. 
So the heart thus acted upon, day by day, at last becomes feeble 
and diseased, exhibiting either hypertrophy (enlargement), or 
fatty degeneration of its muscular tissue. 

Again : if you retain strong whisky in your mouth for a few 



ALCOHOL A KARCOTIC. 105 

minutes, you not only inflame and blister the insides of your 
cheeks, but deaden the nerveif of taste ; in fact these become so 
paralyzed that you are unable to distinguish the taste of one 
substance from another. If you shut your eyes and apply to 
your tongue, first salt, then sugar, or even quassia and sugar, 
you will not, by the taste, be able to detect the difference. This 
shows alcohol to be a naixotic. Hence, writers on toxicology, as 
Dr. Pereira, Prof. Orfila, Dr. Taylor, and Prof. Christison, rank 
it among the narcotico-acrid poisons. Numerous experiments 
have settled this point. **Sir B. Brodie found that by the 
administration of a large dose of alcohol (ardent spirit) to a rabbit, 
the pupils of its eyes became dilated, its extremities convulsed, 
and the respiration laborious ; and that this latter function was 
gradually performed at longer, and longer intervals, and that at 
length it entirely ceased. Two minutes after the apparent death 
of the animal, he opened the thorax (chest) and found the heart 
acting with moderate force and frequency, circulating dark 
colored blood. The same phenomena resulted from the injec- 
tion of two drops of the essential oil of bitter almonds, (whoso 
active principle is prussic acid) diffused in half an ounce of 
water, into the bowels of a cat."-^Dr. Paris' Pharmacologia^ 
vol. i., page 244, 8th ed. 

Dr. Percy says: — "About 2} oz. oF alcohol (sp. grav. '850), 
having been injected into the stomach of a full-grown spaniel 
bitch, the animal immediately uttered a loud, plaintive cry, and 
fell lifeless to the ground. Not a gasp was afterwards taken, 
nor, after the lapse of a minute or two, could a single pulsation 
of the heart be felt. Never did I see every spark of vitality 
more effectually and more instantaneously extinguished. . . • 
The mode in which death occurred in this case was almost pre- 
cisely identical with that of poisoning by a strong dose of 
prussic acid»^^ 

Whilst alcohol on the one hand diminishes the sensibility of 
the nervous system, it checks on the other the generation, and 
equable diffusion of the nervous fluid, that subtle and remark- 
able agent, without which not a single process of animal life can 
be carried on, and thus aims a direct blow at the very seat of 
vitality ; hence it is that those who indulge in the use of liquors 
containing it, have all the functions of their body, and all the 
operations of their mind retarded and perverted. The sight, 
the hearing, the senses of smell and of taste, become deranged; 



106 THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OP ALCOHOL. 

the breathing becomes stertorous, the heart labors, the mind ia 
oonfuae'd, and all the functions oi assimilation and elimination 
are impeded. Hence, also, those numerous and terrible diseases 
of the brain and nervous sjstem, inflicted upon the devotees of 
Bacchus, from the ravings of mania, the horrid spectres of 
delirium tremens^ to the most hopeless and incurable forms of 
paralysis and imbecility. 

Alcohol, in all its stronger forms, is also a powerful astringent 
A great many substances soaked in it become contracted and 
hardened. This is its action upon animal tissues, and the 
nutrient elements of the vegetable world. If we wish to pre- 
serve organic specimens we generally place them in glass jars, 
filled with spirit ; in which they become tanned, hardened, and 
imperishable. 

Where alcohol, in the form of brandy, beer, or wine, is taken 
into the stomach during a meal, or immediately after, it tans and 
condennes the food, and thus renders it indigestible; at the 
same time it also injures the solvent action of the gastric juice, 
by precipitating its pepsine. Hence we see how erroneous the 
notion, that brandy or wine taken after dinner aids digestion, and 
also, how foolish and unscientific it is on the part of medical men 
to prescribe a mixture of rum and milk. The rum hardens the 
caseine of the milk, and thus converts it into an indigestible sub- 
stance. 

But alcohol is also a very powerful solvent of cert&in substances. 

The bitter principle of herbs, essential oils, the alkaloids, and 
the resinoids, in which the medicinal properties of plants chiefly 
reside, are all of them dissolvable in alcohol. Hence, alcohol is 
a very useful agent in pharmacy, and in conducting vasious 
chemical processes. It is also of great service in many of the 
useful arts ; the French-polisher cannot well do without it. 

Now, from its power to astringe and tan on the one hand, and 
its power to dissolve on the other, it has a most pernicious action 
upon the blood. This fluid is derived from the food we eat, and 
the water we drink, and it contains within itself all those con- 
stituents that go to build up the body, and also those waste 
matters that arise from tiie changes constantly going on within. 
The red color of the blood is derived from innumerable red 
globules floating in the Liquor Sanguinis (bloud fluid), they con- 
tain iron in a state of oxidation, and it is from the presence of 
this that they owe their crimson color. If these globules be- 



ALConOL DEVITALIZES THE BLOOD. 107 

come deficient in number or quality, then debility and disease 
must ensue,* ^ 

Possessing yery strong solvent properties, alcohol acts most 
perniciously upon the red globules, dissoWing the iron out of 
them in whole, or in part, and occasioning the formation of 
black oily specks. 

The globules (or corpuscles) become considerably altered in 
shape; and instead of being plump and round, become flattened, 
elongated, and pale. This devitalized condition of the blood 
produces anaemia, or palidity. The countenance lacks the rosy 
hue of health, and the lips are white. 

The red coloring matter dissolved out of the red globules, is 
forced into the fine hair-like (capillary) vessels of the blood, and 
also into the ultimate tissues, causing irritation and disease. 
There is a distinct form of rheumatism, known as alcoholic 
rheumatism, induced entirely by the use of fermented fluids. 
Dr. B. W. Richardson, some years ago, called the attention of 
the profession to a peculiar state of the lung, a real phthisis 
(consumption), having alcohol for its exclusive cause. Gout is 
another disease of alcoholic origin, as none but drinkers, or their 
descendants, suffer from it. 

Professor Carl Schultz states : — ^' The alcohol stimulates the 
blood discs to an increased and unnatural contraction, which 
hurries them on to the last stage of development — ^that is, in- 
duces their premature decay and death. The coloring matter is 
dissolved out of them, and the pale discs lose all their vitality ; 
whence less oxygen can be absorbed and less carbon carried out." 
The experiments of Drs. Bocker and Yirchow concur in proving 
that alcohol poisons the blood, and arrests the development, as 
well as hastens the decay of the red corpuscles. Dr. Bocker 
notices the alterations undergone by the blood of habitual 
alcohol drinkers as yet in good health, viz : a partial loss of 
power to become red by exposure to the air, in consequence of 
the loss of vitality in tiie portion of the blood discs. 

Alcohol being a very powerful astringent, acts perniciously 
upon the albumen of the blood, and thus seriously impedes and 
perverts the reparative processes. 

* In 1,000 parts of blood the following are the average proportions of its 
different constituents in iiealth:— Fibrin e 3, Globules 127, poiid matters of 
serum, including albumen, tat, etc., 80. Water, 790. Inorganic matters of 
serum, including salt, potash, etc.. 8. The blood holds in solution urea, lao- 
tic acid, and other procfucts of the disintegrating process on their way to th« 
dilfer&nt excretory organs. 



108 THE PHTSIOLOGICAL ACTION OP ALCOHOI* 

• • 

By deyitalizing the red globules, and hardening and corrupt- 
ing the albumen, alcohol prevents the full aeration of the blood 
in the air cells of the lungs. 

Dr. Carpenter says : — ** We have ^een it to be one of the pro- 
perties of alcohol, that; when mingled with venous blood, it exerts 
precisely the same effect as an insufficient supply of air, in pre- 
venting its complete depuration in the lungs.*' 

'^ Alcohol also occasions an unnatural and unhealthy accumu- 
lation of fatty materials in the blood ; increasing it from 2 to 3 
parts in 1,000, which it the healthy and natural proportion, to 
as high as 117, which is a most unhealthy and unnatural 
proportion. The eminent French analytical chemist, Lccann, 
found as much as 117 parts of fat in 1,000 parts of a drunkard's 
blood, the highest estimate of the quantity in health being 8^ 
parts, while resembling (so far as l^is point is oonoerned) that 
which is brought about by imperfect ventilation, bad sewerage, 
noxious emanations, etc.; — namely, to contaminate it with the 
refuse generated in the body itself, whose due elimination is 
checked no less effectually by the presence of alcohol in the cir- 
culating current, than it is by constantly shutting up the doors 
and windows of oar apartments, or by heaping together a mass 
of putrefying rubbish in our cellars, or by damming up our 
sewers and causing them to overflow into our kitchens, or by any 
other similarly approved means of causing the fever-germs to 
take root and flourish in our systems.'* — Physiology of Temper' 
ance, pp. 158-9. 

Very frequently this fatty material is deposited in the mus- 
cular tissues, thereby inducing that diseased condition known as 
fatty degeneration, from which so many drinkers sufier, and 
which it is so very difficult to cure. Says Dr. T. King Chambers, 
'^ Three quarters of the chronic illnesses which the medical man 
has to treat, are occasioned by this disease.'' The organs most 
liable to fatty degeneration of their structures, are the heart, and 
liver, the kidneys and the walls of the blood vessels. The entire 
muscular structure of the body may also become infiltrated with 
oily and fatty deposits. Fatty degeneration of the heart is a 
disease of very frequent occurrence. This disease very often 
proves suddenly fatal ; the subject of it appearing to enjoy his 
usual health only a few minutes before he falls down and expires. 

We quote the following from Dr. Munroe's Pamphlet : 

" An instance of a very suddenly fatal case of this disease occurred to 



ALCOHOL NOT A STIMULANT. 109 

xne not long ago, — one of a like character with half a dozen more which 
I have witnessed during the last few years. The person was of middle 
age, rather stout, of exceedinjgly quiet habits, never appearing to be in 
a hurry about anything, taking only moderate exercise, but never seen 
walking fast or exerting himself. He had. however, contracted the bad 
habit of taking a small glass of whisky three or four times a day, yet 
never appearing drunk, or in the least excited. He was the popular 
picture of good health, and had scarcely ever had a day's illness, but 
sometimes complained of a fulness at the chest, and slight beating of 
the heart. One day, after having partaken of his dinner, drank a glass 
of ale, and smoked his pipe as usual, on rising up to go to his business, 
lie suddenly dropped down on the floor, and died immediately. On 
making the post mortem examination, the brain seemed healthy, so did 
the heart, luogs, liver, and other viscera. The man hacf died apparenil/ 
without the slightest indication of organic disease, or of any lesion to 
account for so sudden a catastrophe. My next object was to make thin 
sections of the heart, liver, and kidneys, and place them under the 
microscope. The mystery of his death was now immediately revealed, 
for every organ subjected to microscopic analysis exemplified the slow, 
structural lesions of fatty degeneration. The fibres of the heart, A 
powerful muscle, had become so enfeebled and degenerated by the in- 
testinal deposit of oil globules, that it had suddenly and spasmodical]/ 
ceased to act Had the man been a pure water drinker, such a suddenly 
fatal result could hardly have happened. It is the misfortune of medical 
men to have scores of patients in a year laboring under some of the 
protean forms of fatty degeneration, who would never have occasion to 
require the doctor's assistance if they would only forego the daily use of 
even small quantities of alcohol. This agrees with a broad experience 
and the most extended observations, in regard both to the benefit of 
abstinence and the evils of drinking."* 

Thus do alcoholic beverages directly corrupt and devitalize 
the Btream of life, and degenerate those tissues which it feeds. 
Says Dr. Watson : " It is a curious patbolof!;jcal fact, that the red 
particles require more time for their restoration than the other 
constituents of the blood. The albumen of the blood and the 
salts of the blood are speedily restored, but not so its red par- 
ticles. And hence the local con.(restions to which they are 
liable," who have suffered loss of blood. 

Alcohol is said to be a stimulant, and as such, is very freely 
prescribed in certain states of disease. 

But what is a stimulants Dr. T. K. Chambers, says, "It is 
Qsaaliy'held to be something which spurs on an animal operated 

* Physiologioal Action of Alcohol, p. 14. 
10 



110 THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ALCOHOL. 

upon to a more vigorous performance of its duties.'' According 
to this definition, the whip and the spur to the jaded horse are 
stimulants; a sudden shock to the nerves is also a stimulant. 
The signal gun of the Emperor Theodore, fired from the height 
of Tahia, acted as a very powerful stimulant to the jaded soldiers 
of the 4th regiment. Just before that oannon roared forth the 
signal for battle, they were terribly knocked up ; soldiers here 
and there falling out of the ranks, completely exhausted, and 
imploring most piteously for water. But no sooner does the 
oannon boom from Tahla's hill, than all sense of fatigue vanishes, 
and rushing to the front, they endure the brunt of war, and storm 
the heights. Now, accepting Dr. Chambers' definition, how does 
it apply here ? Will it spur on an animal to a more vigorous 
performance of its duties ? No ! It detracts from what remains 
of energy and strength, and prevents us from accomplishing so 
much as we otherwise should. People who take alcohol, think 
otherwise, because the sensibility of the nervous system becomes 
blunted, while they /eeZ lighter about the head, and warmer in 
the region of the stomach. Dr« Brinton, though no teetotaler, 
confesses, that "Even a moderate dose of beer or wine dimin- 
ishes the maximum weight which a person can lift, to something 
below his teetotal stantlard. In like manner, it is not too much 
to say, that mental acuteness, accuracy of perception, and 
delicacy of the senses, are all so far opposed by alcohol, as 
that the maximum efforts of each are incompatible with the 
ingestion of any moderate quantity of fermented liquid." 

To our mind, a stimulant may be more accurately defined 
thus : — Any agent, which, acting in harmony with the vis 
conservatrix natura (the inherent power of the body to resist 
external forces), increases the activity of the different func- 
tions by the normal development^ and distribution of vital 
force. 

Nature has provided us with a great variety of stimulants 
answering to the above definition. Some of them are of a 
purely hygienic character, as change of scene, cheerful company, 
a hearty laugh, vigorous exercise, bathing in sea-water, the 
application of the flesh brush to the surface of the body, etc. 
Others are more purely medicinal, as cayenne, and the acro- 
aromatics generally. AH stimulants, however, with the excep- 
tion of the purely hygienic, follow the same general law. Their 
frequent U9e impairs the sensibility upon iohich theyfeedj inducing 



STIMULANTS AND DEPBE6SANTB. Ill 

a Btate of atony or debility. This is a wise and salutary law. 
Nature never intended us to live upon stimulants ; they are to 
be reserved for those great crises when weakness overtakes us, 
and disease threatens our life. 

Depressants may be divided into two classes, the narcotic, and 
the non-narcotic. To the former belong opium, digitalis, tobacco, 
etc., to the latter, nitre, tartar emetic, etc. Both classes follow 
the same general law of depressants, that is, in small doses they 
lower the vitality of the body, in larger, seriously impair the 
health, the reactive sta^e being characterized by quick pulse, and 
nervous irritability, and in still larger doses, destroy life. Take 
nitre for instance, in small doses it cools the body, and acts as 
a diaphoretic ; in large doses it seriously interferes with the 
bodily functions, and in still larger it produces great oppression, 
a bloody flux comes on, and the patient dies. When small doses 
of the milder class are frequently repeated, the body, to a certain 
extent, accommodates itself to their use, so that the evil effects 
resulting are very gradual, almost imperceptible. Witk the 
narcotic class a terrible morbid craving for their continued use 
is engendered, which at last becomes an all-absorbing and un- 
controllable passion.* 

Now to which of these two classes does alcohol belong? Says 
Dr. Edmunds: — "Is spirit a stimulant? We use the word 
'stimulant' as something which increases the activity of the 
body ; therefore if spirit be a stimulant, you have this remark- 
able proposition — that by diminishing the dose you reverse the 
nature of the effect. Now it would require the strongest possible 
evidence to prove, satisfactorily, that that which is known to be 
a paralyzer in large doses, is a stimulant in small doses. I hold 
that its action, in all doses, is always that of a narcotic, and 
paralyzer." 

In a letter, signed " A Provincial Doctor," whicti appeared in 

* We beg to call attention to the action of chlorodine, an agent advertised as 
a nostrnm and a cure-all, and the consufhption of which in alarmingly increas- 
ing among us. In its action it is an ansesthetic ; it deadens and paralyzes the 
nervous system, and is, in ftict, a far more destructive agent than alcohol. 
Those who yield themselves up to its haMtual use, in a very short time become 
conscious oi'a terrible oppression, and at the same time acquire a terrible appe- 
tite for the drug. They lose flesh, become emaciated and pale, and subject 
to mental hallucinations, and to many nervous sensations of a very trouble- 
some character. We know a gentleman who used to spend 30s. a week upon 
chiorodine. At times he imagined that his body was burning, and that his 
hands were all in a blaze. Sometimes he would console himself, that though 
his hands were burnmg away, his arms would still be left entire. This gentle- 
man aftera time was forcii>ly prevented from using his anodyne; he then began 
to recover from these hallucmations his complexion improved, and he put 
on flesh. 



112 THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ALCOHOL. 

the British Medical Journal^ Nov. 2, 1861, we find the following: 
*' The question I wish to ask is this ; can alcohol in any shape, 
increase strength, and render more vigorous the bodily processes? 
Adoptin;; the usual phrase, is ' vital force' augmented by it, or 
not? All the facts seem to answer in the negative. If under 
the influence of alcohol men bear both heat and cold less per- 
ceptibly ] if exertion be ^ disfavored,' if * nutrition* be ' deranged,' 
and if* mutual acuteness and sensuous activity be lessened,' it 
seems very clear that alcohol must do anything rather than 
increase * the vital force.' If I were recommending anything 
to a man to make him stronger, it would precisely be, not that 
substance that at once renders him unable to lift a weight which 
previously he had been able to do." 

Dr. T. K. Chambers says : — '* What is a stimulant? It is usually 
held to be something which spurs on an animal to a more vigor- 
ous performance of its duties. It seems doubtful if, on the 
healthy nervous system, this is ever the effect of alcohol, even in 
the most moderate doses, and for the shortest periods of time. 
A diminution of force is quite consistent with augmented qmch- 
ness of motion, or may it not be said that, in involuntary muscles, 
it implies it. The action of chloroform is to quicken the pulse, 
yet the observations of Dr. Bedford Brown on the circulation in 
the human cerebrum during anaesthesia, clearly show that the 
propelling power of the heart is diminished during that etate." 

Dr. E. Smith says : — " We need not refer to the action of 
alcohol in lessening consciousness, the perception of light and 
sound, and the diminution of muscular power *, for where a full 
ordinary dose is taken, they may be perceived in every half- 
drunken man In less doses, these effects 

are either less evident, or they are not at all perceptible ; but in 
whatever dose, the direction of the action bf the alcohol must he the 
same. It is impossible that a small dose of alcohol shall directly 
increase muscular power ; for example, whilst a larger, yet an 
ordinary dose, decreases it; and if men half-drunk have some- 
times exerted unusual strength, it has been from the same cause 
as is seen in the efforts of a madman, not from an increase of 
muscular power, but from increase of the effort of the will. . . 
The practical question now arises: Do these actions show that 
alcohol has the power to increase nervous or vital force ? The 
reply is, I think, clear. We do not profess to explain the mode 
by which alcohol produces the effects described ; that is a ques- 



ALCOHOL LESSENS VITAL FORCE. 118 

tion which must be left for further research ; but it is clear that 
one of its actions is physical, and althoa^h the others seem to be 
vital, it may be that they are physical also. Thus the action 
upon the surface with which it is in contact, must be physical ; 
and in this manner, by exciting nerye-action upon the surface, 
the efficiency of that surface may be increased, as in the stomach, 
for example, in relation to its vermicular motion, and its vital 
processes. When the force of the heart is insufficient to main- 
tain the circulation, all vital action must languish, and by 
increasing that force, alcohol must thus promote vital action. 
{Query.] This increase of the heart's action may be due to the 
physical action of the alcohol upon the inner surface of the heart, 
since the increased action occurs in from three to eight minutes 
after the alcohol has been taken, and when, therefore, it will have 
entered the circulation ; or it may be due to the diminution of 
peripheral exudation, or to the congestion of the capillaries, by 
which this vis a fronte would be increased, and as a secondary 
effect, this vis a iergo must be increased to overcome it. When 
alcohol is applied to a surface in which the capillary action can 
be traced, as the bat's wing, it is observed first to increase the 
capillary action, and then the capillaries become distended and 
congested^ and finally the circulation may cease for a time.' In 
death from alcohol, there is great congestion of various orgacs, 
and it is probable that diminution of capillary action, with 
increased fulness of these vessels, is the ordinary effect in man, 
and accounts for the blood-shot eyes and swollen hands and face, 
commonly observed. The action on the bat's wing is certainly 
physical and exhaustive; and it mfty be that the action is the 
same when alcohol is taken into the circulation. Have we then 
in these actions, evidence that al<A)hol has the power to increase 
nervous force? I venture to assert that alcohol, in its direct 
action, has po such power ; but that, on the contrary, its direct 
action is to lessen nervous force ; and that, in fact, in its degree, 
it is a poison of the nervous centres." 

From the above, we are certainly justified in maintaining that 
alcohol is a depressant — ^not a tonic, nor a stimulant. 

Some years ago I purposely placed myself under the influence 
of alcohol. At eight o'clock, p. m., and three and a half hours 
after partaking of a light tea, I took one ounce of rectified 
spirits of wine diluted with two ounces of water ; ten minutes 
afterwards I repeated the dose. The first perceptible effect was a 
10* 



114 THE FHY8IOIXX3ICAL ACTION OF ALOOHOL. 

•ensation of warmth in the region of the Btomach, followed 
immediately by a chillinesss oyer the whole surface of the body, 
though tbe temperature in the room was at 68° Fah. This was 
speedily followed by reaction. The pulse indicated arterial 
excitement, and I breathed more rapidly than usual. As soon 
as the spirit rose to the brain, the cheeks became flushed, the 
eyes sparkled, and the temporal arteries throbbed. I then felt 
an irresistible tendency to talk, and became very loquacious. 
This was attended with an involnntary screwing of the mouth, 
with a meaningless laughter, and an attempt to sing. In fact, I 
felt " jolly. ^' But together with this, there was an unsteadiness 
in my gait, my legs felt very light. There was a giddiness in my 
head, and a strange confusion of my mental powers. Tbe ability to 
fix the attention upon any subject was greatly impaired, but the 
imagination was excited and Uie fancy wild and restless. Ideas 
came and went, and I had no power to retain them. As I had 
not partaken of alcohol for many years, its action upon me was 
very striking, and rapid, and soon became almost overpowering. 
We will now inquire into the causes of these various symptoms. 
The sense of heat and warmth in the region of the stomach, was 
undoubtedly owing to the acrid property of alcohol irritating the 
mucous membrane of that delicate organ. The sense of chilli- 
ness extending over the whole surface of the body was clearly 
due to an interference with the capillaries of the surface, and the 
functions of the skin. But was not the exhilaration and jollity, 
the brightening of the eyes, and the glowing of the countenance, 
indicative of increased activity of the circulation in the brain? 
If so, alcohol must be a stifnulant. But I remember that this 
state was attended by other symptoms, indicating not stimulation 
but 'oppression. There was lightness of the head, and of the 
legs, unsteadiness of gait and movement, with a certain bewilder- 
ment and obtuseness of the mental powers. I then saw that two 
of the properties of alcohol were concerned in producing these 
symptoms. The unsteadiness of gait and motion were to be 
attributed to the narcotic action of the drug just then coming 
into operation, depressing the cerebellum, which regulates volun- 
tary motion, and also the cerebrum, the seat of the intellectual 
powers. The excitement was owing to the irritant property of 
alcohol affecting principally the base of the brain. The alcohol 
being rapidly absorbed from the stomach, and carried to the 
brain, its acrid properties at once come into play. The delicate 



ALCOHOL LESSENS VITAL FOBOB. 118 

tissaes of the brain at its base are irritated, and blood flows to 
the part ; yet not sufficient at first to prodace congestion, bnt 
only increased activity in the circulation. The region of the 
brain, which is the seat of the reasoning and moral faculties, is 
the first to sufibr, leaving the other part (the seat of the animal 
propensities) excited, while its functions are uncontrolled by 
reason and conscience. After this, even the cerebellum becomes 
narcotised, and the whole nervous system oppressed. The head 
becomes heavy, the face more deeply flushed, the breathing 
stentorous, the pulse oppressed, the power of locomotion fails, and 
the unhappy wight falls to the ground, and loses all sense and 
feeling. He is, in fact, dead-drunk. On the whole, we concluded 
that the symptoms we experienced were produced by the com- 
bined volatile, acrid, and narcotic properties of alcohol. 

In conversing with members of the medical profession, we flnd 
some who now candidly confess that alcohol is not a siimulanL 
Many have come to the conclusion of Dr. T. K. Chambers, t-hat 
*' alcohol is primarily and essentially a lessener of the power of the 
nervous system,*^ But some medical men are now beginning to 
prescribe alcohol as a sed^ztive, and. what is curious, in those very 
states for which it was formerly administered as a stimulant I 
So that, although they have changed their opinions in reference 
to the properties of alcohol, they have not changed their practice. 

Now, what is a sedativef £tymologically, it is what ^^calms.'' 
But a strange confusion has crept into medical nomenclature ia 
reference to this term. Sedatives are confounded with narcotics, 
and these, however deadly, are termed sedatives 1 The same 
term is also used- to designate those mild agents that merely 
soothe and tranquillize, but do not narcotize, the nervous system. 
If by a sedative^ medical men refer to the former, then alcohol is 
a sedative; but if they use the term to designate that which 
merely allays nervous irritability, then alcohol is not a sedative. 
A sedative soothes the excited and irritated nervous system, by 
equalizing the circulation of the nervous fluid ; a narcoiic relieves 
pain by deadening nervous sensibility. Sedatives and narcotics 
are in reality antagonistic, and if alcohol be a narcotic, it cannot 
be a sedative, and vice versa. An irritant, and a narcotic, how- 
ever, are not antagonistic ; they may, and often do, coexist in 
the same agent, and we see this combination in alcohol. 

Alcohol, then, is a narcotico acrid Poison. No definition of a 
poison can be given which shall exclude this agent. 



116 THE FHT8IOLOOICAL ACTION OF ALCOHOL. 

A poison '48 a sabstance which, when taken internally, is 
capable of destroying life without acting; mechanically upon the 
system.'' Alcohol answers to this exactly. Dr. E. Johnson 
asks, *^ What is a poison? Is it not any substance which, when 
taken into the system, has the effect of disordering some one or 
more of the actions which make up the sum of life, and which, 
if taken in sufficient quantity, will destroy- life itself?'*' 

To sajt that alcohol is a poison, is to state a scientific fact: and 
the man, therefore, who drinks alcohol, however moderately, and 
however diluted or mixed, drinks a poison ; and when the pulse 
bounds, the eyes sparkle, the cheeks flush, and the ideas flow 
from the imbibition of a small dose, the man is suffering from 
incipient poisoning. The very term we use when a man is drunk, 
expresses this : for we say the man is intoxieatedy which means 
" poisoned." 

Nearly all poisons have this peculiarity. By a kind of affinity, 
they select certain organs, or parts, in preference to others, upon 
which to expend their destructive powers. Tobacco paralyzes 
the heart ; so does digitalis. Strychnine takes effect upon the 
spinal cord. liCad fastens upon the muscles of th« wrist. 
Arsenic attacks the mucous membrane of the alimentary par nges. 
So alcohol selects, by preference, the liver and the brain, upon 
which to expend the full force of its ravages. " If in the blood, 
for instance, it is represented by 1*0; in the brain it is 1*34 ; in 
the liver 1'38. If alcohol be injected into the veins it spreads to 
all the tissues, but accumulates most largely in the brain ; being 
in the liver as 1*75; in cerebral matter, 3'0."* — LcUlemand and 
Perrin. 

There is one portion of the brain, however, which it selects in 
preference to the remainder, and that is the eerebrumy or brain 
proper; the ort^an of the mind, the seat of the will, and of the 
moral and intellectual faculties. In death from alcohol-poisoning 
the delicate tissues of this organ are found to be saturated with 
spirit, which indeed can be distilled from them. By its presence 
here, alcohol perverts and distorts the reasoning and moral 
powers, and blunts the perceptive faculties, and induces certain 
wayward tendencies to manifest themselves, varying in different 
persons, according to their peculiar cerebral development. 

All poisons are cumulative in their actions, that is, small doses 
frequently repeated injure the body, and finally destroy life as 
*A11 experiments, however, do not agree in this.— En. 



moderate: drinking injurious. 117 

completely as though a poisonons dose had been taken at once ; 
bat of course the' action extends over a longer period. Hence 
alcohol being a poison, and foreign to the body, the direo- 
tion of its action must be the same, and deleterious, whatever be 
the dose taken. The intensity of the action will of course yary 
with the amount consumed; but the kind of action will be 
unchanged. 

The frequent repetition of eyen small doses will, in the course 
of years, impair the constitution, and finally destroy life. The so 
called moderate use of intoxicating liquor is a very dangerous 
and injurious practice, and the man who drinks but two glasses 
of beer or spirits a day, will probably, in the course of years, sus- 
tain greater damag« to his constitution, than the man who gets 
intoxicated once a fortnight or once a month, but abstains the 
rest of the time. The man who occasionally drinks a large 
quantity, allows his body to right itself in the interval, while the 
moderate constant drinker never allows his blood to be free from 
the presence of the disturber, and so his body becomes diseased. 
Says Dr. Chambers: "The action of frequent small divided 
drams, is to produce the greatest amount ofha/rm of which alcohol 
is capable, with the least amount of good.'' 

Indeed, all the ill effects flowing from the excessive use of 
strong drink may be laid at the door of the so called " moderate 
use," for here they have their origin, Oinomania is induced by 
moderate drinking. Every moderate drinker suffers from it to 
a greater or less degree, from that first mild craving of which he 
becomes conscious in the beginning of his career, to that over* 
whelming and irresistible passion into which that mild craving 
at last ripens. ' 

The following are the results of ^' Moderate Drinking," so 

calle4> 

1. — It lowers vitality, and so produces a predisposition to 
certain morbid states. The direction of the diseased condition 
will) of course, depend mainly upon the idiosyncrasy, the general 
mode of life, and the temperament of the drinker. Persons of a 
full habit of body are more liable to inflammatory complaints, to 
congestions, and apoplexy; the nervous, to diseases of the 
nervous system and of the kidneys. Others again become more 
liable to disorders of the liver and of digestion. Dr. Gordon, of 
the London Hospital, stated before the Parliamentary com* 
mittee on drunkenness, "that seventy-five cases of disease out of 



118 THE PBTSI0L06ICAL ACTION OP ALCOHOL. 

•very hundred coald be traced to drinking/' and that ^' most of 
the bodies of moderate drinkers, which, when at Edinburgh, he 
had opened, were foand diseased in the liver, — and those symp- 
toms appeared also in the bodies of temperate people which he had 
examined in the West Indies." He more than once says that 
the bodies whose livers he had found diseased were those of 
moral and religious people. 

Dr. T. K. Chambers, in his Clinical Lectures, says : 

" It might have been anticipated, a priori, that the diminished vitality 
which accompanies the nse of alcohol should lead to a diathesis, of 
general degeneration. No part of the body seems exempt, bat it is of 
course most notably manifested in those organs which are of the first neces- 
sity, such as the liver and the kidneys. Earliest, prohably, of all parts 
of the body, this degeneration commences in the blood. Dr. Bocker 
noticed the alterations undergone by the blood of habitual alcohol drinkers 
as yet in good health. This deviialized condition oj the nutritive fiuid is 
^obably the first step to the devitalization 0/ the tissues which it feeds. 
To recapitulate ; we think that the evidence so far as it has yet gone, shows 
the action of alcohol upon life to he consistent and uniform in aU its phases, 
and to be always exhibited as an arrest of vitality. In a condition of health 
it acts in some measure immediately on the extremities of the nervous 
system by direct contact, and is also carried through the universal 
thoroughfare of the circulation to the brain. To nerve-tissue chiefly it 
adheres, for good for or evil. The most special exhibition of disease is in 
the ppecial function of the nervous system, the life of relation, to perform 
the duties of which the devitalized nerve becomes inadequate. Then the 
vegetable life suffers ; the forms of tissue become of a lower class, of a class 
which demands less vitality for growth and nourishment — connective fibre 
takes the place of the gland, and oil of connective fibre. The circulation 
retains, indeed, its industrious activity, but receives and transmits a less 
valuable, less living freight, and thus becomes the cause, as well as the effect 
oJ diminished vitality. — Medico-Chirurgieal Review, July, 1861. 

2. — The moderate ase of intoxicating liqaor induces that very 
lassitude, and that depression of spirits, for the relief of which 
they are taken. Moderate drinkers, as a class, suffer much more 
from a sense of weariness than abstainers. This they wrongly 
attribute to a variety of causes, but the real cause is the use of 
the depressant, alcohol. It is a remarkable fact, that in every 
instance, so far as our observation and knowledge extend, those 
moderate drinkers who have been induced to try abstinence, have 
greatly improved in health, and appetite, and spirits. And if 
OHf/ failures happen) it is because they do not persevere in the 



THE TESTIMONY OP SIDNEY SMITH. 119 

practice, till the body has had time to right iteelf. To show 
the benefit to be derived from the total disuse of intoxicating 
liquor, even in the case of moderate drinkers, we give the 
testimony of that brilliant wit, and celebrated writer, Sidney 
Smith. During the greater part of his life he was a drinker, but 
not a drunkard. Latterly he became an abstainer, and after 
trying this plan for a year, he thus quaintly records his experi- 
ence in a letter to Lady Holland : 

" Many thanks for yonr kind anxiety respecting mj health. I not 
only was never better, but never half bo well. Indeed, I find that I 
have been very ill all my life, without knowing it. Let me state some 
of the good arising from abstaining from all fermented liquors. First, 
sweet sleep, having never known what such sweet sleep was; I sleep 
like a baby or a plough-boy. If I wake, no needless terrors, no black 
visions of life, but pleasing hopes and pleasing recollections. Holland 
House, past and. to come ! If I dream, it is not of lions and tigers, but 
of Easter-dues and tithes. Secondly, I can take longer walks, and make 
greater exertions, without fatigue. My understanding is improved, and I, 
comprehend political economy. I see better without utine and spectacles 
than when J u^sed both. Only one evil ensues from it ; I am in such 
entravagant ^irits, that I must lose blood, or look out for some one who 
will bore and distress me. Pray leave o£f wine — ^the stomach quite at rest; 
no heart-burn, no pain, no distension." 

Testimonies of this kind could be greatly multiplied. 

For that sense of weariness and oppression arising from exces- 
sive and continued toil, either physical or intellectual, there is but 
one real remedy — rest. Stimulants only exhaust still further, 
whilst narcotics, though they may deaden for a time the sense of 
exhaustion, cannot reinvigorate the system. The anastoetio 
alcohol may for a time procure relief, by deadening sensibility, 
but it strikes down nature*s sentinel that calls to restj and more 
rapidly uses up the remaining strength. So that premature 
exhaustion and death* may be the result, or if this sad catas- 
trophe be averted, it will take nature a longer time to rally. 
Many bright intellects hare been quenched in the darkness of 
death, because, heedless of nature's admonition to rest, they have 
toiled on, with the sense of fatigue deadened for a time by 
alcohol, taken perhaps from the noblest of motives, but at last 
the vital and mental powers have given way, and all hope of 
saving them has been doomed to disappointment. 

3. — The habitual, moderate use of alcoholic liquor corrupts and 



120 THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OF ALCOHOL. 

impoTerishes the blood, and is thus the fraitful source of that 
fatty de/;eneration of the tissues, which is the foundation of so 
many intractable maladies. It also predisposes to gout and 
rheumatism, and to many blood diseases. A large number of 
the upper classes suffer very severely from attacks of gout, and 
many of them are finally killed by this troublesome and painful 
malady. The predisposition to this disease may have been 
inherited from their wine-drinking ancestors, but their severe 
and repeated attacks of gout are brought on, for the most part, 
by their own liberal potations, acting upon the predisposition. 
If the ^* upper ten thousand" would but give up their bibulous 
proclivities, and take to a plain, nutritious, non-alcoholic 
regimen, they would be much less troubled with this complaint, 
and in a few generations we should hare to erase it from the 
list of human maladies. 

4. — The habitual moderate use of intoxicants produces atony 
of the stomach (want of tone or power to digest food), a very 
frequent complaint among moderate drinkers in advanced life. 
This is caused by years of narcotism and irritation, and is a 
complaint most difficult to remove. 

5. — ^The habitual moderate use of intoxicants detracts from 
the working power of the constitution. Other things being equal, 
the moderate drinker cannot sustain severe and prolonged phy- 
sical labor upon equal terms with the teetotaler. Experience 
has proved this most incontestably. 

"The following statement, forwarded to the writer (Dr. 
Carpenter) from Leeds, was signed by thirty-four men, (and he 
was assured that many more signatures might have been easily 
obtained) engaged in laborious employments; out of whom 
twelve belonged to the class whose occupations are commonly 
regarded as peculiarly trying, seven of them being furnace-men 
at foundries and gas-works, two of them sawyers, one a white- 
smith, one a glass-blower, and the last a* railway-guard. ' We 
the undersigned, having practised the principles of total absti- 
nence from all intoxicating liquors, during periods ranging from 
one to ten years, and having, during that time, been engaged 
in very laborious occupations, voluntarily testify that we are 
able to perform our toil with greater ease and satisfaction 
to ourselves (and we believe, more to the satisfaction of our 
employers also) than when we drank moderately of these 
liquors; our general health and circumstances have al^o been 



THE TESTIMOmr OF EXPEBIEKOE. 121 

eonsiderably improved.' This testimony is extremely ralnable, 
as j^iving the coroparatire results of abstinence trnd moderaiion; 
it being often objected to statements of this kind, that they are 
only trae of the difference between abstaintrs and drunkards.^^ 
— Physiology of Temperanctj p. 117. 

We have conversed with teetotalers working as chain-makers 
and glass-blowers in Sunderland, who say, to a man, that since 
they tried the abstinent plan, they can sustain their severe 
labor and the high temperature in which they are compelled to 
work, with much greaier ease and for longer hours now thanfot' 
merly, while they do not suffer from that sense of exhaustion 
after their day^s work which they before experienced. 

In January, 1869, we descended the Ryhope coal mine, near 
Sunderland, in company with Mr. Fairley the underviewer, a 
zealous and consistent teetotaler. The pit is one of the deepest, 
and the temperature in the workings is very high. We made 
extensive inquiries among the hewers as to how they managed 
their hard work, and if they did not drink plenty of beer and 
whisky to help them through. To a man they informed us 
that they could not work upon beer or whisky, and that the 
only beverage they took down with them was a bottle of weak 
tea or cold water. This is the common practice amongst the 
coal-miners throughout the Northern coal fields. Those among 
them who drink, do so, not down the pit, but during their idle 
hours. 

We have conversed with abstainers working as puddlers, 
thinglers, etc., at the iron works at Darlington, Middlesbro' 
Consett, Witton Park, etc., and they inform us that, notwith- 
standing the severity and intense heat of their work, they can 
sustain it with much greater ease and comfort upon water than 
upon beer. 

The following shows the comparative efficacy of tea and coffee, 
and of beer, in sustaining severe and protracted labor. 

During the hay harvest of 1869, Mr. , of U , a brewer, 

who had some hay fields, was most anxious to complete his hay 
harvest upon a certain day. To encourage his men to do their 
best, he promised that, if they worked hard, they should have 
plenty of good Tommy ( food) , and plenty of good beer. He kept 
his word, and gave them a very liberal supply of both. The 
men worked very hard till three o'clock r. m., at which time they 
were so terribly exhausted that they oould work no Icmger, 
11 



122 THE PHTaiOLOGICiX ACTIOK OF AIX)OHOL. 

What was to be done ? The hay was not yet secured, and the 
men were completely done np with the heat of the weather and 
their own severe exertions. Under these circamstances, the 
brewer's wife suggested that as beer bad failed, they had better 
try tea and coffee. Accordingly these beverages were prepared 
and taken to the men, lying exhausted in the field. In a very 
short time they were so revived that they were able to resume 
their work, and to continue at it till nine o^ clock p.m., at which 
time the hay was all gathered in. This effect of tea and coffee 

appeared so wonderful to Mrs. , that she could not keep- the 

secret ; so the news rapidly spread through the town, that tea 
and coffee had proved stronger than the brewer's strongest 
alel 

A Mr. , who a few years ago used frequently to trayel on 

foot between Newcastle and Felton, a distance of thirty miles, 
informed us, that when he performed the journey on tea and 
coffee, or used the *'pure element," he came off as fresh as a 
daisy, and felt no inconvenience, but that when he attempted to 
do the journey upon beer, he always felt terribly ^^ knocked up,'' 
and worth nothing the day following. 

Though alcohol, by increasing the heart's action, may appear 
for a time to arouse Uie flagging energies, yet it very rapidly uses 
up the '^yital force." 

The late James Backhouse, of York, who, in one year and 
•even months travelled 6,000 miles in the interior of Africa, 
two thousand in wagons, and four thousand on horseback, with 
the thermometer sometimes at 100°, sometimes at 25°, frequently 
with frosts and snows, and sometimes so hot at night that he' 
slept in the open air, — found no necessity whatever for intoxi- 
cating liquors, nor the slightest inconvenience from being a 
teetotaler ; on the contrary^ he says, ^^ total abstinence agreed 
with me exceedingly well." So with Dr. Livingstone. 

The following, given by Dr. Carpenter, the physiologist, is 
Tcry conclusive: 

"The author met, some years since, with a gentleman who had re« 
centlj commanded a vessel daring a voyage from New Squth Wales to 
England, under the following peculiar circumstances. Soon after passing 
the Cape of Good Hope, the ship sprang so bad a leak, as to require 
the continued lahor, not merely of the crew, hot of the officers and 
passengers, to keep her afloat by the use of the pomps daring the re 
mainder of hei voyage, a period of nearly three months. At first, the 
men wore greatly, fstigued at the Wrmiaation.of their 'spell' st to 



NATITEE's own BETiaElAGE, WATER THE BEST. 123 

pumps, and after drinking tbeir allowance of 'grog, would 'torn in' 
without taking a proper supply of nonrisfament The consequence was, 
that their vi^r was decidedly diminishing, and their feeling of fatigue 
of course increasing, as our physiological knowledge would lead us to 
expect. By .direction of their commander, coffee and cocoa were sub- 
stituted for the grog, a hot 'mess' of these beyerages being provided 
with the biscuit and meat at the conclusion of eyery watch. It was 
then found that the men felt inclined for a good meal of the latter; when 
the more direct but less effective refreshment of alcoholic liquet was 
withdrawn, their vigor returned, their fatigue diminished; axd after 
twelve weeks of incessant and i»evere labor (with no interval longer 
than four hours), the ship was brought into port with all on board of her 
in as good condition as ever they were. in their lives." — Phytiologf/ of 
Temperance, p. 121. - ; 

AU trainers wishing to bring up their men to the highest 
possible degree of efficiency, and to develop to the highest pitch 
the physical energies, use alcoholic liquors bntsparingly, and very 
much diluted, whilst our best trainers, in imitation of the ancient 
Greek athletes, do not employ strong drink at all, experience 
haying taught them that plain food and exercise are the most 
effective conditions. 

Nature's own beverage, " the pure element,** acts in harmony 
with the human constitution, and aids in giving firmness to the 
nerves, and strength to the muscles. Alcohol, on the other 
hand, is antagonistic to the human constitution, it renders the 
nerves unsteady, and weakens and effeminates the body. A 
passage in Byron's " tragedy of Sardanapalus " very beautifully 
Ulustrates this point. The luxurious and effeminate monarch, 
upon the revolt of Beleses and Arbases, when besieged by their 
forces in his palace,^ is represented as surprising his followersi 
and inspiring them w;ith courage, by his deeds of valor. After 
repulsing the enemy, he retires to his palace, exhausted and 
wounded. Salamenes, his bravest general and wisest counsellor, 
addressing himself to the king, said : 

" This great hour has proved 
The brightest and most glorious of your life. 

Sardanapaltu. — And the most tiresome. Where's my cup-bearer ? 
Bring me some water, 

i85iiZ;— (smiling). 'Tis the first time he 

Ever had such an order : even I, 
Tour most austere of counsellors, would now 
Suggest a purpler beverago ] 



124 THE PHY8IOLOOICAL ACTION OF ALCOHOI*. 

iS!»r. — ^Blood — doubtless. 

Bat there's enongb of that shed ; as for wine, 
I have iearn'd to right the price of the pare element; 
Thrice have I drank of it, and thrice renew'd, 
With greater strength than the grape ever gave me, 
My charge upon the rebe's. Where's the soldier 
Who gave me water in his helmet ? 

One of the Owtrd. — Slain, sire t 

An arrow pierced his brain, while, scattering 
The last drops from his helm, he stood in act 
To place it on his brow. 

Sar.^- Slain I unrewarded! 

And slain to serve my thirst: that's hard, poor slayel 

Had he but lived. I would have gorged him with 

Gold : all the gold of earth could ne'er repay 

The pleasure of that draught ; for I was parched 

As I am now. [They bring water — he drinks 

I live again — ^from henceforth 
The goblet I reserve for hours of love, 
But war on water." 

Wine may do well enouj^h for men who live effeminate and 
worthless lives, and who have no other ambition than to stir up 
and gratify their passions ; but if we wish to act our part as 
men, upon the stage of time, to conquer the unruly passions 
within, and the foes without us, we must drink water. 

6. — The habitual moderate us of intoxicants detracts from the 
thinking-power of the brain. 

All great and continuous thinkers are either teetotalers, or 
next door to it, and if they drink at all, it is not till after the 
mental task is finished; Poets, it is true, are an exception. It 
is in the nature of alcohol to excite for a time the imagination, 
and to produce a wild play of the fancy. These are faculties 
upon which very heavy demands are made in the composition of 
poetry, and hence a poet may write very brilliantly under the in- 
fluence of alcohol ; but not so with the mathematician, the philoso- 
pher, or those who. are engaged in solving difficult problems in 
political or mental philosophy. The primary action of alcohol is 
to obscure the perceptive powers, and to pervert the reasoning 
faculties, and thus to detract from the real working power of 
the brain. There are numerous instances of great intellectual 
workers who have tried both systems, and the almost uniform 
testimony of this class is^ that the^ can get through their wori^ 



TESrriMONIES IN FATOB OF ABSTIKENCE. 125 

with much greater ease and comfort to themselves without 
alcohol than with it. The great Bichard Gobdcn, M. P., per- 
formed his herculean labors upon tea and water. He says :— 
" The more work I have to do, the more I have resorted to the 
pump and the teapot." 

Mr. S. G. Hall, the well-known editor of the Art Journal, giT^B 
the following testimony : — " He lived by the labor of his brain, 
and he could testify that since he had become a teetotaler, he 
had an increase of intellectual power, so that what he sent out 
to the public i^ever came trickling through a disturbed and dis- 
ordered medium. As to endurance of fatigue^ he was able to 
work three times longer than ever he could while he indulged, 
even moderatdy, in the use of strong drinks. He was better in 
body, in mind, in home, in every comfort; and he felt proud, 
therefore, of the pledge he had taJcen to abide by the practice of 
entire abstinence." 

Hugh Miller, one of the world^s great workers, of whom 
Scotland may well be proud, says : 

" The workmen had a ' foundling pint,' and two glasses of whisky 
came to my share. A full-grown man would not have deemed a gill of 
usquebaugh an over-dose, but it was considerably too much for me; and 
when the party hroke up, and I got home to my books, I found, as I 
opened the pages of a favorite author, the letters dancing before my 
eyes, and that I could no longer master the sense. I have the volume 
at present before me — a small edition of the Essays of Bacon. . . . 
The condition into which I had brought myself was, I felt, one of degra- 
dation. I had sunk by my own act, for the time, to a lower level of 
intelligence than that on which it was my privilege to be placed : and 
though the state could have been no very favorable one for forming a 
resolution, I in that hour determined that I would never again sacrifice 
my capacity of intellectual enjoyment to a drinking usage, and, with God's 
help, I was enabled to hold by the determination."* 

From public speakers, ministers of the gospel, members of 
Parliament, and members of the medical profession, numerous 
testimonies corroborate the fact, that the drinking of alcohol 
detracts from the working power of the brain. Indeed, men who 
attempt to perform their intellectual work by the aid of narcotics, 
stand in peculiar danger. The exhaustion following their use 
is so great as to lead the unwary victims to resort to larger and 
still larger potations, till at last they become enslaved and ruined 

* It would have been well if this splendid writer had adhered to this plaa 
Id the last— £». 



126 THE PHTBIOLOOICAL ACTION OF ALCOHOL. 

both in body and in mind. Many of oar most brilliant orators 
and poets, and multitudes of our ablest authors have fallen in 
this way; and yet their fall appears to be no warning to those 
who are following in the same mistaken career. 

7. — The habitual use of intoxicants detracts from the power of 
the constitution to adapt itself to great- climatic changes. A 
world-wide experience proves this. From India and Africa, from 
America and Australia, and the ice-bound regions of the North 
Pole, is borne the testimony that the moderate drinker succumbs 
to the trying dronmstances under which he is placed, whilst the 
abstainer endures them with impunity. 

Says Dr. Mosely, in his work on Tropical Diseases : *^ I have 
ever found from my knowledge and custom, as well as from the 
custom and observation of others, that those who drink nothing 
but water, or make it their particular drink, are but little 
affected by the climate, and can undergo the greatest fatigue 
without inconvenienoe.'' 

The west coast of Africa is very fatal indeed to the lives of 
Europeans, and it is certainly very sad to contemplate the high 
rate of mortality among those noble and self-denying men, the 
missionaries, who, from the purest of motives, have attempted 
to establish themselves upon that portion of the African Coa- 
tinent.* 

Livingstone, in all his African wanderings, has been a water- 
drinker on principle. In his greatest journey, he started with 
one bottle of brandy as a medicine ; but it was accidentally 
broken within the first few days, and its loss was not felt 

The Rev. 0. Rattray, a zealous and well-known missionary in 
Demerara, thus writes, (Dec. 9, 1852) : 

"When I arrived in this colony. I was fully assured by all with 
whom I happened to become acquainted, that the daily use of some 
stimulant was required to keep up the strength and to sustain the system 
under the incessant drain of perspiration to which it is subjected in a 
tropical dimate. Then, in this low, swampy land, such stimulant was 
the more necessary. The universal practice was quite in keeping with 
that opinion; and, without giving the matter much consideration, 
believing what everybody else seemed to believe, and doing as others 
did, I adopted the prevalent custom. It is now about thirteen years 

* There has been a needless sacrifice of life, because many good men 
have been carried off, not so much by the climate, as by the brandy and wine 
they have taken, under the delusion that they were necessary to enable 
them to resist the deadly malaria. 



TE8TIHOKIE8 IN FAVOR OF ABSmTENOE. 127 

since I adopted the abstinent principle, and I am fully convinced that 1 
have during that period enjoyed better health than I should have done 
had I accustomed myself to the moderate use of any kind of strong drink. 
J have enjoyed almost uninterrupted health, and after more than eighteen 
years' residence as a missionary in this not very invigorating climate, I 
cannot say that I am, as yet, conscious of any feeling of abatement in my 
vonted strength. I am happy to say that all my missionary brethren are 
also teetotalers, and I am quite sure that their testimony will be in precise 
accordance with my own." 

Professor James Miller, the eminent sargeon of Edinburgh^ 
says: 

" Lately I had the advantage of conversing on this subject with the 
veteran Governor of Gambia; [who] having passed nearly twenty-seven 
years of his life in foreign service, ' within the tropics, -and frequently in 
the most unhealthy stations,' attributes the preservation of his life and 
health, under God, mainly to this, that from the first he eschewed 
alcoholics and tobacco. A very large proportion of his comrades he 
has laid in the grave, and he accounts for their pre-decease, not by any 
difference in their constitution or service, but polely by the difference of 
their regimen. At first he tried both ways of it, and on that account 
his evidence is all the more valuable. In many arduous, extensive, and 
severe expeditions, I used solely tea as my beverage ; and I always feH 
free from fever and thirst, well sustained, up to any wor]^, (even wiUi 
the mercury 120^ in the shade,) as hard as a flint. Bat, on the contrary, 
when I used the usual liquids imbibed by travellers in the tropics- 
brandy, or rum and water, pale ale, Barclay's XXX — I was invariably 
heated and thirsty, muscles relaxed, nerves irritable, temper ditto ; and 
what on other occasions constituted pleasing exertion, became more or 
less labor. ' I have (says he) served or lived in all the West Indian 
colonies, and been in Afi'ica too, and I never knew a dram-drinker, a 
soaker, a jolly trump — ^be he of the military, medical, legal, commer- 
cial, or any other profession — ^long-lived, healthy, or always equal to the 
duties he was paid for, and called upon to perform.' ... In 1846, 
'I joined a party that made the ascent of the Blue Mountain Peak, 
Jamaica — an elevation of 8,000 feet above the level of the sea. After 
riding thirty miles, we commenced climbing up the last 2,000 feet, 
and accomplished the task in three hours, forty minutes. There was 
no path or track sufficient to steady a goat ; we had to hold on by the 
trunks, branches, and roots of trees and plants, climbing up handover- 
hand without relaxing our exertions until we reached the summit. I 
indulged in cold tea; my friends in libations of champagne, pale ale, 
porter, or brandy and water; and the result was, that the more they 
drank, the more thirsty they were. When we gained the peak, some 
reached unable to enjoy the romantic view; others flung themselves on 
the ground exhausted, declaring that if they were caught again ascend- 
ing, why — no matter what. We remained the night, which proved 



128 THE FfiTSIOLOQICAL ACTION OF ALCOHOL. 

bitterly cold; the mercury falling from from 95® to freexing point. I still 
continued constant to the China leaf, and next day made the descent 
fresher and more vigorous than any of the party, although I did lose 
•—what I could ill afford to spare from my thin carcasa— three pounds in 
'twenty- four hours.' " 

Some jean ago the Rer. J. F. SohSn, church missionary at 
Sierra Leone, a most noxious climate, observed : — ''We begin to 
see that we can live even in West Africa vrithont the aid of 
alcoholic drinks. Since I have i^stainedf Ihave/ound my heaUh 
much better than be/ore,*^ 

British Quiana is said to be one of the inost unhealthy por- 
tions of the world. It consists in great part of marsh land, the 
exhalations raised from which by the sun, render the air exceed- 
ingly pestiferous. There are here, however, 10,000 teetotalers, 
the experience of whom is thus testified by the Rev. E. Davis: 
" In our own persons we have demonstrated that the English 
constitution can stand better in this deadly climate without any 
intoxicating drinks whatever." 

The moderate use of alcohol must lessen the power of endur- 
ance of extreme and continued heat, not only because it rapidly 
uses up the. physical energy, but because it also lessens insensible 
perspiration, whereby the body becomes feverish and heated, 
inducing a sense of languor and oppression. 

As alcohol exhausts '^ vital force,'' and lowers the temperature 
of the body, its use in very cold climates must diminish the 
power of endurance. 

Arctic experience attests this. '* Captain Parry mentions 
with surprise, that he saw an Esquimaux female uncover her 
bosom, and give her child suck in the open air, when its tem- 
perature was forty degrees below zero.^^ Sir John Richardson, 
in a letter to Dr. W. B. Carpenter, states that *' plenty of food 
and sound digestion are the best sources of heat,'' and that 
<* a Canadian with seven or eight pounds of good beef or veni- 
son in his stomach, will resist the greatest degree of natural 
cold in the open air, and thinly clad, if there be not a strong 
wind.'' ''I am quite satisfied that spirituous liquors, though 
they give a temporary stimulus, diminish the power of re- 
sisting cold. We found on our northern journey that tea 
was much more refreshing than wine or spirits, which we 
soon ceased to care for, while a craving for the tea inr 
ereased." 



TESTIMONIES IK FAVOR OF ABSTINENCE. 129 

Sir John Richardson farther stated that the experience of his 
last expedition (undertaken in search of Sir John Franklin) 
fully bore out the statements he had made before proceeding on 
it ; the whole party having sustained the full severity of an 
arctic winter, in a manner in which he was confident they could 
not have done, if even a moderate allowance of spirits had been 
employed. 

Dr. Hooker, one of the medical officers in the expedition 
under the command of Sir James Ross, thus writes to Dr. 
Carpenter :-^'* Several of the men on board our ship, and 
amongst them some of the best, never touched grog during one 
or more of the antarctic cruises. They were not one whit the 
worse for their abstinence, but enjoyed the same perfect health 
that all the crew did throughout the four years' voyage. I do 
think that the use of spirits in cold weather is generally pre- 
judicial. I speak from my own experience. It is very plea- 
sant.* The glass of grog warms the mouth, the throat, and 
the abdomen ; and this, when one is wet and cold, with no 
fire, and just before turning into damp blankets, is very enticing. 
But it never did me one atom of good; the extremities are not 
' warmed by it, and when a continuance of exertion or endurance 
is called for, the spirit does harm, ybr then you are colder or more 
fatigued a quarter or half an hour after it than you would have 
been without it^ 

Experience has taught the Russian military aulhorities that 
spirit is inimical to the strength and the power of endurance of 
the Russian soldier. Accordingly they " interdict its use abso- 
lutely in the army, when troops are about to move during extreme 
cold; part of the duty of the corporals being to smell carefully 
the breath of each man on the morning parade, and to turn 
back from the march those who have indulged in spirits, it 
having been found that such men are peculiarly subject to be 
frost-bitten and otherwise injured." — P^f. Miller, Alcohol, its 
Plate and Powery p. 160. 

Dr. Carpenter informs us — **The Hudson's Bay Company 
have for many years entirely excluded spirits from the fur 
countries to the north, over which they have exclusive control, 
' to the great improvement,' as Sir John Richardson states, ' of 
the health and morals of their Canadian servants, and of the 
Indian tribes.' " 

8. — The habitual moderate use of intoxicating liquor thortent 



130 THE FHT8IOLOGIGAL AOnON OF ALCOHOL. 

life. This, indeed, we might reasonably conclude from th€ 
known physiological action of alcohol. But haye we any means 
of proring it 7 If we take isolated cases, — ^No I But if we take 
large numbers, — Yes I 

At the select conference on Temperance, held at Birmingham, 
September 20th, 1869, Mr. John Rutherford made the following 
statement. He said :— '* He was connected with an Assurance 
office, which bad issued 40,000 policies; 30,000 to moderate 
drinkers, and 10,000 to teetotalers. It'did not take publicans, 
brewers, or free-drinkers — only teetotalers and moderate drinkers. 
The mortality tables of these two classes were kept separately. 
During the first 30 years the mortality of the teetotalers was 
19 per cent, less than that of moderate drinkers, and during the 
last eight years, 25 per cent, less." The following particulars 
may be added : 

" The United Kingdom Temperance and General Provident Institution 
wafi formed in 1840, and for nearly ten years no lives but those of ab- 
stainers were insured. Throughout those years the rate of mortality 
was exceedingly low. In 1850, a distinct section was opened for the 
insurance of lives of non -abstainers, every precaution being taken to 
exclude intemperate persons and free-livers. Since 1850 three bonuses 
have been declared — 185&-1860-1865. The surpluses which had oc- 
curred to the Whole Life Department of the Temperance Section gave 
reversionary bonuses, ranging according to the age ^f the assured, from 
35 to 75 per cent, on the premiums paid in 1855; from 35 to 86 per 
cent, in 1860; and from 23 to 56 per cent, in 1865. In the General 
Section the bonuses ranged from 23 to 50 per cent in 1855 ; from 24 
to 59 per cent, in 1860; and from 17 to 52 per cent, in 1865. In the 
report for 1868 the fpllowing paragraph appeared: 'The Actuary, 
Mr. Samuel Brown, reports that the mortality of the Whole Life 
Policies has been as follows, viz: — Expected claims in the temperance 
section, 109 for £20,024; actual claims, 95 for £16,526. In the general 
section, 201 claims for £39,515 were expected; the actual have been 
179 for £51,055, less £15,000 received from reassurance. Hence the 
net claims in this department have been £36,055. The net result for the 
three years which have elapsed since the last division of profits, is as 
follows, viz : 314 claims expected for £56,974 in the temperance section, 
the actual have been 251 for £40,779 ; 572 claims expected in the general 
section for £111,250, the actual have been 534 for £107,184.' "—See Ora- 
ham't Temperance Guide for 1870. 

On comparing the number of deaths that occurred in several 
of the most eminent Life Assurance offices during the first five 
years of their existence, with the number that occurred during 



THS USE OF SXBONQ DBINK SHOBTBNB UFE. 181 

tlie same period among the members of this institation, tht 
difference in favor of the latter shows the advantages of ab« 
stinence. Thas, the policies issued bj four of the principal 
offices amounted to 6,153, and the number of deaths to 117j 
being on the average almost twenty deaths out of each thousand 
members. In the same period the Temperance Provident In- 
stitution issued 1,596 policies, and had only twelve deaths, or 
*Ji per thousand ; being nearly one-half less than the deaths in 
the most healthy of the non-teetotal offices. The state of mor- 
tality among the members of each office was as follows : 

Policies, Deaths, 

1st office issoed 838 and had II being 13 per thousand. 
2d •* 1,901 " 27 " 14 ** 

3d « 944 « 14 « 16 " 

4th « 2,470 « 65 « 26 « 

Temp. Prov. Ins. 1,596 ** 12 " 7} " 

During a period of thirteen months, ending in August, 1845, 
when the above statistics were published, only two deaths had 
taken place in the whole number of the assured— '* a fact which, 
it can hardly be questioned, is unparalleled among the same 
number of persons in any class of society *, and which reduces 
the deaths to an average of onl^ 3} per thousand in each year P^ 

** Sir Alexander Morrison (medical director to the largest office 
in the world). Dr. Morgan, of Bath, and other eminent medical 
directors, hare stated the members ^«7iera% of the temperance 
institution to be equal to the select ov most favorable lives in 
aU other offices,''^ (The Teetotaler^ s Companion : by Peter Burne, 
p. 411.) At the age of 40 years, the annual rate of mortality 
among the whole population of England is about 13 per 1,000 ; 
whilst among the lives assured ^n life offices it is about 11 per 
1,000, and in those insured in friendly societies, it is cbout 10 per 
1,000. The lower rate of mortality among members of Assurance 
offices and of 'Benefit societies is to be chiefly attributed to the 
fact, that they are in general more temperate in their habits than 
the population generally, which, of course, must include alike 
the free-drinker and the drunkard. When we come to divide 
the members of Life offices and of Benefit societies into ab- 
stainers and non-abstainers, we find at once the advantage 
decidedly in favor of the abstaining members. Among the 
Bechabites a sine qua non of membership is a pledge of abstinence 
from intoxicating liquors. According to eminent actuaries, the 



132 THE PHTSIOLOGICAL AOTION OF AUCOHGL, 

average mortality among Friendly Societies is rather more than 
10 per 1,000} among the Rechabites the mortality is only 7^ 
per 1»000. 

The average duration of life throughout the community, in- 
cluding all ages, is about 42 years. Among the members of the 
Society of Friends, deducting the deaths at all ages as before, 
the average duration of life is 55 years. Now a very large pro- 
portion of Friends are abstainers', and the remainder very 
temperate and regular in their habits. 

Moderate drinkers, as a class, are far more liable to attacks of 
disease than teetotalers, and when thus attacked, die off in large 
numbers. Dr. Munroe, of Hull, says: — *'I have had for the last 
seven years much experience in the medical attendance upon 
persons who are total abstainers. During that period hundreds 
of that class of persons have been under my care. I find that, 
as a class, they do not suffer from anything like the amount of 
sickness experienced by moderate drinkers of intoxicating 
drinks; that when they are sick, the sickness is much more 
amenable to treatment, and, necessarily, they are sooner well 
again. Moreover, I am convinced that in many cases the 
patient's recovery was entirely owing to a life of previous 
abstinence from intoxicating beverages. On comparing the 
results of sickness and death occurring in two large friendly 
societies under my care, the one composed of total abstainers 
and the other of non-abstainers, I have arrived at the conclusion 
that the total abstainers have much better health, are liable to a 
much less amount of sickness, and have fewer deaths than the 
moderate drinkers. In the non-abstinent society I find that the 
•average amount of sickness experienced last year was eleven days 
twenty-one hours per member, and that the number of deaths 
was about one and a-half per cent. In the total abstinent 
society the amount of sickness experienced last year did not 
amount to more than one day and three-quarters per member, 
and the number of deaths was only two in five years, or less than 
on&-qnarter per cent, per annum." 

The experience of the Indian army also con^rms our position. 
There are fewer deaths and less sickness among the total abstain- 
ing soldiers^ in proportion to their number, than among either 
the moderate drinkers or drunkards. In the Government 
Keturns of the sickness and mortality of the European troops 
forming the Madras army, for the year 1849, in which the men 



MODXBATE DBINKEBS DIE FBEHATUBELY. 133 

are classed as total abstainers^ temperate, and intemperate^ the 
results are highly favorable to the total-abstaining soldiers. 
Of 450 total abstaining soldiers the rate per cent, of admission 
into hospital for treatment of yarious diseases was 130-888. 
The rate per cent, of deaths was 1*111. Of 4,318 temperate 
soldiers the rate per cent, of admission into hospital for treat- 
ment of yarious diseases was 141*593. The rate per cent, of 
deaths was 2*315. Of 942 intemperate soldieiB, the rate per 
cent, of admission into hospital for treatment of yarious diseases 
was 214*861 ; the rate per cent, of deaths was 4-458. ** From 
these^ it will be seen/' says Dr. Carpenter, " that whilst the 
number of deaths among 450 total abstainers^ during the year 
1840 was 5, or IM per 1,000, the number among 4,318 temr 
perate men was 100, or 23*1 per 1,000, being rather more than 
doitble the previous proportion. As to' the intemperaiej the 
increase is frightful, for among 942 such men, the number of 
deaths was not less than 42, or in the quadruple ratio of 44*5 
per 1,000." 

It is objected that many moderate drinkers attain to an 
advanced age. True I but how many are cut off in early life? 
Even in reference to those who survive to advanced age, are 
we to attribute this to the moderate use of intoxicating liquor, 
or to great strength and vigor of constitution? Surely the 
latter. 

But can it be proved that those moderate drinkers who attun 
to old age escape scatheless? Is it credible that they have no 
penalty to pay for their violation of physiological law ? Expe- 
rience proves that they do not escape. Take, for example, the 
case of the late Dr. Holyoake, of Salem, U. S., who died at the 
age of 100 years. He lived what is called a very regular life, 
but was in the habit of using intoxicating drinks in small quan- 
tities. He had a preparation which consisted of one tablespoon- 
ful of Jamaica rum, and one of cider, diluted with water, which 
he took after dinner, while smoking his pipe. When examined 

after death by Dr. , his intimate friend and biographer, it 

was discovered that he did not die of old age. The heart and 
organs, apt to become diseased in aged persons, and to become 
ossified, (converted into bone,] were as soft as a child's, and for 
aught that appeared, might have gone on acting for another 
hundred years. The good doctor died of the disease most com- 
monly produced by ardent spirits and tobacco, viz : an internal 
12 



134 THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION OP ALCOHOL. 

oanoer of the Btomttoh.— See Dr. Nott's Lectures on Bible Tern- 
peranee, 

' The habitaal moderate use of intoxicating liquor 10 a practice 
fraught with unmitigated eviL 

Dr. Lankeeler, a gentleman who hat rery lealously opposed 
ieetotalism, and rery laboriously written in &¥<» of moderate 
drinking, confeseee that moderate drinking, after all, is an 
injurious and dangerous practice. " As far as its phyeiological 
action is concerned, I do not know that we can say anything 
good of alcohol at all ; it may serionsly interfere with the func- 
tions of absorption, and injure the coats of the stomach, and, 
when taken injudiciously, a very long way short 0/ producing 
^ny effect on the nervous system^ it may yet prevent the proper 
nutrition of the system, and insidiously lay the foundation of 
incurable disease." 

" But," says the Doctor, " what « excess? Unfortunately we have no 
rule which we can lay down by which the danger of excess may be 
avoided. The power of resisting^he eflPects of this agent varies with age, 
sex, climate, natural constitution, occupation. The young and the aged 
suffer more from excess than the adult and those of middle age. Women 
are less able to bear its action than men. More alcohol can be consumed 
with impunity in cold than in hot countries. Those who are engaged in 
sedentary pursuits need be more cautious in its use than those who live 
much in the open air. The more dilute alcohol is taken, the leas likely ii 
U to produce injurious effects. . . . But I would not undertake to say 
what is the precise quantity of alcohol which a man may t«ke, as a general 
rule, without doing himself any harm. (!) There is one physiological law, 
however, which, if recollected, might in some measure control the evils 
that arise from taking alcohol, and it is this : that substances which have 
a tendency to act injuriously on the system may be taken with impunity, 
providing tim^ is given for the special effects of one dose to be eradicated 
before the next dose is taken. Now, I am not going to commit myself to 
an opinion as to how many hours it may take for the system to get 
entirely rid of the effect of half a pint of table-beer, or a pint of wine; 
but I will express my conviction that those suffer least from the effects of 
alcohol who take it but once in the twenty-four hours; whilst those who are 
imbibing all day long, keep up in their system an action which is likely 
to be permanently injurious. The occasional drunk appear to suffer 
less than the perpetual toper who never betrays the extent of his liba- 
tions."— i>i€<, pp. 20fr-7. 

Dr. Lankester also advises us to '' avoid taking wine, spirits, 
and beer'' on an empty stomach.* He also recommends alcohol 
• Food, one would think, is specially suited to an empty stomach. 



HOBERATE BRINKINQ A MI8NOMEIL 135 

to be taken '' very diluted, as in the form of table-beer." In faet, 
he lays down so many cautions, with which no moderate drinker 
will ever think of complying, as very clearly shows that alcohol 
is a dangerous and unmanageable agent. 

It seems then, that it is extremely diffionlt, if not impossible, 
to define moderate drinking, either as it regards the quantity, the 
quality, or the frequency of use. All he informs us of, as certain, 
is that the weaker liquors are less injurious than the stronger I 
That a small quantity wont hurt people so muoh as a larger 
quantity, and that if we take it but once a day we shall not 
sustain so much injury as by repeating the dose more frequently. 
It hardly needs an F. R. S. to teach us these things. 

One thing is plain. The defenders of moderate drinking nerer 
attempt to show how much liquor a healthy man may take with 
benefit. They merely attempt to show us how much a man may 
take vnihout danger or serious inconvenience, and in this they 
miserably fail. Their whole position is based upon ift and buU. 
Pr. Lankester asks, ^^May it not be necessary, in order to remove 
a tendency to disease, to take doses of alcohol varying from half 
an ounce to two ounces every twenty- four hours?"* We call 
upon him to show that it really is necessary. 

The conclusion of the whole matter, then, is that moderate 
drinking is a misnomer, and that those persons only are safe and 
wise, who abstain from alcoholic liquors. 

* The experiments of Professor Parkes show that one ounce Increases the 
t0orik of theheartan hour per day; and that perceptible Injury to a strong 
man follows 1^ os., and imperceptible injxuy must precede the peroeptiblerf>M 
See Dr. Lee's Text Book qf Temperanu. 



136 BACCHUS DETHBOKEIX 



CHAPTER IV . 

THE LAW OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN ITS APPLICATION TO THl 

LIQUOR TRAFriC. 

Prop. IV. — "That social^ moderate drinJcing, creates the 
unnatural demand for the poison, which is the principal catise 
of the wide-spread scourge of intemperance.^^ 

Prof. V. — "That it is the supply of alcoholic liquors, fUr- 
nished by the manufacturers and vendors of the poison, that 
creates [or fosters] the unnaturcd demand; not the demand the 
supply" 

Thjese propositions embody two aspects of the same thought, 
and involve the following propositions : 

1. — That the demand for intoxicating liquor arises from no 
natural appetite implanted in the human constitution. 

2. — That the appetite for intoxicating liquor is produced by 
the use of these beverages. 

3. — That the supply of the article is therefore antecedent to, 
and the direct cause of, that unnatural demand, and not the 
demand the supply. 

For the preservation of the human body, and the propagation 
of our kind, the Creator has wisely implanted in our constitu- 
tions certain appetites, over which we have but slight or no 
control. Such are thirst, hunger, and the appetite of the sexes ; 
the proper gratification of which brings pleasure, and is necessary 
to health and life. The Creator has also graciously provided 
objects to satisfy these appetites. He has provided water to 
meet our thirst, and in a natural state the body craves for no 
other. We may flavor it with the aromas of tea and coffee, and 
raise its temperature to blood-heat, merely to please the palate 
or the fancy ; but water, pure and uncontaminated, is the only 
beverage absolutely demanded by the wants of the body. 

God has also provided food to satisfy our hunger. The only 
condition requiring to be fulfilled here, is that this food shall 
contain those normal elements that enter into the composition of 



VATXTRAJj CBAVING& 137 

tbe haman blood and stmctures. To this end Qod has wisely 
providecl the world with a rich variety of foods, so that what one 
thing maj be wanting in, another may supply. If our food be 
deficient in any necessary constitucntSi there exists in the body 
a craving for them, strong and imperious, and should this 
not be met, disease or death will follow. This is to be witnessed 
in sailors who suffer from scurry, the result of being restricted 
to provisions deficient in the salt of potash. So, many of the 
inhabitants of our large towns who live almost exclusively upon 
baker's bread, suffer much from scrofula; induced by poverty of 
blood ; so also children suffer from rachitis, or softening of the 
bones, owing to a deficiency of phosphate of lime. If the food 
supplied to fowls be short of lime, they drop soft eggs, and will 
greedily peck at any mortar they can get at. So if food be de- 
ficient in salt, all animals will crave after it Through the 
refinements of modern cookery, a great many of these saline and 
soluble ingredients are dissolved out of our food and poured 
away ; and to make up for this deficiency, we require either to 
increase the variety of our food, or to introduce them artificially. 
If, from any cause apart from the use of narcotics, or excess in 
food, the stomach loses its tone, and the body its nervous energy , 
then to restore the one, nature has provided the bitter principle, 
in some instances contained in the very food we eat ; and to 
renew the other, she has provided the acro-aromatics, causing 
them to grow and luxuriate in those very climes where they are 
most likely to be needed. 

In proportion as the nutritive* elements of plants and roots 
diminish through poverty of soil, unpropitiousness of climate, or 
neglect of culture, the bitter principle increases, and manifests 
its presence. The grasses are more succulent, nutritious, and 
sweet upon rich soils, and less so, but more bitter upon poor 
soils. This bitter principle seems to be given to enable the 
stomach to dispose of the larger quantity, which the body will 
require to make up for the deficiency of nutriment. 

Here, again, the craving under certain- circumstances for acro- 
aromatics, or bitters, not being entirely abnormal, but arising 
from certain causes over which we have little or no control, 
nature has a rich provision to meet and satisfy it, and many of 
those agents, so called " medicinal," are also rich in such ele- 
ments as iron, potash, etc.* 

• * I am Acquainted with a lady, a teetotaler, Mrs. McI , of A ^ who 

■ome time^o bad a very strong craving for bitter beer, bat for no other 



138 THE LAW OF SUPPLY AND DEICAND. 

In man*8 normal condition, however, we find no oravini;, no 
desire, no appetite for alcoholics, but on the contrary, a decided 
aversion to them. In harmony with this, God has not implanted 
alcohol in anything He bath made. We may ransack nature 
through all her wide domains, but we find it not in anything 
endowed with organism and life ; neither do we meet with it as 
the production of any of those vital processes that sorronnd as 
on every hand. By a kind of vital, most elaborate and sabde 
chemistry, with its endless changes, affinities, transformations 
and combinations, we' see the modest daisy springing up be- 
neath our feet, and the tall tree waving on high its branches in 
all the pomp of blossom and of foliage, and by the same pro- 
cesses, though perhaps siill more complicated, we see the tiny 
insect springing into life, and man himself erect and beautiful, 
lifting his face to the skies; but nowhere through the operation 
of those vital changes, do we find etlooholie liquor or Juice. We 
may torture nature in the crucible, we may apply our most 
delicate chemical tests, but we find it not in any organised pro- 
>duction. Not until the life of the edible plants and fruits be- 
comes extinct, and organisms begin to break up, and decompo- 
isition sets in, is alcohol ever found. It is the offspring of death, 
the child of corruption, destined only to an evanescent existence, 
had not Art interfered and arrested its further progress, snatch- 
ing it from its seething corruption to carry on the work of 
-human slaughter. 

No doubt 1 the babe — ^the offspring of a drunken mother, whose 
blood was never pure, being fed in the womb from a tainted 
source, and whose very food, its mother's milk, is thoroughly 
saturated ¥rith spirit, — may grow up with a craving, strong and 
almost resistless, for intoxicating liquor, but the appetite exists 
not there by God's own implantation, but from those vile and 
abnormal conditions under which that child has been brought 
into the world and reared. 

It ought to be remembered that no woman with a child at the 
breast, can drink liquors containing spirit without a definite pro- 
kind of alcoholic beverage. The bitter beer appeared for a time to aatisty 
it) is craving, but did not remove it. I urged her to lay the beer aside, and to 
talce.infttead, compound infusion of gentian, with a little ginger. One fluid 
ounce three times a day, alternated with infusion of columbo and ginger. 
This not only satisfied her craving, but eventually removed it, and very greatly 
improved her health. I purposely refrained from prescribing the tinehires of 
coUimbo and gentian, and confined the patient to the simple aqueous infti- 
Bions; for otherwise it might have been urged, that the bitter tinctures 
stood related to the body exactly as bitter beer did, both being composed 
of bitters and aloohol. 



t'HE BEHAND FOB ITABCOTICS. 139 

portion of the same finding its way to the mammary glands, and 
mixing with the milk. Alcohc^ has been distilled from the milk 
of mothers who drink alooholic liquors. Of course the babe 
partaking of this impure supply becomes diseased. We have 
seen many infants, who imbibed their nourishment from the 
breasts of drunken mothers, completely intoxicated. In fact, 
like l^eir parents, they are seldom sober. Thus early in life, and 
ere the dawn of reason, do they become involuntary drunkards, 
and should their young lives be spared, they grow up vicious and 
depraved, or become oinomaniacSf and descend to a drunkard's 
grave^ 

That there exists, on a very large scale, a demand for intoxi- 
cating liquors and other narcotics, is true. From ages imme« 
morial has this strange infatuation existed, this strong proclivity 
•to indulgence in narcotics, either in the form of opium, tobacco, 
or spirit* This is peculiar to no particular clime, to no one race 
of men. There is, however, this feature about it ; the strange 
facility with which barbarous tribes, previously uncontaminated, 
ean acquire a liking for these narcotics, especially alcoholic liquor. 

Love for the intoxicating wines of the sunny south brought 
the Goths and Vandals in overwhelming numbers before the 
gates of Rome, and led them to devastate the fair plains of Italy. 
Love for fire-water by the American Indians has destroyed even 
their natural affection, and decimated or even annihilated whole 
tribes of them. The inhabitants of some of those lovely and 
luxuriant islands in the far Pacific have been so corrupted by the 
same agent, till once numerous and powerful tribes have degene- 
rated to a few diseased aud wretched creatures. 

Let us now seek to trace this demand to its source. How the 
different narcotics came to be used at all, and under what 
circumstances they were first discovered, we can only conjecture. 
Most likely the intoxicating wines were first discovered by acci- 
dent. The milk of the cocoanut, the juice of the grape, left 
exposed to fermentation, and drank unwittingly on the part of 
those who drank them, of the changes induced, would impart a 
feeling of jollity and exhilaration. By accident a liquor is dis- 
covered, possessing the marvellous and fascinating power of 
exciting the nervous system, and filling the mind with pleasing 
images, taking away fear and banishing care 1 The original 
drinkers of these liquors, being perfectly ignorant of their phy- 
siological action, would naturally recommend them to others as 



140 THE LAW OF SUPPLY AKD DEMAND. 

panaceas for the sorrows of life ; possessing power to relieve tbe 
aching hearts, and '' banish dull care." The discovery of the 
sapply leads to the demand ; and with the consumption of these 
liquors this demand increases; for speedily there supervenes 
upon the desire to promote jollity and good fellowshipy a craving, 
distinct and definite, for the drink itself. This they seek to 
gratify, and thus supply and demand act and react upon- each 
other. The more liquor is manufactured the greater the con- 
sumption, and the larger the quantity consumed the more the 
people desire and crave after it. As the appetite increases, the 
mild intoxicants fail fully to satisfy the unnatural demand, un- 
less consumed in very large quantities, and so- liquors of greater 
intoxicating power must be resorted to. To meet this demand 
previous to the discovery of distilled liquors, wines were more 
thoroughly fermented, thereby increasing their alcoholic power, 
or drugs were added of a bitter and narcotic character, such as 
hellebore, opium, absinthe, etc. At last the discovery is made, 
that intoxicating liquors, though potent for a time to assuage 
the heart's anguish and to excite merriment and glee, are never- 
theless instruments of demoralization and disease ; that they are, 
in fact, crime-producing and death-dealing agents. But long 
ere this they have become articles of commerce. Monetary in- 
terests are involved, and social customs partaking of the forms 
of hospitality are attached to them, which are also personified in 
a god, whose praises and exploits are chanted in hymns, and 
upon whose altars oblations of wine are poured forth in worship ! 
These things render the evil, most difficult to deal with. Now 
and again, however, wise legislators interfere, and seek to stay 
the wide-spread ravages of drink. In China, 1100 b. c, the 
manufacture of intoxicating liquor is prohibited, and in succeed- 
ing reigns even the vines are uprooted and destroyed. 

Plato, in his laws, represents a Lacedemonian as saying:— 
^^Tkat whereby men chiefly fall into the greatest luxuries, inso- 
lence, and all sorts of moral madness, our laws have efflsctually 
rooted out of our country. You shall neither in villages nor 
towns of the Spartan state, see any such things as drinking 
clubs, or their usual consequences." He also approves ^Hhe 
Carthaginian law, that no sort of wine be drunk in the camp, 
nor anything save water ; and that every judge and magistrate 
abstain from wine during the year of his majesty." 

Learned philosophers practise abstinence themselves and enjoin 



ANCIBirr TESTIMONIALS. 1*1 

the same upon their disciples. Pythagoras was a water-drinker, 
and the Pythagoreans were renowned for the simplicity of their 
lives and their abstinence from intoxicants. Epicurus, the 
founder of the Epicurean philosophy, was a teetotaler, andur;red 
the necessity of a frugal and virtuous life in order to attain life's 
great end, enjoymenU He says ; — " Wilt thou support life ? 
Have bread and water. For these twenty years less than a penny 
per day has kept me." Over his gate he wrote the following in- 
scription : — '* Passenger 1 Here thou wilt find good entertain- 
ment ; it is here that pleasure is esteemed the sovereign good. 
The master will receive thee courteously 5 but take note — thou 
must expect only a piece of oake, and thy fill of water. Here 
hunger is not provoked, but satisfied; thirst is not excited, but 
quenched." 

Great religious reformers make abstinence from intoxicating 
drink a very prominent feature in their teachings. In India, 
Gotama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, who flourished 600 
B. c, taught: — ''Obey the law and walk steadily in the path of 
purity, and drink not liquors that intoxicate, or disturb the 
reason,"* 

Mohammed taught, '* Of the fruit of the grape ye obtain an 
inebriating liquor, and also good nourishment." The former he 
interdicts, the latter he allows. 

Measures of a most repressive character were also enacted in 
some countries to keep the people sober. Romulus, the founder 
of Rome, enacted a law that no woman should drink fermented 
wine under penalty of death, awarded to adultery, since he 
regarded the drinking of wine as the beginning of adultery. 

In Egypt intoxicating wine was forbidden both to king and 
priest. From the accession of Menes to the reign of Psametichus 
600 B. c, a period embracing twenty-five dynasties, teetotalism 
was taught and practised by them. The Egyptian priests 
abstained even as far down as the time of Nero. Says Chseremon, 
the keeper of the sacred books in the Temple of Serapis ; — ** With 
respect to wine some of them did not drink it at all, and others 
drank very little of it, on account of its being injurious to the 
nerves, oppressive to the head, an impediment to invention, and 
an incentive to lust." 

Though among some nations that form of intemperance flow- 

*For these and other passages we are indebted to Or. Lees* Andmii 
TMtQiaUun. Works, vol. a»(1883.) 



142 THE LAW OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND. 

ing from the use of intoxicating liquor by these means received 
a most effectual check, as in China and Arabia, yet in others 
the ravages of intemperance continued to spread, defying alike 
penal enactments, philosophic homilies, and prophetic denun- 
ciations, till nations once great and powerful were demoralized 
and destroyed. 

About the 10th century the art of distillation, supposed to 
have been previously discovered by the Chinese, was rediscovered 
by the Arabians. They sought in the alembic for the philoso- 
pher's stone, whose magic touch should transmute the baser 
metals into gold, and for the vital elixir whose potent influ-^ 
ence should repair the ravages of time, remove the effects of 
disease, and thus confer upon frail humanity the joys of perennial 
health, and the gift of endless life. Alas 1 they discovered only 
the elixir of death — the aUghoul, the spirit of destruction, by 
whose potency the joys of life should fade, the heart be deprived 
of moral worth, the human frame be stricken with a hundred 
diseases, and filled with a thousand torments. Pale and trem- 
bling stood the Arabian chemist before the spirit he had evoked — 
evoked from the secrecy of the laboratory, to return not again, 
but to march forth, a grim and merciless fiend, upon its work of 
ruin. 

At first, and for some centuries, the most extravagant eulo- 
giums were lavished upon the newly discovered ether. Diseases 
were to vanish at its touch, sorrow was to melt into joy at its 
approach, and <iqua vitas was to prove a blessing to the world. 

The extravagant praises lavished upon ardent spirits by 
physicians in the 13th century, as Amoldus de Villa, and Ray- 
mond Lully his disciple, and afterwards by Theoricus, were 
eagerly believed in by the people, who regarded the products of 
the still, not only as possessing great potency to cure disease, but 
to shield and preserve the body from its attacks. Those there- 
fore who feared the pestilence, or the burning rage of fever, or. 
the lesser ills of life, sought in the new liquor a safeguard and 
a refuge. Thus around these baneful drinks social customs 
also gathered and monetary interests accumulated. The manu- 
facture of them rapidly extended, and with this arose an 
increased consumption, a rapid increase in the demand, and a 
rapid development of the sources of supply ; this again accele- 
rated consumption, and so these conditions continued to act and 
reaet upon each other, supply and demand, demand and supply^ 



, SOCIAL CUSTOMS. 143 

till the nations of Europe were filled with drunkenneBSy misery, 
and crime. 

To check the evil and to improve the habits of the people, 
penal laws are enacted against tippling and tippling-houses ; the 
price of liquor is enhanced bj duties levied upon them, and none 
are permitted to sell them without a license. Yet all these 
restrictions and fiscal measures fail to remove the plague I The 
duties and license fees, originally levied to enhance the price of 
drink, and ibo check the intemperate habits of the people, 
become a source of considerable revenue, which proves an 
inducement to regard with favor the development of the manu- 
facture of intoxicating liquors, and their increased consump- 
tion, thus rendering the evil more protean in form, and more 
difficult to deal with, seeing that now, appetitCi custom, monetary 
interests, a nation's revenue, all conspire to guard it from hostile 
attacks. 

That social drinking usages have a great deal to do in keeping 
alive this unnatural demand is evident; for these enter into every 
department of life, and are associated with the most solemn, the 
most sacred, and the most joyous epochs of our existence. They 
confront us at our birth, our baptism, our marriage, and our 
death. If we meet a friend, they are there; if we. transact 
business, they are there. When bound an apprentice they rise 
before us, and when that apprenticeship is completed, they are also 
forced upon us. Whatever our position in life, or the nature of 
our employment, we cannot fail to be brought, face to face with 
these tyrannical and pernicious customs — ^yet all the more diffi- 
cult to deal with, tbat they are associated with those kindly senti« 
ments of hospitality which we should not like to see weakened. 
For if it be the desire of the kind host to express his friendship, 
and his anxiety to entertain and please, it is no less the desire 
of the guest to show that that kindliness is appreciated. When 
the cup is the symbol of these^ how difficult to refuse I 

During the simplicity of the patriarchal age, the sentiment of 
hospitality found a more safe and natural expression. The kid 
was prepared, or the fatted calf killed, water was brought 
to the weary traveller that he might wash his feet, that thus 
invigorated with substantial fare and the refreshing ablution, he 
would be able to resume his journey. In many of the thinly 
peopled districts of our own land — the mountains of Cumberland* 
the hills of Northumberland, the dales of Yorkshire and Weit* 



144 THE LAW OF SUPPLY AND BSHAKD. 

more1and| the hospitable Bentiments of the kind farmeri and of 
the humble bat not less friendly cottager, find expression in a 
similar manner. The kettle simmers upon the hob; the cup 
that cheers but not inebriates is prepared, and you are invited to 
eat and drink, that, thus refreshed, you may pursue your way. 

We must seek to uproot these social drinking usages, not by 
restraining the laudable sentiments of which they are the expres- 
sion, but by inculcating the duty of expressing them in a way 
more innocent, less dangerous, and more compatible with the 
safety and well-being of our guests. 

In this work, we need the special aid of Woman, 

We would appeal to her in the language of the eloquent Dr. 
Nott. *' It is not yours to wield the club of Hercules, or bend 
Achilles^ bow. But, though it is not, still you hare a heaven- 
appointed armor, as well as a heaven-approved theatre of action. 
The look of tenderness, the eye of compassion, the lips of en- 
treaty are yours ; and yours too are the decisions of taste, yours 
the 'omnipotence of fashion. You can therefore, — I speak of 
those who have been the favorites of fortune, and who occupy 
the high places of society, — ^you can change the terms of social 
intercourse and alter the current opinions of the community. 
You can remove, at once and forever, temptation from the 
saloon, the drawing-room, and the dining-table. This is your 
empire, the empire over which God and the usages of mankind 
have given you dominion. Here, within these limits, and with- 
out transgressing that modesty which is heaven^s own gift and 
woman's brightest ornament, you may exert a benign, kindly, 
mighty influence. Here, you have but to speak the word, and 
one chief source of the mother's, the wife's, and the widow's 
sorrows will, throughout the circle in which you move, be dried 
up for ever. Nor throughout that circle only. The families 
around you, and beneath you, will feel the influence of your 
example descending on them in blessings like the dews of 
heaven that descend on the mountains of Zion ; and drunken- 
ness, loathsome drunkenness, driven by the moral power of 
your decision from all the abodes of reputable society, will be 
compelled to exist, if it exist at all, only among those vulgar and 
ragged wretches, who, shunning the society of women, herd 
together in the bar-room and the groggery." 

The second cause of the unnatural demand for intoxicating 
liquor is, without doubt, the liquor traffic j including alike the 



APPLIED TO THE DRINKING SYSTEM. 146 

manufacture and sale. This traffic, legalized and protected, pos- 
sessing many immunities and privileges, is in reality the foundar 
tion and principal support of the drinking usages, and through 
them of the unnatural demand for strong drink. 

The law of supply and demand, as applied to the necessaries 
of life, may he stated thus — demand leads to supply. — If the 
supply comes short of the demand, the population of a country 
must decrease, till they halance each other. If the supply merely 
meets the demand, and no more, the population of that country 
will he kept in check. If, however, the supply he greater than 
the demand, then this affords scope for the population of a 
country to increase in proportion. All poor countries are thinly 
peopled 5 whilst rich and productive countries, whose resources 
are heing rapidly developed, increase in population. We may 
point to Lapland in evidence of the former, and to England and 
the United States in evidence of the latter. Should a rapidly 
increasing population threaten to overlap the development of the 
sources of supply, then from that period does the ratio of increase 
diminish. We seem to have an 'example of this in our own 
country. In the ten years, 1811-1821, the increase was 18 per 
cent., or 1*8 per cent, per annum ; in the ten years, 1851-1861, it 
was only 12 per cent., or 1*141 per cent, per annum. 

As applied to the luxuries of life, the law of supply and 
demand may he thus stated: 1. — The supply leads to the 
demand ; 2. — The nature of the supply leads to a rapid increase 
in the demand ; Z. — This again leads to a still further develop- 
ment in the sources of supply ; and thus supply and demand act 
and react upon each other. 

This is especially the case when applied to intoxicating liquor. 
The more drink you supply the greater will he the demand, and 
this again must lead to a rapid development in the sources of 
supply. This process has heen going on for many years, and the 
unnatural demand has increased out of all proportion to the 
increase of population. 

According to Mr. Porter, the sum spent in 1849, on heer, 
spirits, and tohacco, was £57,000,000, at that time the popula- 
tion of the United Kingdom was ahout 28,000,000. 

In 1868 the sum expended was £111,886,000 ; the population 
being ahout 30,000,000. Thus since 1847, the population had 
increased 7*142 per cent., hut the consumption of liquor and 
tobaooo nearly 100 per cent. 
13 t 



146 THE LAW OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND. 

To take an earlier period in the history of this country, we see 
how the consumption of intoxicating liquor has gone on increas- 
ing out of all proportion to.the increase of population. In 1801 
the population of the United Kingdom was 16,000,000. The 
annual average consumption of intoxicating liquor for the six 
years ending 1801 was as follows : — Of ardent spirits, 7,200,338 
gals, {old wine measure) ] beer, 4,735,574 barrels, or rather less 
than 154,000,000 gals, {this was the actual, not average consump' 
Hon of beer in 1801); of wine, for the •five years ending 1795, 
7,000,000 gals, {old wine measure). 

In 1831, the population of the United Kingdom had increased 
to 24,000,000. The consumption of intoxicating liquor was as 
follows : — The annual average of ardent spirits for the six years 
ending 1831 was 25,652,428 gals, {old wine measure), of wine, 
about 7,500,000 gals, {old wine measure). The number of gallons 
of strong malt liquors brewed by publicans and brewers during 
the eight years preceding 1830, was in England alone, about 
230,000,000, (of this quantity only 20,000,000 were exported.) 
But throwing it in as the amount consumed in Ireland and 
Scotland, what have we? Why, the number of gallons of intoxi- 
cating liquors of all sorts consumed in 1^1, with a population 
of 16,000,000, was 168,200,338; or rather more than lOJ gals, 
per head of the population. In 1831, with a population of 
24,000,000, the consumption had increased to 263,152,428 gals. 
or close upon 11 gals, per head of the population. In other 
words, whilst the population had increased duping that term of 
years at the rate of 50 per cent., the consum'ption of intoxicating 
liquor had increased at the rate of 56 per cent Hence, we see, 
in 1831 we were a more drunken people than in 1801 ; and a still 
more drunken people in 1868 than in 1849.* 

It is a remarkable fact that the drink market has never yet 

been GLUTTED. 

In other commodities, such as com, cotton, and woollen goods, 
etc., should the supply pass beyond certain limits, we have a 
glutted market, and a depreciation in the value of the goods, and 
in some instances, to avoid total loss, those goods have been sold 
at less than prime cost. This has repeatedly occurred both in 

• The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr. Lowe, in a speech on the National 
Debt, — delirered in the Houseof Commons, June 2d, 1871, — advancedthefol- 
lowinK facts : The consumption of beer per head of the population was in 
1825, about one-third of a barrel; in 1850 about one-half of a barrel ; and in 
1870-1 about four-fifths of a barrel The consumption of spirits, home, foreign, 
and eolonial, was in 182»— -908 of « gallon ; in 13^0— -918; and in lS7i^-l— -9SS pf 
• gallop. 



THE MARKET TpAT KNOWS NO QLT7T. 147 

Australia and in other of oar colonies. Merchants at home, in 
the ardor of competition, have poured goods into the colonial 
market far outreaching the demands of the colonists; and where 
these goods have been of a perishable nature, or where the bond- 
ing of them would, in a short time, more than eat up their value, 
they have been sold at an enormous sacrifice. But we have never 
known such a thing to occur in the liquor market. This market 
knows no glut. The consumption ever increases with the supply. 
In reference to the necessaries of life there can only be a certain 
fixed and definite demand, proportioned to the population. The 
appetite for food does not increase with what it feeds upon ; it 
remains pretty stationary and regular, and bears an exact pro- 
portion to the real and fixed wants of the animal economy. But 
the appetite for strong drink increases with what it feeds on, and 
indeed to this increase we can assign no limits. The man who 
consumes a quart of beer to day, and is satisfied therewith, will 
be able to dispose of a gallon three months hence, and will then 
not be satisfied -, and a year from that date he will be able to 
consume his two gallons ; and so the appetite goes on growing 
till the stomach fails in its power, and the victim sinks into a 
drunkard's grave. 

That the supply of the so-called narcotic luxuries of life is the 
cause of the demand, and not vice versa, is strikingly evident if 
we take any one of them and trace its history. Take, for instance, 
tobacco. First of all, the supply was brought from the New World, 
when smoking was introduced into France by Jean Nicot, the 
French ambassador at the court of Portugal, and into England 
by Sir Francis Drake, about the year 1560. At this time the 
demand was exceedingly limited ; but as the practice of smoking 
extended, the demand rapidly increased, and to make the supply 
keep pace with the demand the area of its growth was extended, 
and great attention was' paid to its cultivation, until at the 
present day we find it cultivated, not only in Cuba, where it was 
originally discovered, but in many of the States of America, in 
South America, in Persia, in Turkey, in India and Africa, in the 
islands of the Eastern Archipelago, and in many of the countries 
of Europe. The demand has kept pace with the enormous 
development of the sources of supply. In 1868, the United 
Kingdom alone consumed about 53,000,000 lbs. 

Persons engaged in the liquor traffic entertain the idea that 
they are merely supplying a legitimate demand on the part of 



148 THE LAW OF SUPPLY AKD DEMAND. 

tbe people, and are very anpry because we attempt bj legislative 
means to put an end to tbis traffic. Tbey saj to us, ''We don't 
invite tbe people into our bouses ; we merely open them for the 
supply of liquors, and if people choose to enter and ask for them 
it is our duty to supply theui, and we have nothing to do with 
the consequences ; that is their 1ook-oat| not ours." True, they 
do not stand at tbe door of their houses, inyiting the passers by 
to enter. Tbis is not needed, for their houses possess oth» 
attractions of a very peouliar character, attractions quite suffi- 
cient to draw custom, without a verbal invitation. 

To our mind there is, at least, a distant resemblance between 
''mine host*' of the tap and that very interesting insect the 
spider. Now the spider does not invite the flies to his web. 
Not be! He has other stratagems far more likely to prove 
successful. He selects, in tbe first place, a most eligible spot 
where sunbeams play and flies do " mostly congregate." He 
there spreads abroad tbe meshes of his web, and as be would not 
like to frighten away the flies by exposing to view his own ugly 
carcass, he constructs for himself a very snug little back parlor, 
where, screened from observation, he awaits patiently and not 
in vain, for his prey. Though he does not invite the flies to his 
web, yet somehow or other they find their way to it, flies of all 
kinds, not even daddy long-legs escaping, and they become en- 
tangled to their destruction. 

So with those engaged in the liquor traffic. They don't 
invite the people into their houses, but they plant tbem in most 
eligible spots. If they aim at securing the patronage of the 
respectable and well-to-do classes, they select the corners or 
centres of fine streets in business localities, and take tbe largest 
and most imposing edifices ; if, however, they intend to content 
themselves with the riffraff and dregs of society, and with the 
refuse of the more respectable houses, then they select gloomy 
back slums with back-door conveniences, so that their wretched 
customers may slip in and out unobserved. To make their 
business a success they must act upon the same general prin- 
ciples as tradesmen in the successful prosecution of other trades. 
There comes this very natural inquiry : '^ How can I increase 
the demand for my liquor, so that I may receive the profits 
arising from a larger sale?" This is accomplished in a variety 
of ways. One will get up a '^ Free and Easy," another a dance, 
another will engage a band of music, one will establish 



LIVE AND LET LIVE. 149 

a '' Benefit Sooiety** in connection with his house, another a 
''Free Lanoh'' — all with a view of enticing people to their 
estahlishments, and to secure a larger sale. Many of them also 
advertise the excellent qualities of their liquors; in fact, we 
cannot unfold a. newspaper without finding these eulogistic^ 
extravagant, and empirical advertisements. Many of them also 
take advantage of the very nature and tendency of the liquor, 
which is to create for itself a demand hy its peculiar action on 
the drinker. It produces a feeling of jollity and vivacity, and 
by obscuring the judgment, occasions a recklessness of conduct, 
and banishes care* Anacreon well expresses this in one of his 
musical odes : 

"When gay Bacchns cheers my breast, 
AH my cares are luU'd to rest; 
Griefs that weep, and toils that please. 
What have I to do with these? 
Ko solicitudes can save 
Mortals from the gloomy grave. 
Shall I thus myself deceive? 
Shall I languish? Shall I grieve? 
Let us quaff the generous juice; 
Bacchus gave it for our use, 
For when wine transports the breast, 
All our cares are luU'd te rest" 

Strong drink excites the conversational tendency. It does not 
improve conversation, but gives everybody a strong desire to 
talk, and a disposition to be pleased with trifles. When people 
are exhilarated with drink, they will grimace and laugh, even 
when there is nothing substantial to call forth their risible facul- 
ties. The more unprincipled traders increase the already nar- 
cotic properties of their liquor by a still further addition of 
stupefying drugs, as the heavier alcohols, cocculus indicus, 
tobacco and others of a similar character. 

On the whole, then, though the law is to blame in the first 
place, the publican is resppnsible for his craft, and chargeable 
with the ruin it entails. 

Traffickers are very angry with teetotalers, because we seek 
by legislative means to annihilate their traffic. They brand us 
with being inconsiderate and selfish, and say, '* Let this maxim 
guide you, * Live and let live.* '* This maxim is sound and good, 
bat the traffickers live every day in open violation of its prin- 



150 THE LAW OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND. 

oiple, which is, that we are to earn a lirelihood in a manner 
compatible with the li^es of other people. We ar^to live with 
other people, and not like leeches upon them. 

The traffickers live upon other people, at their expense, and 
in a way that destroys them. They realize a livelihood it is 
tri^e, and some of them a very handsome one. But around 
them wrecks are strewn. Tes I Wrecks of once noble men and 
virtuous women, and homes of happiness and peace. The ven- 
dors live, but the people die. They live, and 500,000 drunkards 
desecrate the soil. They live, and 1,500,000 paupers press 
heavily upon the rate-paying portion of the community. They 
live, and 50,000 lunatics, deprived of bright intellect, or stricken 
by stron(]r drink with hopeless idiotcy, wail in our asylums. They 
live,- and 50,000 victims are every year laid prematurely beneath 
the sod. They live, while crime, sorrow, and disease afflict the 
land. It cannot be right to make a living at the cost of so much 
sin, and suffering, and death. 

This truth applies with equal force to the manufacturers. For 
if it be not right to sell intoxicating liquors, it cannot be right to 
manujucture them. Hence, all the evil and ruin charged home 
upon the vendors, may with equal force be laid at the doors of 
the manufacturers. It is true many of them are further removed 
than the vendors from the concrete effects of the liquor they 
manufacture and send out to the ruin of their neighbors — 
away from the busy centres of industry; residing, it may be, 
in sumptuous palaces, surrounded by beautiful rural scenery, 
with the sweet face of nature upon which «to gaze. Wealthy 
brewers and distillers are not often brought into direct contact 
with the wretched victims of the traffic, and in consequence, 
cannot realize to the full extent all its horrors. They see not 
the palsied and ragged creatures passing in and out of the very 
shops supplied with drink from, their stores — often their " tied- 
houses.'' Yet, nevertheless, there the misery exists, — ^flowing 
alike from the manufacture and the sale, — and the awful 
responsibility will follow. 

If some of those manufacturers, known as being men of kindly 
dispositions, aud whose names rank high in the world of philan- 
thropy, would only take their stand, say on a Saturday night, 
opposite one of those houses in our large towns, supplied with 
drink from their stores, and then, from this point of observation, 
pass to the homes of the wretched inebriates gathered around 



THE TRAFFIC A BAD OHE. 151 

ihe bar of that house, and note the rags, and wretchedness, and 
want, and discomfort thej present, they would see sufficient to 
convince them that they are daily violating the second great 
commandment of the law, *' Thou thaU love thy neighbor as thf^ 
atlf^^ as well as that worthy maxim founded upon it» *' Lvo€ and 
let Iwe," 

No doubt the traffickers and manufacturers do love their 
neighbors, but then th.ey love themselves a great deal better; 
and the strong monetary interests at stake are sufficient to 
outweigh all considerations founded upon philanthropy and 
morality* Robert Bums has well said: 

" I'll no say men are villains a' ; 

The real barden'd wicked, 
Wha hae nae check hnt human law, 

Are to a few restricted ; 
But, och 1 mankind are unco' weak, 

An' little to be trusted — 
If self the wavering balance shake, 

It's rarely right adjusted!" 

The traffic in strong drink is now deemed, by a very large 
proportion of the people, highly respectable, and a great deal of 
wealth is sunk in it, and many men of high position in society 
are engaged in it. But, for all that, the day will come, when 
with an enlightened public sentiment, and a high toned mo- 
rality, th6se engaged in this traffic shall be deemed pests of 
society, shall be shunned by all respectable people who have any 
regard whatever for their own character, and shall be classed in 
ihe same catalogue with vendors of indecent prints, manufac- 
turers of false life-buoys and rotten cables, in fact, with all those 
who seek to obtain a livelihood at the expense of the virtue and 
■afety of the community. 



162 BACCHUS DET&£ON£IX 



CHAPTER V. 

THS HAHUFACTUBl Or INTOZfCATINO UQUORS PSS7SUCTITX 

AND IMMORAL. 

Prop. VI. — " That it is contrary to ike wiU of God^ and emt- 
Bequently sinful and immoral, to convert the food of the people 
inio a liquid poison, that ncUuraUy destroys the bodies and souls 
of men" 

The liquor traffic is a yiolation of God*8 will, for two reasons. 
1. Because it perverts fr^m its natural use the food that ought 
to go to nourish the people, and transforms it into a poisoned 
beverage ; and, 2. Because the natural tendency of this liquor is 
to destroy the bodies and souls of men. 

There are three sources whence we may derive a knowledge 
of God's will. From the Bible, from history, and from nature 
scientifically interrogated. 

These three volumes are equally Divine, for they are written 
with the finger of God. In fact, a proper and devout attention 
to each will soon convince us that there exists between them 
a wondrous harmony — that the same spirit pervades them all, 
and that they are mutually explanative, the one interpreting 
and unfolding the great truths contained in the other. 

The Bible contains that revelation from the Supreme Being 
which informs us of man's moral and spiritual relationship to 
God, and to that great moral and spiritual world of which He 
forms a part. It points out to man his duty and his destiny. 
(See Chap, vii.) 

History^ when its facts are correctly recorded, indicates to us 
the course of God's providence among the nations, and gives 
expression to His will concerning them — chiefiy, it informs us 
that national vices bring national misery and ruin, and that 
national virtues bring national prosperity and happiness. ' 

Science is the volume of nature, and is, in fact, a com- 
mentary upon God's revelation, for the laws of Nature 
aid us in understanding more perfectly its meaning. The 



THE VOICE OF GOD IK NATURE. 153 

Tolume of nature is padlj too little studied by Christians, 
who seem to regard it with suspicion, as though it were the 
creation of some strange God I 

In this chapter we shall consider God*s will as expressed more 
particularly in Providence and Nature. It requires no elaborate 
argumentation to show that the food God hath so abundantly 
supplied, ought to be applied to its legitimate uses, viz : to 
feed his children. The misappropriation of food, or its wanton 
destruction, is a plain violation of God^s will. This is more 
especially the case when such misappropriation or destruction 
entails starvation upon thousands. It then becomes one of the 
greatest crimes that can be committed against the human family, 
and a dark and daring sin against the glorious beneficence of 
God. ** He that withholdeth the corn, the people shall curse 
him." This applies with still greater force to the man who 
destroys corn, than to him who refuses to bring it into the market 
in times of scarcity. We visit with severe punishment the 
incendiary who fires his neighbors, or even his own stacks, and 
thereby destroys the staff of life. 

The manufacture of intoxicating liquor is a wanton destruc- 
tion of the food of the people ; for it converts that food into a 
form in which it is perfectly useless as a nutritive aliment In 
converting barley into beer, grape-juice into brandy, corn into 
whisky, apples into cider, the nutritive properties of these sub- 
stances are as thoroughly destroyed as though they had been 
consigned to the devouring flame. In an analytical report on 
wines, published in the Lancet, October 26, 1867, it is said, *' In 
every 1000 grain measures of the clarets and burgundies tested, 
the mean amount of albuminous matter present was only li 
grains, whilst in 1000 grains by weight of raw beef there are nc 
less than 207 grains of such matter. That is, the quantities 
being equal, beef-steak is 156 times more nutritious than wine." 
Thus there is no foundation whatever for considering these beve* 
rages as a mere change in the form of food, but a very strong 
foundation for considering them as pernicious and innutritious 
results of the wanton destruction of food. 

Again, if we trace the different processes of manufacture, we 
find that, at each stage, the nutritive properties of " food" are 
ruthlessly destroyed in order to prepare a beverage that shall 
excite the nervous system, and gratify a morbid taste. 



154 MANUFACTURE DESTRUCTIVE AND IMMORAL. 

Take, for instance, the manufacture of ale. The process it 
thus lucidly described by Mr. Joseph Livesey: 

"We sball find that at every step [in brewing] the object is not tc 
secure a fbedino, bat an iktoxicativo liquor, and that to obtain this 
the feeding properties of the barley are sacrificed at every stage. In 
making a gallon of strong ale (nine gallons to the bushel), 6 lbs of 
barley is used, which, to commence with, is 6 lbs. of good, nutritious 
food, excepting the husk. I will here briefly run over the processes of 
converting this into ale, to show how, when the ale is served up, this 
6 lbs. is reduced to rather less than f lb. The barley has to undergo 
F0T7R raocESSES before it becomes beer, in every one of which it loses 
part of its nutriment. The first is maltiko. The grain is steeped in 
water two days and nights; in this wet state it is placed on the malt- 
ster's floor, eight or nine inches deep, till it begins to heat and vegetate, 
and to secure equal vegetation it is turned every day, the Sunday not 
excepted. When the spores and rootlets are sufficiently developed, the 
.grain is put on the kiln to dry, and afterwards these are taken off by a 
machine, and are called ' malt combs.' In this process there is a loss 
of about l^lbs. The object of thus spritting the barley is to produce 
in the grain more saccharine matter, which, -in the process of ferment- 
ing the liquor, becomes changed into spirit, and thus renders the ale 
strong, that is, intoxicating! The more saccharine matter, or sugar, 
that any substance contains when brought into a state of solution and 
fermented, the more spirit can be obtained. After crushing the malt, 
the next step is mashing. This consists, not in boiling the grain, but 
putting it into hot water at a temperature of 170 degrees, for the pur- 
pose of melting out the sugar or saccharine matter produced in malting. 
After mashing a sufficient length of time the brewer draws off the liquor, 
so long AS it runs sweet, and rejects all the rest, which is sold to farmers 
in the shape of ' grains.' The rejected parts of barley here are at least 
2 lbs. The sweet wort thus drawn off would n»t intoxicate, whatever 
quantity a person was to take. The next process, after mixing the 
liquor with hop water, is to Jerment it. It is here all the mischief is 
done. Carbonic-acid-gas and alcohol (the intoxicating agent) are here 
produced. The sugar becomes decomposed, and a recomposition takes 
place, forming these two. Sugar being nutritious, and spirit not so, 
the loss of nutriment by this change and by the overflow of barm 
(which was part of the barley) is about 1 fi>., the exchange being the gati 

and the spirit The fourth process is that of fibino. 

People don't like muddy ale, and as some thick matter cannot be pre- 
vented coming over in mashing, the liquor is put to settle, and these 
settlings are disposed of as 'barrel bottoms.' These bottoms are really 
parts of the barley, and the loss here again is at least | lb. These are the 
losses during the four stages of be^r making: 



TBS ANALYSIS OF FERMENTED DRINKS. 



156 



We begin with barley ....,„ ^ ^ «.. 6 Iba. 

In malting, we abstract as ' malt combs' H lbs. 

In mashing, we dispose of as ' grains' 2 " 

In fermenting, we lose in sugar, gas, and 'barm' - 1 " 

In fining, we reject as 'barrel bottoms' f " 



5ilb8. 



So that when we come to examine the beer, we find that there is not more 
than 12 ozs., generally not more than 10 ozs., in the gallon, of barley left, 
and this chiefly gum, the worth of wbich, when compared with other food, 

is less than a penny.* It is the alcohol or spirit in the ale — 

the whisky in fact— which deceives people, and makes them believe they 
are gaining strength, when they get only stimulation, which is a waste of 
strength." — Lecture oti Malt. 

The analysis of beer fully confirms the above. According to 
Dr. Lankester's analysis, the following is the composition of the 
different fermented beverages. 

An imperial pint contains : 



STRONG ALE. 



oz. 



Water 18J 

Alcohol 2 

Sugar 1 

Acetic acid 







136 

157 



HILD ALE. 

Water 18} 

Alcohol 11^ 

Sugar 

Acetic acid 







280 

38 



8T0UT. 

OZ. gr. 

Water 18 J 

Alcohol 1} 

Sugar 281 

Acetic acid 54 

Gum 131 

Extractive 408 



PORTER. 



Water 

Alcohol 

Acetic acid . 

Gum 

Extractive .. 



.-... 19 111 

326 

45 

54 

402 

The sum is, that fermented beverages contain a large pro- 
portion of water which we can get elsewhere ; a variable quantity 
of alcohol, ranging from 2 oz. to 326 gr. ; a variable quantity of 
acetic acid, or vinegar ; a variable quantity of sugar, ranging 
from 1 oz. 136 gr. to zero ; with a small proportion of gum and 
extractive. The extractive, of course, is a curious compound, 
*^ an incongruous mass of heterogeneous matter," containing all 

* Gam is not food : for it passes through the intestines unohanged.'-Eiif 



156 MAKUFACTUB£ OESTBXJCTIVE AND laOtORAI*. 

the abominable drugs superadded, to improve the flavor and to 
increase the intoxicating power I 

Let us glance for a moment at the extent of the waste involved 
in this trafiElc. 

In Scotland there is raised annually about &ve million quarters 
of grain ; that is, 40,000,000 bushels. But in 1869 we consumed 
in distillation, and in the manufacture of beer, 63,000,000 bushels, 
or nearly 8,000,000 quarters. This grain, passed through the 
mill, would make 10,500,000 sacks, or 26,250,000 cwts. of flour, 
and allowing four cwts. as the annual average consumption per 
head, we have BuJEKoient flour here to feed 6,562,500 people a 
whole year. 

In 1868 we imported into this country from abroad, in grain 
and flour, 66,750,000 cwts., at a cost of £39,000,000. Had it not 
been for the wanton destruction of grain in the manufacture of 
intoxicating liquor, more than one-third of this amount might 
have been saved. In years of scarcity and famine, this wanton 
destruction of grain in our breweries and distilleries still goes on, 
and the traffickers steel their hearts against the loud wail of a 
famine-stricken people. When, for instance, in the years 1846- 
1847, a famine ravaged Ireland, consequent upon the destruc* 
tion of the potato crop, — a famine which swept away half a 
million of people, — the brewers and distillers had within their 
granaries a larger supply of grain than ever, but not a single 
barley-corn would they part with to feed a starving people. It 
is, certainly, a very great sin to waste the nation's food, but 
greater still to transform it into an instrument of demoralization 
and ruin. If a man hated his race with all the dark, relentless 
malignity of Satan, he could not have hit upon a more effectual 
method of gratifying it, than by engaging in the manufacture of 
these death-dealing liquors. 

Paley, in his ** Moral Philosophy," says: — "From reason, or 
revelation, or from both together, it appears to be God Almighty's 
intention that the productions of the earth should be applied to 
the sustentation of human life, consequently, all waste and 
misapplication of these productions is contrary to the^ Divine 
intention and will, and therefore wrong, for the same reason that 
any other crime is so ; such as destroying, or suffering to perish, 
a great part of an article of human provision, in order to enchance 
the price of the remainder, or diminishing the breed of animals 
by a wanton or improvident consumption of the young. To this 



PAUPERISM AND THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC. 157 

head may also be referred, which is the same eril in a smaller 
way, the expenditure of human food on superfluous dogs, or 
horses ; and lastly, the reducing the quantity in order to alter the 
quality, and to alter it generally for the worse, as the distillntioa 
of spirits from bread-corn." 

Our proposition states that the liquid poison produced from 
the food of the people *' naturally destroys the bodies and souls 
of men." 

In our first chapter we hare shown that the actual effects of 
strong drink are poverty, disease and crime. These effects are 
not merely accidental, flowing from the so-called "abuse" of it, 
in the same sense that indigestion may be supposed to come from 
the abuse of food ; bat it is the teiy nature of drink to produce 
these evil fruits. 

It is of the nature of these liquors to pauperize the people. 
Their imbibition creates an inordinate craving that refuses to be 
satisfied, and impelled onWard by this, thousands who can but ill 
afford it, expend the larger portion of their slender incomes upon 
that " which satisfieth not," nnd thus bring both themselves and 
families to destitution; while the manufacture of intoxicating 
liquors makes a dearer loaf, and a lessened income. Now it is 
as much as thousands of our work-people can do to keep the 
wolf from the door, even when in constant employment, and a 
few days* loss of work throws many of them upon the parish. 

How has government sought to meet this aboundingpauperism, 
produced by drink and the drink traffic? Why, by establishing 
a system of heavy local taxation, and a mode of relief ruinous to 
society, and at war with all the most sacred affections of our 
nature. By the present system of parochial relief, poverty is 
degraded to a crime ; for the punishments inflicted upon many 
of our paupers, especially in the workhouses of many of our 
large towns, in poor fare, confinement, and harsh treatment, are 
often much more severe than those inflicted upon criminals. 

In the yard of one of our metropolitan workhouses, some 
years ago, 'a poor old man, seventy years of age, was enjoying a 
few whiffs from his pipe. One of the officials advanced towards 
him, and in a most dastardly and cruel manner knocked the 
pipe out of his mouth, with this remark, " You must not think, 
old cove, that you have come here to live, for you have come 
here to die." This is the natural outgrowth of a brutalizing 
system, of which the Traffic is the fountain. 
14 



158 MANUFACTUBE DESTBUCTITE A27D IHMOBAL. 

The present mode of administering relief is a premium 
upon yice^ while it inflicts upon the deserving poor a punish^ 
ment almost too heavy to bear. We have known drunken 
families revelling in parochial relief, and deserving families, 
reduced to penury by misfortune, most barbarously treated. 
The former, hardened and brutalized by drink, have made it 
their business to study the most effioient means of swindling 
the rate-payers of their hard-earned cash, and with barefaced 
impudence, or cringing importunities, appeal for that relief 
which they neither deserve nor need ; but the honest and sober 
poor, when reduced to poverty by some dire misfortune, feel a 
praiseworthy repugnance in applying for relief, and when at 
last compelled to do so, the first repulse disheartens them, and 
they retire to their cheerless homes and empty larders, possibly 
to die of starvation, or be driven to end their suffering in suicide. 
The drunken and worthless take good care that they sustain no 
hurt, and their loud clamors, after spending their means in 
drink, bring them speedy relief, which, should it take the out 
door form, is partly spent in gratifying their debasing and 
insane propensity. Bailie Lewis, of Edinburgh, recently made 
this statement : — ** Tens of thousands of pounds, administered 
to paupers in Scotland, are annually expended, not in supporting, 
but in still further degrading the drunken recipients. Within 
the last twelve months I have personally witnessed numbers of 
the out-door paupers of one of the city parishes leaving the pay" 
iabUy and going direct to the public-houses in the neighborhood. 
During the last year there has been expended in out-door relief 
in Edinburgh about £20,000, and I have no hesitation in saying, 
from information I possess, that nearly one-third of that sum 
will have been spent in drink." The present method of admin- 
istering parochial relief is also a most expensive one,' taking 
jC10,000.000 per annum to support it, a large proportion of which 
is lavished in building large houses, almost palatial in appear- 
ance, and in supporting clouds of officials, whilst the recipients 
of relief receive the most meagre treatment. 

Dr. Chalmers, in his Bridgewater Treatise, speaking of the 
poor-law system, says: — '*It hath by the most pernicious of all 
bribery, relaxed the ties and obligations of mutual relationship, 
exonerating parents, on the one hand, from the care and main- 
tenance of their own offspring ; and tempting children on the 
other, to cast off their parents who gave them birth, and instead 



THE TRA.FFIC DEMORALIZING 159 

of an asylam j^laddened by the associations and sympathies of 
home, consigDing them for the last closing]; years of weakness and 
decrepitude to the dreary imprisonment of a poor-house. 

*^Had the beautiful arrangements of nature not been disturbed, 
the relative affections which she herself has implanted would 
have been found strong enough, as in other countries, to have 
secured through the means of a domestic economy nlone, a 
provision for both young and old in far greater unison with both 
the comfort and virtue of families. The corrupt and demoral- 
izing system of England might well serve as a lesson to philan- 
thropists and statesmen, of the positive and undoubted mischief 
to which the best interests of humanity are exposed — ^when they 
traverse the process of a better mechanism instituted by the 
wisdom of God, through the operation of another mechanism 
devised by a wisdom of their own." 

We have dwelt thus long upon the defects of the poor-law 
system, because it is our conscientious conviction chat, whilst the 
drink traffic is the fruitful cause of at least three-fourths of our 
pauperism, our present mode of dealing with paupers tends to 
aggravate the evil, and thus the traffic and the pauper system 
continue to act and react upon each other, till now, at the present 
time, the evil has grown to such huge dimensions as to impede 
the progress, and seriously to threaten the safety of the nation. 

That it is the natural tendency Of this traffic to produce dU' 
easey and so naturally destroy the bodies of men, has been shown 
in chapters i. and iii. 

But it is no less destructive to the souls of men — to man's high 
spiritual and moral nature. It is also of the nature of these 
drinks to demoralize and corrupt, and thus to produce crime 
— the most revolting and unnatural. It does so, because cdcohol^ 
by its action upon the brain and nervous system, tends to para- 
lyze the will, to set conscience asleep, while it arouses at the 
same time the criminal proclivities of man. 

In this respect alcohol is unique. There are no agents that 
we know of in the laboratory of nature, not even the most 
deadly, that possess the same action. Cocculus IndicuSf with 
which alcoholic beverages are frequently adulterated, makes, we 
believe, the nearest approach to it, but it is too stupefactive to' 
do much harm without the aid of its terrible ally, alcohol. 

Herodotus informs us that the Scythians became intoxicated 
by inhaling the vapor from the seeds of a kind of flax; and 



160 MANUFACTURE DESTRUCTIVE AND IMMORAL. 

modem medicine has observed, that the odor alone of Hyoscia- 
mu8, particularly when its power is heightened by the action of 
heat, produces in those who inhale it a disposition to anger and 
quarrelling. 

**The Dictionaire de Medicine de T Encyclopedie Mithodique 
(Tome 7), cites three examples. The most remarkable is that of 
a married couple, who, perfectly harmonious and affectionate 
everywhere else, could not pass a few hours together in the room 
where they worked, without engaging in the most bloody strife. 
The room was thought to be enchanted or bewitched. At length 
it was discovered that the whole blame of these terrible disputes 
was attributable to a large packet of the seeds of Hyosciamus, 
placed near a stove, and their removal caused a perfect restor- 
ation of peace." — Dr. Belenaye, On Hygiene^ p. 105, 1832. 

Then there is opium, that terrible scourge to the inhabitants 
of India and China. But vastly different are its effects to that 
of the tyrant Alcohol. Though its habitual use is fraught with 
the greatest mischief to the body and mind of man, yet it arouses 
not the criminal tendencies, it urges not its victims to deeds of 
violence and bloodshed. In fact, its action would appear to be 
quite the other way. When under the exciting stage of its influ- 
ence, people feel averse to crime ; and when the stage of depres- 
sion comes on, they are too helpless to commit deeds of violence. 
We never yet knew a man fortify himself with laudanum when 
he was about to commit some atrocious deed. Brandy is the 
terrible agent used by criminals. Of opium, De Quincey says, 
in his "Confessions" : — " It introduced among the mental powers 
exquisite order, legislation, and harmony. It invigorates self- 
possession, it communicates serenity and equipoise to all the 
faculties, active or passive, and^ with respect to the moral feelings in 
general, it gave simply that sort of vital warmth which is approved 
of by thejudgmentt and which would probably always accompany 
a bodily constitution of primeval, or antediluvian health. It 
gives an expansion to the heart and benevolent affections. The 
opium eater feels that the diviner part of his nature is promoted, 
that his moral affections are in a state of cloudless serenity; and 
over all is the great light of the majestic intellect." 

Now what are the effects of alcohol during the exciting stage 
of its influence? Why, it distorts the imagination, it weakens 
the controlling power of the mind, it obscures the moral percep- 
tions, and overthrows the intellect, while at the same time it 



EFFECTS OF DRINKIKQ ON THE INDIYIDUAL. 161 

excites the base of the brain, and stirs np all the worst elements 
)f our nature, so that many persons when under its influence 
become capable of committing the most atrocious crimes, from 
which, in their sober moments, they would shrink with disgust 
and dismay. 

The alcohol-drinker has, no doubt, his heayen also. Ho 
enjoys a certain pleasure, but it is fluctuating and eyanescent in 
character, and altogether sensual. 

The paradise of the opium-eater is refined and spiritual ; that 
of the alcohol-drinker coarse, sensual and deyilish. The Moham- 
medaii paradise, with its repose and beauty, would seem to be 
the offspring of the imagination under the influence of opium ; 
the paradise of the old Scandinayian creed, with its coarse, brutal 
pleasures, mixed occasionally with deeds of blood, the offspring 
of the imagination under the influence of beer. 

The alcohol-drinker has his hell also — a hell scorching his 
veins and consuming all his joys. Terrible as is the hell of the 
opium-eater, still more terrible is the hell of the alcohol-drinker. 
It is a hell of lawless passion, and of wild impulse to crime. 
A hell of uncontrollable thirst for drink — of black despair, or 
of brutal lust. Gaze upon the poor drunkard, when under the 
power of that terrible madness, delirium tremens I What hideous 
imaginings I What foul fiends and grim spectres torment him I 
Scorpions glare upon him, with jaws like sepulchres and eyes 
like fire I Fanged serpents hiss at him, and all terrible shapes, 
creatures of a distorted imagination, gather around to inflict 
upon him the torments of the damned. 

Such then is the action of alcohol upon its yictim, withering 
eyery moral beauty, exciting lawless passion, and impelling 
fiercely to crime, and by this m^ns ruining the souls of men. 

Now it is plainly contrary to the will and law of God, that 
His creatures should thus be degraded, ruined, and destroyed. 
'* He hath not appointed us unto wrath, but to obtain saWation." 
*' A tree i& known by its fruit.*' So tested, we cannot doubt that 
upon the manufacture, sale, and use of strong diink the Eternal 
has stamped the broad seal of His curse ; and as we gaze upon 
the disease, the starvation, the crime, and the wholesale destruc- 
tion which strong drink inflicts upon the human family, we have 
evidence, overwhelming and unmistakable, that its manufacture, 
sale, and use, constitute a system alike incompatible with the 
character of God and the redemption of mankind. 
14* 



.62 BACCHUS DETHRONED. 



CHAPTER VL 

TEETOTALISM A GREAT SCIENTIFIC FACT. 

Prop. VII. — " That teeiotalism is not a mere matter of expedi- 
ency^ hut U a great scientific fact^ hosed on chemistry, physiology, 
and Christian moraUty.*^ 

1. — The doctrine of expediency referred to may be thas stated: 
Though it is not necessary, on the ground of personal safety, 
for me to abstain from intoxicating liquor, seeing I have power to 
control my appetite and to regalate the quantity I take within 
the bounds of sobriety ; yet, in view of the manifold evils arising 
from the abuse of these liquors, and for the sake of those who 
are weak, and have already fallen, or are in imminent danger of 
faliinsr, I will abstain. This doctrine is founded on an earnest 
conviction that the evils flowing from the use of strong drink are 
so great and terrible, '' that no amount of good that can be 
claimed for them will justify the conscientious man in their 



use." 



People of this school appear to think that ''what is one man^s 
food is another man's poison ;'' and that strong drink, though 
dangerous to some, is innocuous, or even beneficial to others. 
Now this may do very well as to mental food, but is very ques- 
tionable in application to physical food. It is true, that owing 
to certain very rare and curious idiosyncrasies, certain articles 
deemed very good food may act like poisons upon a few indi- 
Tiduals. We have heard, for instance, of a lady who could never 
eat a mutton-chop without suffering from symptoms of poisoning; 
and of another upon whom a pear had the same effect. These 
cases are alto^ther exceptional; and even though one in ten 
millions may be poisoned with a pear or a mutton-chop, yet to 
the remainder they are very wholesome. This is never the case 
with intoxicating liquor, which is not food at all in any proper 
sense of that term, but is, upon all constitutions, poisonous in 
Its action. 

Expediency, indeed, admits the fascinating character of strong 



EXPERIENCE IK FAVOR OF ABSTINENCE. 163 

drink, but has no idea of its being physiologically injurious. Its 
advocates are in the mental condition of all the world, at the 
commencement of this reform. 

2. — In the beginning, the practice of abstinence necessarily 
partook of the character of a vast experiment, in which the expe- 
rimentalists had to contend against fearful odds. Yery soon, 
however, these experimentalists, feeling their way, found that 
the inconvenience and danger arising from personal abstinence 
was only a scarecrow, for under the trial of the new regimen 
their health and strength sensibly improved, so that they were 
able to get through more work than before, and that too with 
greater ease and comfort. They discovered also that they ate 
better, slept sounder, and enjoyed life better than before. 

This is indeed the uniform experiebee of all who have tried 
our {)rinciples. Take, for instance, the testimony of Mr. Edward 
Baines, M. P., given before one hundred and fifty medical gentle- 
men, assembled at a public breakfast, in connection with the 
Annual Meeting of the British Medical Association, held in 
Leeds. The breakfast came off at the Great Northern Station 
Hotel, on Thursday morning, July 29th, 1869. Mr. Baines 
said: 

" I myself, a long time ago, for the Rake of influencing some men who 
I saw was rapidly going down hill to destruction, determined to 
put myself in the position to give them unsuspected advice I said, I 
will abstain for a mouth, and see how it answers with me; and finding it 
did answer, I went on for another month, and then for another. At the 
expiration of fifteen years subsequently, I thought it my duty to testify 
that during the whole of that period I had enjoyed the best health, 
good spirits, and a great capacity for work; and now, seventeen years 
later, and after thirty-two years of abstinence from intoxicating drink, I 
confirm the same to you all. I testify before all this company, that 
scarcely any man can have had more uniform vigorous health than I 
have had, and for which I am deeply thankful, during the whole of the 
period I have named, and I have been a tolerably hard worker too. 
And when I tell you that I went to bed about four o'clock on the morn- 
ing before last, coming out of the House of Commons after a great 
many hours' sitting there, you will see that we have a good deal of hard 
work there ; but I verily believe that I have been able to do more than 
I should have been able to do, if I had not been a total abstainer." 

This valuable testimony, and we could quote scores like it, 
is exactly to the point. 
The successful issue of such experiments not only opened the 



164 TEETOTAUSM A OBEAT 8CIENTIFI0 FACT. 

eyes of those who were the subjects of them, but led others to 
institute farther inquiries. Finally, the concurrent testimony 
of all abstainers both at home and abroad, and of all who had 
tried our principles for a limited time for a special purpose, 
under some of the most trying circumstances in which man can 
be placed, became quite sufficient with thoughtful persons, to 
overthrow the old and cherished notions pertaining to the use of 
intoxicating liquor. 

These important lessons and the controversies to which the 
agitation gave rise, opened the eyes of scientific men, and they 
in turn began to examine the chemical composition of intoxi- 
cating liquor, and to trace their physiological action. But as Dr. 
Munroe, F. L. S., of Hull, says : — *^ Had it not been for the suo- 
cessful labors of these moral giants in the great cause of temper- 
ance, presenting to the world, in their own personal experiences, 
many new and astounding physiological facts, men of science 
would probably never have had their attention drawn to the 
question." What has been the result? Why, every step taken, 
and almost every experiment performed, have gone to prove 
that here science and experience harmonize. The deductions 
of the former fully confirm the teachings of the latter, and now 
teetotalism has become a great scientific fact. So having first 
principles we advance to higher and firmer ground. We do 
not indeed quarrel with those who become teetotalers upon the 
ground of expediency. We give them the right-hand of fellow- 
ship, and also seek to instruct them further and to lead them 
from abstinence based on expediency to abstinence based on 
Science. 

Our proposition states: ''That teetotalism is based upon 
ChemutryJ^ 

The substance with which teetotalism has most to do, is 
by teaching abstinence from it as a chemical product. Fermen- 
tation is a chemical process. Alcohol is a product of vinous fer- 
mentation, it is therefore a chemical product Experience has 
clearly revealed that it is a product at war with the processes of 
that beautiful vital chemistry going on vrithin the laboratory of 
the human body. 

Chemistry has done more for teetotalism than some people 
imagine. In the first place, it has revealed the presence and 
proved the identity of the intoxicating principle of strong drinks ; 
discovering to us its origin and hiding-place. Had it not been for 



A CHEMICAL PRODUCT AND PHYSICAL POISON. 166 

this we should still have been ignorant of the real foe that 
destroyed as. 

Chemistry has investigated its composition and properties, 
and determined its real position in the materia alimentaria and 
materia medica, showing that it ou;;ht to be entirely excluded 
from the former, and to be used in the latter principally for the 
carrying on of certain delicate pharmaceutical processes. 

Chemistry has determined that the whole class of intoxicating 
liquors strongly resemble each other in their physical properties, 
that they all alike owe their great popularity and power to 
fascinate to this deadly agent — alcohol^ and differ merely in 
their proportion of alcohol, water, coloring matter, and flavors. 

That this chemistry, which in its infancy, and wielding its 
tremendous powers, brought disaster and death by revealing the 
presence of an unseen enemy, and the processes whereby he could 
be evoked in his most deadly and concentrated form, has in its 
maturer age rendered the cause of temperance signal service, in 
discovering to us its composition and properties, and dispersing 
those numerous fallacies engendered of ignorance ^nd appetite. 

3. — Our proposition states, "that teetotalism is based upon 
Physiology V 

This science has ransacked the human body in search of in- 
formation as to the action of alcohol upon animal organisms. 
It has followed alcohol into its innermost recesses, and traced 
its doings in the cellular structure and ultimate tissues ; and 
after performing innumerable experiments both upon man and 
beast, bird and reptile ; and having thereby made certain dis- 
coveries of a most important character, it comes forth to make 
them known; and notwithstanding conflicting theories, the 
following are the conclusions at which all experimentalists and 
men of science have arrived. 

(1.) That as a diet, alcohol is not only valueless, but most 
dangerous and injurious. (2.) That its action upon the body is 
uniformly that of a poison. (3.) That the direction of this action 
is always the same, the intensity of the action only being regu- 
lated by the amount consumed. (4.) That it is not food in any 
usual sense, as nourishing the structures, or increasing the tem- 
perature of the body. 

Chemistry and physiology are the bases of hygiene, a science 
which treats of the laws that govern the animal economy in 
relation to its own physiological condition, and of the physical 



166 TEETOTALISM A GREAT 8CIEI!7TIFIC FACT. 

world of which it forms a part. It seeks to investigate the 
influence of laws, institations, habits, climate, etc., upon the 
human constitution. It points out how disease may be pre- 
vented, health and long life secured. This is the region of 
preventivt medicine, in which medical science (so called) has 
achieved her noblest triumphs. In this department she has 
shown that disease arises from the violation of nature^s laws; 
from a gross neglect of the conditions of healthy life. She has 
demonstrated that jast in proportion as these laws and conditions 
are observed, disease diminishes and the chances of long life are 
increased. She has shown that sunshine, fresh air, pure water, 
cleanliness, and wholesome diet, temperate living, good drainage, 
and mental and physical exercise, are essential to healthy lifci 
and that (within certain limits) the death-rate is proportioned to 
our neglect or observance of these conditigns^proving that 
disease is nature's penalty for the violation of her laws. 

A learned writer upon this science says : — " One of the chief 
sources of the wealth and power of states is the number of their 
well-governed and well-conditioned inhabitants. Hence it should 
be the object of statesmen to improve that moral and physical 
condition which is I'avorable to the regular, but not unnatural 

increase of a sound population 

A knowledge of hygiene is of high importance to political 
economy, a knowledge not ministering to mere theory — to * Day- 
dreams' of inexperienced legislators ; but to that cautious policy 
that seeks no footing where there are no facts.'' (Dr. Belenaye, 
on Hygiene.) The temperance movement is a great sanitary and 
hygienic question. 

Intemperance, and the (so called) moderate use of intoxicating 
liquor, predisposes the body to the attacks of disease, and tends 
to shorten the term of human existence. Moderate drinkers, 
equally with drunkards, live every day in open violation of the 
laws of health, and how can they escape the penalty? Any 
government Moytih^ facilities for drinking to exist, or encourag- 
ing them for the sake of revenue, is therefore guilty of violating 
a fundamental principle of public hygiene I and, instead of 
seeking to inprove the moral and physical condition of the 
people, really adopts the most potent means to corrupt and 
degrade them, and thus to undermine the greatness and strength 
of the nation. 

The use of intoxicating liquor is not only in itselfa gross phy- 



'^ 



DBINKINQ OPPOSED TO SANITARY REFOBM. 167 

Biological blunder, but it also leads to the yiolation of every 
other condition of healthy life* It leads to drunkenness, this to 
neglect of personal cleanliness ] then the poverty it occasions 
prevents the drunkard from properly housing and feeding his 
family, and instead of selecting a suitable residence in an airy 
and salubrious neighborhood, he must needs fix his quarters in 
some dismal court, or dirty alley, where dilapidated houses 
afford scanty accommodation, and where all sense of decency is 
thoroughly erased. Uere, screened from public gaze, and con- 
sorting with other miserable and degraded beings, he indulges 
his brutalizing propensities for strong drink, and sinks to deeper 
misery. 

Notwithstanding our boasted progress in sanitary science-^ 
notwithstanding an improved drainage system, and an abundant 
supply of pure water to oar large towns, the death-rate is upon 
the increase. After thirty years of sanitary labor and general 
*^ progress,' ' instead of the death-rate being diminished, it is 
higher than when sanitary reform was first heard of. In 
referring to the Begistrar General's Returns, we find that the 
present death-rate is higher by 1 per 1000 than it was thirty 
years ago I It is also a deplorable fact, that the three large 
towns of Liverpool, Glasgow and Manchester, possessing the 
finest water supply, not only exhibit the most drunkenness, but 
also show the highest rate of mortality I Dr. Farre does not 
appear to perceive the real cause of this, but attributes it to a 
variety of causes, which no doubt are accessory, but certainly 
not the main cause. In his report for one quarter of 1869, he 
states: 

"The high rate of mortality in Glasgow is partly dae to epidemic 
and other diseases, to which children succumbed in undue proportion 
to the rest of the population. While protection against the diffusion of 
cholera poison by means of an impure water supply has been secured in 
this city, the importance of aiming at immunity from other generating 
elements of disease should not be lost sight of. . . . Dr. Gairdner 
reports that the true cause of the excessive liability of this city to high 
tides of disease and death- are to be sought chiefly in the low standard 
of domestic comfort, in overcrowding, general squalor, and physical degra- 
datior ,'^ which are the unhappy characteristics of a large section of the 
population The city of Manchester, which is also supplied with an 
abundance of pure water, shows a high rate of mortality, but it is con- 
siderably lower than the Scottish city. Why cannot the administrativt 

* These are simple ^ects— never seen where the trafflo is banished. 



168 TEET0TALI8U A GREAT SCIENTIFIO FACT. 

abilities, which have been bo suocessfal in commanding a pare water 
supply, be as saccessfally applied, not only in the demolition of old 
tenements, bat in the erection of new constractions, and improved boase 
accommodation for the poorer classes, and also in enforcing the law against 
overcrowding." 

There is a question far more important than that contained 
in these concludin;^ words, namely : — Why cannot the ad- 
ministratiye abilities use their influence to secure the sup- 
pression of the drink nuisance — the demolition of ike whisky 
shops f If they accomplish this, the rest would soon follow. 
Sobriety would take the place of drunkenness, and thrift of 
wasteful expenditure. A speedy and striking improvement 
would be seen in the habits of the people. They would be better 
clothed and fed, and no lon^r contented to h«rd together like the 
brute creation ; they would seek better house accommodation and 
find it. Building Societies would be more eztensiyely patronised ; 
larger capital would be invested in building suitable houses for 
the working-classes ; the low courts and purlieus of our large 
towns, which are now centres of contagion and hot-beds of vice 
and disease, would be swept away wholesale f broad airy streets 
and commodious houses would take their place, and whole sub- 
urbs and districts of houses and gardens for the working-classes 
would adorn our large towns. With this improvement in the 
habits and abodes of the working-classes, disease would abate, 
the mortality lists would sink, and the average duration of life 
be greatly extended. 

The prosperity of a nation largely depends upon the average 
duration of life among the people, for ^^life is labor.^* Where 
the mortality lists are high, and the average of life low, certain 
causes must be in operation tending to undermine that nation^s 
strength and prosperity. Says Belenaye : 

" Since it is certain that every stage of haman existence has a pecn- 
liar office assigned to it, as well as every instant a duty, it is highly 
important that man should attain a certain degree of senility. Should 
the human being die in infancy, or childhood, the loss to the state 
would not be great; but later, it is far otherwise. The business of 
adolescence is to acquire knowledge by example, and by memory; of 
the adult to apply this informatioa; and later, to invent. At fifty, 
men begin to perfect and classify knowledge; to instruct and guide their 
fellow-creatures. Now, it is clear that a state cannot advance so rapidly 
in civilization, where the average duration of life is short; and will be 
great In proportion to the approach of the majority of its subjects to 



TEETOTALISM FAVORS 8AKITABT PBOGBE88. 169 

Bizty-five — an age that allows of acquisition, application, invention, and 
arrangement of the stores of knowledge. We must venture to repeal 
that a man dying at eighteen or twenty, has only lived to eontwne th« 
resources of society, and can leave nothing behind him but a legacy of 
poignant regret. If he has lived till he has applied and invented, it is of 
tiie highest importance he should be allowed time to mature and con- 
solidate what, as his own sicquisition, he best understands. . . • 
We must set a still greater value upon longevity, if we add to what has 
been stated, the sagacious remark of an eminent writer — that the greater 
mortality in Southern climates before the age of thirty, is the reason 
that Northern nations have invariably conquered those of the South."-— 
On Hygiene. 

Now to greatly increase the average duration of life in our 
country, and thereby promote natural prosperity and rigor, 
our government cannot do better than pass, as a great Sanitary 
Act, a prohibitory liquor-law. In simple fact, the temperanoe 
enterprise is the greatest sanitary reform that ever took place in 
any age or nation ; and public spirited teetotalers are among the 
greatest of sanitary reformers. Wherever our principles have 
been adopted and acted upon, a great and visible improvement 
has taken place in the social state and moral habits of the people. 
As a rule, abstainers quickly remove from amid the squalor and 
wretchedness in which before they seemed to wallow, and in 
consequence, become healthier and live longer. As a rule, they 
pay considerable attention to elementary physioIo«;y and do- 
mestic medicine, and as a result, give doctors very little trouble, 
and enjoy a wonderful immunity from sickness and disease.— 
See chap, iii. 

4. — ^Our proposition lastly states, '^ that teetotal ism is based 
on Christian morality," that is, upon the science of ethics of 
which Christianity contains the clearest, fullest, and most perfect 
development. 

Moral science, in its narrowest sense, treats of the equitable 
relations of men — ^of those duties we owe each other. In its 
broadest acceptation, it includes the duties man owes to himself, 
and to the Divine author of his being. 

(1.) Christian Morality seeks to regulate the moral actions of 
men by regulating their hearts. It lays down the principle that 
moral perversion begins in the heart, and that we must seek to 
regulate the motives, desires and thoughts, according to the 
principles of pure reason and love. '* Blessed are the pure in 
heart." ^^ The light of the body is the eye : if, therefore, thine eye 
16 



170 TEETOTALISM A OBEAT BCIENTIFIO FACT. 

be single, thj whole body shall be full of light. But if thine eye 
be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness." " Not that 
which goeth into the mouth defileth ^a man ; but that which 
eometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man." *^ A good man 
out of the good treasure of his heart bringeth forth that which 
is good ; and an eril man out of the evil treasure of his heart 
bringeth forth that which is evil." Now the use of intoxicating 
liquors is antagonistic to all this. It pollutes the heart. It 
weakens self-denial, reason, and conscience, and stirs up every 
evil and self-regarding passion ; and out of such hearts proceed 
''evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders, thefts, covetous- 
ness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, 
pride, foolishness," and all kinds of abominations. Even what is 
termed moderate drinking is antagonistic to this purity of heart 
A single glass is often sufficient to dull the fiqer sensibilities of 
the soul, and to obscure the mental and mpral powers, and so 
weaken the supremacy of reason over those animal passions and 
impulses which it is our duty to keep in proper restraint. 

Teetotalism, on the contrary, is in beautiful harmony with this 
purity of heart, and repudiates the most fruitful source of de- 
pravity and crime. The mam who abstains, is better able to 
control his thoughts and passions, than the man who drinks, 
however moderately. 

(2.) The moral system of the New Testament calls us from low 
and sensual pursuits and enjoyments to the pure and lofty 
delights that flow from the exercise of the moral and intellectual 
powers. " Set your affections on things above." There must be 
mental and moral exaltation. The mind must be occupied in 
the contemplation of grand truths, for which it has a capacity, 
and the affections must be placed upon virtuous things. A bliss 
lofty and pure, a serenity sweet and enduring, are the fruits of 
exercising our mental powers upon noble and worthy objects. 
We then '* lay up for ourselves treasures in heaven," incorrupt- 
ible and fadeless. 

Abstinence is certainly favorable to this exaltation of the 
rational and moral powers ; with clearer minds and uncorrupted 
hearts we can go forth and contemplate the sublime verities of 
religion. 

(3.) Christian morality inculcates the cultivation and -practice 
of the milder virtues. It is antagonistic to the war-spirit, and 
io those wild and turbulent passions that go to form it. Chris* 



TEBT0TALT8M FAVORS CHRISTIAN FROGRESS. 171 

tian morality breathes soflness and repose. ^' Blessed are the 
peace-makers, for they shall be called the children of God/' 
"Be kindly affectionate one to another, \rith brotherly love." 
" The fruit of the spirit is love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentle- 
ness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance : against sach #here 
is no law." 

Let us strive to picture to ourselves two different states of 
society^ The one founded upon the cultivation and practice 
of the (so called) heroic virtues, the other upon the cultivation 
and expression of those soft and gentle yirtues enjoined by 
Christianity. 

In the first, displays of physical courage and exhibitions of 
ambition and revenge stand out War is accounted the noblest 
employment, and the profession of arms the most honorable. 
Progress in peaceful arts and useful industries receives a con- 
tinual check, and the resources of the nation become exhausted 
in maintaining war. This spirit pervading the great mass of the 
people, we see its manifestation still further in local feuds, and 
thus strife and tumult form the leading features of this social 
state. 

In the latter state of society, founded upon the cultivation and 
expression of the softer and milder virtues, displays of moral 
courage and heroism, and all the kindly courtesies qnd charities 
of life are daily seen. Peace and good-will prevailing, no check 
is offered to the peoples' progress in the beautiful arts and useful 
industries. Hence peace, love, and progress, are the leading 
features of this social state. 

Now, intoxicating liquors are certainly more in keeping with 
the former picture than the latter, since strife, crime and the 
ebullition of violent passions are the most frequent sequences of 
their use. Abstinence, on the other hand, is more in harmony 
with the latter. ^* Peace on earth, and good-will toward men/' 
is our motto, and whilst vre are engaged in spreading abroad the 
knowledge of true temperance, we are also aiding the march of 
progress, and the extension of peace and brotherly kindness 
among the nations. 

(4.) Christian moralify calls us to the exercise of a noble and 
broad-hearted philanthropy. "Pure religion, and undefiled l)ofore 
God and the Father, is this, to visit the fatherless and widows in 
their aifiiction, and to keep unspotted from the world." " Hereby 
perceive wc the love of God, because He laid down His life for 



172 TEETOTALISM A GBEAT SCIENTIFIC FACT. 

ufl; and we oaght to lay down our lives for the brethren.^^ 
^* Let us not love in word, neither in tongae ; but in deed and in 
truth." "We are to 'honor all men/ to love the brotherhood." 
We are even to " love our enemies, to bless them that curse us, 
to % good to them that hate us, and to pray for them which 
despitcfully use us and persecute us, that we may be the chil- 
dren of our Father which is in heav«n : For He maketh His sun 
to rise on the evil and the good, and sendeth rain on the just 
and on the unjust*' The second great commandment of the law 
is, " Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself," The foundations 
of this duty, are the universal Fatherhood of God, and the uni- 
versal brotherhood of man. '* God hath made of one blood all 
nations of men." Who is my neighbor? or my brother? This 
question has received itn solution in that beautiful and touching 
parable of the Good Samaritan. Says Dr. Nott : — " It is not to 
the' narrow circle of kindred and of caste that the charities of 
man's common brotherhood are confined. The men around you 
are your brethren, — bone of your bone — flesh of your flesh. God 
hath not only made of one blood all nations to dwell upon the 
earth, but He hath also bound together, by ties of reciprocal 
dependence, the different classes of m«>n that compose the 
nations." 

Our Lord's life was a grand and beautiful expression of this 
duty of practical benevolence. *^ Who went about doing good, 
for God was with Him." No higher encomium than this could 
be passed upon him. His favors were bestowed liberally upon 
all, high and low, rich and poor, Jew and Samfuritan, Oanaanite 
or Greek. He stops not to inquire as to their nationality, or 
their relis^ion, ere he stoops to relieve, instruct, and comfort 
them. The haughty priest and the pedantic scribe may turn 
away contemptuously, and pass by on the other side, but *^ the 
good Samaritan," full of generous sympathies, stays to comfort 
and to bless. 

The use of intoxicating liquor is plainly and essentially opposed 
to this spirit of love, and to its e£Soient exercise. In fact, the 
use of strong drink will even obliterate the Tuxtural affections. It 
will make the woman forget her sucking-child, so that she shall 
not have compassion upon the son of her womb; whilst the con- 
stitutionally generous hearted shall be transformed into hardened 
villains and murderers. Drink, like adultery, hardens all with* 
in, and petrifies the feelings. 



AK UNSEGTABIAN MOVEMEKT. 173 

Oar moTement and prinoiple, on the contrary, are in beantifnl 
harmony with that practical spirit of benevolence which Chria- 
tian morality inculcates. It may, indeed, be described as a grand 
unsectarian movement for promoting the physicali moral jind 
social well-being of the people. Here we may obserye, that while 
teetotalism is in harmony with Christianity, it is quite nnsectarian. 
It is something apart from sects and creeds. A man is a drunk- 
ard, or in danger of becoming one, by yielding to the drinking 
usages that surround him. This is a sufficient claim upon us. 
We stop not to inquire of his creed or nation, but sinking the sect 
and the nation in the man, we rush forth to save him. When 
the great and good Father Mathew was in Belfast, and crowda 
of people were pressing upon him to take the pledge and receive 
his blessing, on Orangeman came up, and kneeling down, the good 
Father placed his hand upon his head and blessed him. The 
Orangeman said to him, ''Why, here, Father Mathew, am I, a red« 
hot Orangeman, and yet I consent to take the pledge, and receive 
a blessing at your hands.' ' The good Father laconically replied— 
*' I don't care if you are a Xemonman." This is the very language 
of teetotalism. It is sufficient that you are a man and a brother, 

(5.) Another grand and distinctive feature of Christian moral- 
ity is the doctrine of aeif-abnegaiwn for the good of others — the 
going out of ourselves, and away from ourselves, aa it were, 
that we may benefit other people. 

Self-sacrifice is, indeed, a beautiful principle. We witness its 
expression in the mother shielding, at the risk of life, her babe 
from harm. We see it in the patriot, bleeding for his country's 
safety. We see it in the philanthropist, exposing life amid scenes 
of terrible suffering and disease, in order to bless and rescue his 
fellow-men. Now, he who exemplifies Christian morality com- 
bines the qualities both of the patriot and philanthropist, but he 
is more inclined to look at man in his individual than in his 
collective capacity. There is something imposing and attractive, 
and even flattering to our vanity, in being called upon to suffer for 
the good of a Nation, or any large class ; and we are apt to forget 
the indwidMol in the community to which he belongs. But he 
who practically conforms to the requirements of Christian 
morality, whilst ever ready to act the part of the patriot or 
philanthropist, is also prepared to deny himself, and, if needs be, 
to suffer for the individual, '*We ought to lay down our lives 
for the brethren." ^' If any man will come after me, let him 
15* 



174 TEETOTALISM A GREAT SCIEIiTIFIC FACT. 

den J himself, and take up his cross and follow me." ''It is good 
neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor anything whereby thy 
brother atumbleth, or is offended, or is made weak." ^^ None of 
us liveth to himself y and no man dieth to himself." 

Our principles are in unison with this doctrine, because 
opposed to personal indulgence and selfish gratification, especially 
when these are of a dangerous character, and likely to prove a 
snare and a temptation to others. The cry comes to us as a 
command — " Destroy not thou him with thy drink for whom 
Christ died." Temperance reformers are also willing to toil, 
hand and brain, to rescue their fellow-men, even though obloquy 
and pcri^ecution assail them. 

(6.) The ethics of the New Testament inculcates the practice 
of true Temperance, including Abstinence. 

** And beside this, giving all diligence, add to your faith 
virtue ; and to virtue, knowledge ; and to knowledge, temper- 
ance." 2 Peter, i. 5, 6. 

Says Dr. Adam Clarke on this passage: — " Temperance: A 
proper and limited use of all earthly enjoyments, keeping every 
sense under proper restraint, and never permitting the animal 
part to subjugate the rational." 

" And as he (Paul) reasoned of righteousness, temperance, 
and a judgment to come." Acts xxiv. 25. 

The word enkrateia, here translated temperance, signifies self- 
government, and has certainly in this connection an abstinent 
signification. Says Dr. A. Clarke : — " This discourse of St. Paul 
was most solemnly and pointedly adapted to the state of the 
person to whom it was addressed. Felix was tyrannous and op- 
pressive in his government ; lived under the power of avarice and 
unbridled appetites; and his incontinence, intemperance, and 
injustice, appear fully in depriving the king of Emesa of his 
wife, and in his conduct toward St. Paul, and the motives by 
which that conduct was regulated. And as to Drusilla, who had 
forsaken the husband of her youth, and forgotten the covenant 
of her Qod, and become the vrilling companion of this bad man, 
she was worthy of the strongest reprehension ; and PauPs rea- 
soning on righteousness, temperance, and judgment^ was not less 
applicable to her than to her unprincipled paramour." 

" Temperance" here has evident reference to adultery, in which 
both Felix and Drusilla were living, and enjoins upon them self- 
restraint in that respect, that is, abstinence. 



TRUE TEMPERANCE. 17S 

" And every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate in 
all things.'' 1 Cor. iz. 25. 

*' All those who contended in these exercises," says Dr. A* 
Clarke, *^ went through a long state and series of painfal prepar- 
ations. To this exact discipline Epictetus refers, (I. Cap. 35.) 
'Do you wish to gain the prize at the Olympic games? Consider 
the requisite preparations and the consequences: You must 
ohserve a strict regimen ; must live on food which you dislike ; 
you must abstain from all delicacies ; must exercise yourself at 
the necessary and prescribed times both in heat and cold ; yoa 
must drink nothing cooling; take no wine as formerly; in a 
word, you must put yourself under the directions of a pugilist^ 
as you would under those of a physician, and afterwards enter 
the lists.' " 

Qui studit optatum carsa contingere metam 
Multa tulit fecitque puer : Sudavit et alsit ; 
Abstinint Venere et Baccho. 

{Korace, De Arte Poet, ver. 412.) 

A youth who hopes the Olympic prize to gain, 
All arts must try, and every toil sustain ; 
Th' extremes of heat and cold must often prove; 
And shun the weakening joys of wine and love. 

These quotations show the propriety of the apostle's words t 
** Every man that striveth for the mastery, is temperate^ or conti- 
nent^ in all things." 

" Tr%ie Temperance is the proper use of good things ; total 
abstinence from bad things." (Dr. Lees.) ''Moderation" is akin 
to temperance, it is the habit of restrained indulgence. Temper- 
ance designates the act of a person in reference to a certain 
thing; Moderation the habit formed from the frequent repetition 
of the act. 

This definition has not been coined to suit the ideas of tee- 
totalers. It is very ancient. Socrates says: — **Hewho knows 
what is good and chooses it, who knows what is bad and avoids 
it, is learned and temperate." Hobbes says : — *' Temperance is 
the habit by which we abstain from all things that tend to our 
destruction ; Intemperance the contrary vice." 

Now as applied to eating and drinking, temperance is the 
moderate use of those elements of diet that are good, useful, 
or necessary; but abstinence from all those agents that injure. 



176 TEETOTALISH A OBEAT 8CIEKTIFIC FACT. 

If I take bread, flesh, vegetables, water, eoooa, tea, ete., in qftan* 
tity sufficient to supply the nataral demands of nj body, I am 
temperate in the us^ of these things ; but if I take more than 
this, I am intemperate. Contrariwise, if I take ever so small a 
qaantity of putrid meat, or diseased potato, or of arsenic, I take 
what is injurious in quality, and am, therefore, intemperate. 

The whole question of teetotalism hangs here. If intoxicating 
liquors are good and useful as beverages, then to use them 
moderately is to be temperate. If, however, they are bad or 
pemicioua, then moderation, as applied to their use, is a mis- 
nomer, for the only temperance is abstinence. Now we have 
already shown (Chapters ii. and iii.), that far from being good 
creatures of God, these liquors are evil creatures of man's own 
invention, and that, howevw fascinating they may be in ap- 
pearance, and however delicious to a depraved taste, they are 
really poisonous and corrupting. Hence, in this case, abstinence 
is the only temperance. He, therefore, who partakes of these 
liquors, however warily, is not, in the strictest sense of the term, 
'^ Temperate." He violates a great law of his being, and must 
expect to be punished. And this is really the case. It has been 
computed that one-thirteenth of the moderate drinkers die drunk- 
ards; and we may safely compute that at least two out of 
the thirteen become drunkards, while the remainder do not 
escape scatheless. 

Every moderate drinker, in fact, is engaged in playing a 
dangerous game with his constitution. He is performing a physi- 
ological experiment upon himself of a very dangerous character, 
and what the consequences may be, it is impossible to foretell. 
Reader I if you are a moderate drinker now, can yon be sure 
that you will always continue so? The drunkard's insatiable 
appetite and quenchless thirst are not created all at once, but 
silently, secretly, and seductively, and when developed, bears 
him, like the rushing torrent or resistless tornado, onward to 
his doom. Go forth to the woodland, and gaze upon the riven and 
blasted oak — ^riven and blasted by the lightning*s subtile power. 
See I it stands in lonely, leafless, and blackened desolation. The 
birds of the air build not their nests amid its branches; the beasts 
of the field seek not shelter beneath its shade ; but in grim and 
horrid loneliness it deforms the landscape, and stands forth a 
spectacle of ruin to all. And now gaze upon that riven and 
blasted human form, of which this oak is but an emblem I Seel 



THE PLEDGE. 177 

Strong driok has robbed him of physical strength, of moral 
beauty, and of mental power. His dull eye glows with a baleful 
fire, and his face is a fair index of his debauched and ruined 
spirit. His very breath is infectious, and his whole frame 
trembles beneath the awful curse of strong drink. Go I and 
interrogate him I Ask him whence he came, and by what foul 
means he has been thus debased and undone ? He will tell yoa 
that he was once a lovely, laughing child, and in manhood full 
of noble sympathies — that, in compliance with social usage, he 
partook " moderately" of strong drink, and gradually, imper- 
ceptibly, yet most surely, he acquired a liking for liquor, which 
has now ripened into an irresistible and consuming passion. 
This IS no fiction, but the sad and terrible history of thousands, 
and is repeated every day before our eyes. 

Says Dr. R. B. Grindrod: — "One of the first stages of intem- 
perance is witnessed in the anxious and uneasy feelings which 
even moderate drinkers experience, on occasions when they have 
been accidentally deprived of their accustomed stimulus. Sensa- 
tions of this nature present undoubted evidence of the existence 
and development of the inebriate propensity. Indeed, the great 
danger of moderate drinking consists in the inability to ascertain 
at what precise period in the progress of the vice this unnatural 
sensation first commences. . . . The moderate 

use of intoxicating liquors, both in a moral and physical point 
of view, is the high road to intemperance." — Bacchus, 

(7.) Signing the pledge is in perfect harmony with Christian 
morality. 

Many persons who object to the pledge, do not properly under- 
stand its import. Some object to it on the ground that it is not 
right to take an oath. But no ''oath" is at all required in 
taking the temperance pledge. It is simply a ''declaration" 
which even the " Friends" may make. 

Others object that they do not intend signing away their 
liberty, and that if they cannot give up the drink without 
signing the pledge, they are sure they will not be able to do so 
by putting their names to one. The meaning of this objection 
is simply this: "I am not convinced that this teetotalism is a 
suitable thing for me; and as the practice of it may sometimes 
be attended with inconvenience, I will reserve to myself the 
liberty of using intoxicating drink, should my interests require 
it" It is, however, no question of " liberty." 



178 TEETOTALISM A GBEAT SCIENTIFIC FACT. 

Every moral. agent has the liberty to do right, or to do wrong, 
and it is in the exercise of this choice that he signs the pledge. 

What is the pledge f We will cite one, and then we shall see. 
'*I aiirce to abstain from all intoxicating liquors, and in every 
suitable way to discountenance their use throughout the com- 
munity.'' Here we perceive that the pledge is simply a written 
declaration of a resolution previously formed in the mind. 
After careful inquiry and due deliberation I arrive at the con- 
clusion that intoxicating drinks are bad, and that the use of 
them is fraught with great danger to myself, and with actual 
mischief to the bodies and souls of other men. Hence a con- 
viction ot duty. It is, then, my duty to abstain, and by every 
suitable means to induce others to abstain. Then comes the 
resolution to fulfil that daty. Here the pledge is virtually taken, 
whether I have signed it or not ; and should I now partake of 
strong drink, the sin (if not the disgrace) is just as great as 
though I had already signed.* But having formed this mental 
resolve, I desire, both for my own encouragement and as an 
example to others, to give it public expression. I, therefore, sign 
my name to a printed declaration, embodying substantially my 
own convictions of right and duty. What is there wrong or 
unreasonable in this? 

But the pledge involves 9k principle. If that be p?oved right, 
we must then consider if the pledge be a correct and proper 
expression of it. Now the principle embodied in the pledge is 
this: — Is it right to pledge ourselves to do go6d? The whole 
tenor of Scripture, both in its examples and precept, says. Test 
In no single instance do we find that a vow to '* do good" is 
condemned in the Bible. By the stone of Beth-el, Jacob vowed 
a vow unto God, and this was approved of; for, many years 
after, God appeared to him in a dream, saying, *' I am the God 
of Beth-el where thou anointedat the pillar, and where thou 
Towedst a vow unto me." The Nazarites pledged themselves to 
abstain from wine and strong drink, and to perform certain other 
things. This pledge was formed by God, and taken in a very 
solemn manner in the tabernacle, in the presence of the people. 
Paul took a vow, probably that of the Nazarite, for having 
fulfilled it, he shaved his head.in Cenchrea. David aiid Jonathan 
pledged themselves solemnly before God to be faithful to each 
other, in one of the most touching episodes of their mutual 

* " Whatsoever is not of faith is sin.** 



THE PLEDGE. 170 

bifitory. We are, indeed, cautioned against breaking a vow. 
"When thou vowest a vow unto God, defer not to pay it; for he 
hath no pleasure in fools : pay that which thou hast vowed." 
We further find that those who tempt others to violate their 
vow are severely reprimanded. ** And I raised up of your sons 
fos prophets, and of your young men for Nazarites. . . • But 
ye gave the Nazarites wine to drink." Amos, ii. 11, 12. 

The expression of this principle, in some form or other, meets 
us at every turn of life. At the hymeneal altar we vow fidelity 
to the partner of our choice. At the baptism of the . infant, 
sj^onsors vow three things on behalf of the unconscious babe. 
£ven over the foaming bowl, people pledge health and friendship. 
In numerous business transactions people pledge themselves to 
abide by certain bargains. What is a warrant, but a pledge? 
The man who gives us a warrant with the watch, or the horse 
we purchase of him, takes a legal pledge. Bills of exchange and 
bank notes cannot be negotiated without a written pledge. We 
cannot even promise to meet a friend at any hour and place 
without pledging ourselves to do so. Every word of promise 
is a pledge, for it is a verbal expression of a mental resolution, 
binding ourselves to a certain course of action. 

I believe that it is my duty to abstain from strong drinks, 
and in every suitable way to discourage their use. How, then, 
ehall I best express my honest convictions? By word of mouth ? 
Yes, that is one way. But I see before me a band of noble 
workers in this grand crusade, and by identifying myself with 
them, I perceive that I shall be able more effectually to work 
out my own convictions ; therefore, I sign the pledge. It is at 
once the distinguishing badge and the initiatory rite of the 
movement. It draws the line of demarcation, clear and definite, 
between drinkers and abstainers, and becomes a common bond 
of union. 

Not only is it right to take the pledge, the doing so greatly 
aids the keeping of the resolution to abstain. Knowing how 
weak and erring men are, even at their best, it is very proper to 
adopt every legitimate means to confirm the wavering and the 
weak in the carrying out of their good resolutions. The fact of 
having signed the pledge offers at all times a ready argument for 
refusing to drink when pressed to do so. Many teetotalers, not 
being well versed in the principles of our movement, and in 
those facts by which they are defended, might fail in arguing tho 



180 TEET0TALI8M A OB£AT 8CIENTIFIC FACT. 

point with a witty and loqaacious opponent He can answer, 
however, '' I bave 8i<;n^ the pledge, and mean to keep it,'' and 
It is not manly to tempt a man to break a good resolution, 
especially one to which he has solemnly and publicly pledged 
himself. The pledge has been an actual instrument of great 
good ; a lever by which we have succeeded in uplifting from the 
.deepest debasement many a forlorn and pitiable brother. 

Astute modern drinkers and professing Christians often put 
to the advocate of teetotalism this question, Is it a ain to drink a 
glass ofcUeasa heceraget The teetotiiler does not like to reply 
in the affirmative, and he cannot exactly do so in the negative, 
yet should he hesitate, his opponent fancies that he has poshed 
him into a corner, and overturned the whole fabric of teetotalism. 

AVhat is sin ? The wilful transgression of the law. What is 
law ? A rule of life. The law is that assemblage of precepts 
and rules expressive of principles and relations, obedience to 
which is demanded by the Supreme Governor.* Now laws are 
either moral or physical. *^Sin,*' says James, '4s the transgres- 
sion of the law,'' that is, of the law as a whole. It refers alike 
to moral and physical law. You cannot divorce them. The 
man who knowingly violates physical 2ato, sins equally with him 
who steals, or tells a lie, or thinks and acts impurely, and thus 
violates a moral precept. 

It has been already shown that* alcohol is an agent foreign 
to the body of mail, a poison of a very fascinating character, and 
that the most cautious use of it is attended with great danger, 
not only to man's physical constitution, but also to his moral 
and spiritual nature. Hence, when these facts are known, its 
imbibition, however small the quantity, becomes a sin. He who 
uses these liquors, knowing them to be bad, adds to the violation 
of physical law moral turpitude, and he who uses them, ignorant 
of their properties, is now inexcusable* 

There was a period before the dawn of the temperance reform- 
ation, and the national controversy to which it has given rise 
— a period before science had commenced her researches — when 
such ignorance was innocent ; for the times of ignorance God 
winked at, but now "He commands all men, everywhere, to 
repent." We are now surrounded by light, and it is our duty as 
rational beings to make inquiry ; should we wilfully neglect to 

* A physical law is a relation^ not m precept; and its violation cannot be a 
sin unless it is known.— £d. 



'thk dakoerous example. 181 

do 80, and yet continae to indalge in the use of stroDg drin^, 
then do we commit sin. 

The example set by the moderate drinking professing Cliristian 
IS most dangerous and misleading. Says the prophet, " If thou 
forbear to deliyer them that are drawn unto death, and those 
that are ready to be slain : if thou sayest, Behold, we Inew it not; 
doth not He that pondereth the heart consider it? and He that 
keepeth thy soul, doth He not know it? And shall he not render 
to every man according to bis works ?** 

Now in regard to the use of intoxicating drink, not only do % 
great many persons neglect "those that are ready to perish/' but 
by their example they delude and mislead thousands' to their 
ruin. It cannot be urged too forcibly, nor spoken too plainly, 
that so far cts example goes, the moderate drinker exerts a far 
more dangerous influence upon society than the poor drunkard. 
We shudder at the drunkard, pass him by with disgust, and fear 
not the contaminating influence of his example; but not so with 
the respectable moderate drinker. He gives a locus standi and 
an air of respectability to the practice*, and thousands who 
attempt to imitate him, fall and perish. They are a kind of 
"Will o' the Wisp," misleading the unwary traveller; or like a 
wrecker's lantern flashing upon a treacherous sea, attracting the 
distressed mariner to the fatal rocks. 

If the " moderate drinker" would abandon his cups, within 
twelve years drunkenness would be all but annihilated; we 
should only behold here and there a solitary victim, holding out 
in virtue of a strong oonstitutioui a sad memorial of the drunk- 
enness of a bygcne day. 



182 BACCHUS DETHRONED. 



CHAPTER VII. 

TEETOTALISM IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

Prop. VIII. — ^^That the use of intoxicating wines, or alcoholic 
drinks^ is nowhere recommended^ sanctioned, or commanded in 
Scripture, cu beverages,'^ 

The a priori evidence in favor of this proposition amoants to 
a very high degree of probability, if not to moral certainty. 
History, science, and experience, have already given their ver- 
dict in favor of total abstinence. The great, the wise and the 
good in all ages have expressed their convictions in its favor, and 
that, too, in the clearest and most decisive manner. They have 
denounced intoxicating liquor as being essentially evil, and to 
be abstained from. 

Dr. Lees says: — **It is a fact that teetotalism everywhere 
pervaded the primeval empires of the world ; that it was 
preached and practised by the greatest moral reformers and 
spiritual teachers of antiquity; — ^was a part indeed, of the 
religious culture of the Egyptians, centuries before a Jewish 
Nation existed/'* A learned writer in the Medico Chirurgieal 
Review says: — *^ Without contradiction, in every age of the world 
there has been a total abstinence movement, . . The religion 
and laws of the nations of every portion of Asia bear traces of 
enlightened efforts to check the vice of intemperance; and to 
this day there are numerous tribes who, by religious profession, 
are total abstainers.' ' 

The experience of the present generation has corroborated that 
of former ages. Science also has confirmed the teaching of 
history and experience, demonstrating alcohol to be a poison, 
destructive alike to health, life, and morals. Scientific men, and 
committees of learned and truthful witnesses, have sought to 
formulisc the grand truths already broui;ht to light. 

The following declaration was signed by upwards of two thon- 
sand medical men, including Sir B. Brodie, Sir James Clarke, 

* WorkSt vol. 11., Ancient Teetotalivm. 



THE EYIDEKGE A PRIORI. 183 

Dr. W. F. Chambers, F. S. R., and many of the most eminent 
authors in the medical profession : 

" We are of opinion : — 1st — Thai a very large portion of haman misery, 
including poverty, disease, and crime, is induced by the use of alcoholic 
or fermented liquors as beverages. 

2d. — That the most perfect health is compatible with total abstinence 
from all such intoxicating beverages, whether in the form of ardent spirits, 
or as wine, beer, ale, porter, cider, etc. 

3d. — That persons accustomed to such drinks may with perfect 
safety discontinue them entirely, either at once, or gradually after a short 
time. 

4th. — That total and universal abstinence from alcoholic liquors, 
and intoxicating beverages of all sorts, would greatly contribute to the 
health, the prosperity, the morality, and the happiness of the human 
race." 

Now can the word of God really contradict the truths He has 
BO clearly revealed in the volume of nature and providence? 
We cannot think so. The Unchangeable cannot contradict 
Himself. However, we sit down and open the Bible, with rev- 
erence %,nd prayer, so that with unbiased judgment, and a 
sincere desire to know the truth, we may ascertain what is the 
mind of the Lord on this point. 

We open at Genesis, and find that on the creation of man 
ample provision was made to meet all his wants; food, to satisfy 
hunger, wat^r to quench thirst, a congenial companion to draw 
out his social affections, and God Himself to meet the cravings 
of his spiritual nature. 

Strong drink, and wine that intoxicates^ are not to be foand in 
the catalogue of man's requirements, and accordingly, are not 
provided. 

Upon the subsidence of the waters of the deluge, that grojid 
old patriarch, Noah, descends from Mount Ararat to re-people 
the plains of Armenia, and now we have recorded the saddest 
episode in the life of that otherwise good man. *^And Noah 
began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard : And he 
drank of the wine and was drunken.'' In this passage wine is 
mentioned for the first .time in the Bible, and it is associated with 
the mental and moral debasement of a great and noble character. 
Here then, upon the very threshold of God's word is held out a 
warning light, revealing to (is that rock upon which Noah was 
well nigh wrecked.^ We incline to the opinion that Noah's 

• Dr. LeeB ; Bi^ Lecture (1861.) 



184 TEETOTALIBM IN REIJLTION TO THE BIBLE. 

dmnkenness was not intentional, bat accidental. Noah bein^ ft 
husbandman, and possessing a yincjard, would doubtless nse the 
fresh grape-juice as a nutritious and refreshin^r beverao^e, even as 
they do at the present day in all yine growing conntries, in Asia 
Minor, Italy, and the South of France. It is not at all im- 
probable that s bowl of this fresh juice was, by some orersight, 
allowed to ferment. This, in a warm climate, it would do rapidly, 
and in a short time the pure bland grape-juice would be converted 
into an intoxicating wine. Returning home from his labors in 
the field or vineyard, tired and thirsty, — in fact, just in that 
condition in which intoxicants exhibit their most powerful 
acdon, Noah catches sight of the mislaid bowl, and without 
understanding the change that had taken place in the liquor, 
drinks a deep and full draught. Upon his uncontaminated body 
the effect would be almost instantaneous, and in a very brief 
time he would be drunk! Strong drink is no respecter of 
persons. Not even the grace of God will save a man from 
getting drunk, or from even becoming a drunkard, if he partakes 
of strong drink ; for in doing so he places his body under the 
operation of physical causes, and it will then depend entirely 
upon idiosyncrasy of constitution or temperament, and other 
concurrent circumstances, whether he becomes a drunkard or 
not. We must not presume upon grace. Recollect how Christ 
rebukes the tempter. '^ It is written, Thou shait not tempt the 
Lord thy God." Now certainly moderate drinkers are guilty of 
presumption, and they do *' tempt the Lord their God." The 
truth lies here — ^the grace of God will save a. man from becom- 
ing a drunkard only by teaching him to abstain from the use of 
strong drink. 

The second reference to wine as an intoxicating beverage, is 
associated with the perpetration of a most revolting crime. We 
refer to Lot. True, the word "wine" occurs once before. In 
Genesis xiv. 18, we read, "And Melcbisedek, king of Salem, 
brought forth bread and wine ; and he was the priest of the most 
high God." But a question may arise, whether the yayin of 
this passage is not to be understood of grapes rather than their 
expressed juice [as in Jer. xl, 10 — " Gather yg yayin and summer 
fruits"] — seeing that bread and grapes continue to be associated 

in the East, as articles of daily food. — Temperance Bible Com' 
meniary. 

Lot, for many years a resident of the wicked cities of the 



THE ISRAELITES. IN EGYPT. 18S 

plain, had evinced the sterling integrity of his character by long 
resisting their corrupting influence. But even he falls at last. 
Secure in his mountain fastness, and with the yision of those 
burning cities still before him, he commits a crime that might 
have caused even the Sodomites to blush ! And what was it 
that caused righteous Lot to fall so deeply 7 Wine — probably 
drugged wine — received at the hands of his own daughters. 

During the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt, their circum* 
stances would not be very favorable to the cultivation of 
intemperate habits. They dwelt in a land where teetotalism, to 
a certain extent, was upheld by law by the institutions of 
the country, and being in a condition of slavery and poverty , 
would possess neither the means nor the opportunity to cultivate 
the drunkard's appetite. Under the guidance of Moses and AarOn 
they are to be rescued from their grievous bondage, and to 
become a great and a free nation. They are to take possession 
of a land characterized by the variety of its productions, the 
exuberant fertility of its soil, the geniality of its climate, and 
the beauty of its scenery ; a land described as '' a good land, a 
land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring 
out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, 
and fig-trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil, olive, and honey,*' 
(Deut. viii. 7, 8,) and then surrounded by improved circurn- 
stances, they will be exposed to tem]>tations of a new character. 
The one most likely to occur, and the most dangerously fasci- 
nating, is drink. 

As yet their religious and political systems are incomplete; 
they consist merely of those traditionary teachings handed 
down from Abraham and the later patriarchs ; but now, under 
the guiding hand of Moses and Aaron, both alike receive their 
grand completion and development, and as we attentively peruse 
and ponder them, we discover ample provision made to preserve 
the Jews a sober nation. 

(1.) Under certain circumstances the priests are compelled to 
practise abstinence. Nadab and Abihu, sons of Aaron, bad 
perished by fire before the Lord, doubtless because, under the in- 
fluence of drink, they had dared to offer strange fire upon the altar. 
Evidently to prevent a repetition of this conduct on the part of the 
. priesthood, ** the Lord spake unto Aaron, saying, Do not dririkwine 
nor strong drinks thou- nor thy sons with thee, when ye go 
into the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die : it shall be 
16* 



186 TEETOTALISM IK RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

a statute forever throughout your generations: And that ye 
may put difference between holy and unholy, and between 
unclean and clean; And that ye may teach the children of 
Israel all the statutes which the Lord hath spoken unto them by 
the hand of Moses.'^ Ley. z. 8. 11. 

(2.) About this time an abstinent society was founded 
among the Jews — the Nazarites. This body appears to have 
been established for the purpose of teaching the Jews, by living 
example, the superiority of a pure and sober life over a life of 
sensuality and drunkenness. The Nazarites were evidently a 
very superior race of men. Jeremiah says of them, ''Her 
Nazarites were purer than snow, they were whiter than milk, 
they were more ruddy in body than rubiA, their polishing was 
of sapphire.*' Lam. iv. 7. 

The history of Israel records that many of her noblest sons 
were Nazarites. Among them we find Samson, of matchless 
strength; Samuel, renowned for his fervent piety, his noble 
integrity, and patriotism ; and probably also the Hebrew child- 
ren ; Daniel the wise, and Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, 
who refused to defile themselves with the rich foods and luxu- 
rious wines from the king's table, preferring rather to live on 
pulse and water. 

(3.) To inculpate the idea of purity, and teach the Israelites 
that the God they served^ was a holy God, requiring a pure 
sacrifice and worship, certain rules were laid down to regulate 
their sacrifices. Not only were the victims offered in sacrifice to 
be free from spot or blemish, but they were not to be oficred 
with ferment. '/ Thou shalt not offer the blood of my sacrifice 
with leaven." Exodus zxxiv. 25. " No meat-offering which ye 
shall bring unto the Lord shall be made with leaven ; for ye 
shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, in any offering of the Lord 
made by fire." Lev. ii. IL The wine of the drink-offering 
must have come under the same regulation, since only upon this 
ground could it harmonize with the meat-offering, and with the 
characteristic purity of all the offerings and sacrifices. The 
quantity of the wine for a drink-offering is mentioned, but not 
the qualify; the generic term yayin being used. ''And the 
fourth part of an hin (three pints) of wine for a drink-offering 
shalt thou prepare with the burnt-offering or sacrifice, for otie' 
lamb. . Or for a ram, thou shalt prepare for a meat-offering two- 
tenth deals of flour mingled with the third part of an hin of 



THE ISRAELITES A TEETOTAL NATION. 187 

oil. And for a drink-offering thou Bhalt offer the third part of 
an bin (four pints) of wine, for sweet savor unto the Lord 
. And thou sbalt bring for a drink-offering half an 
bin (six pints) of wino, for an offering made by fire, of a sweet 
savor unto the Lord." Numbers xv. 5, 6, 7, 10. 

(4.) During the forty years' wandering of the Israelites in the 
desert they were trained abstainers. Their principal support was 
manna from heaven, and water from the flinty rock, and for a 
brief period the flesh of quails, when they lusted after flesh. 
Deut xxix. 6. Thus then, when at last they advanced to take 
possession of the land of Palestine they had a decided advantage 
over their drunken and effeminate enemies. They were, in fact, 
a disciplined army of hardy, sober people, well able to stand 
the brunt of war. Guided by intrepid and experienced generals, 
as Joshua and Caleb, the walled cities soon fell before them, and 
in a brief time a large portion of that fair beritage lay at their 
feet. But no sooner do they rest from war than they give them- 
selves up to an easy and luxurious life. The land produces 
food abundantly. There are corn and grapes, dates and olives, 
honey and milk. Instead of using these " creatures of God'' 
in a proper manner, giving thanks to the Giver of all good, they 
abuse them, and yield themselves up to luxury, drunkenness, 
and adultery. Sad indeed are the representations given of their 
dissolute habits by their own seers and historian?. Says 
Isaiah : — " "Woe to the crown of pride, to the drunkards of 
Ephraim, whose glorious beauty is a fading flower, which are 
on the head of the fat valleys of them that are overcome with 

wine But they [the priests] also have erred 

through wine, and through strong drink are out of the way ; the 
priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink, they are 
swallowed up of wine, they are out of the way through strong 
drink ; they err in vision, they stumble in judgment. For M 
tables areJuU of vomit and filthiness^ so that there is no place 
clean." Isaiah xxviii. 1, 7, 8. In chapter Ivi., the prophet 
Btill further pictures the debasement of the priesthood, the watch- 
men of Israel. *^ Ilis watchmen are blind ; they are all ignorant^ 
they are all dumb dogs, they cannot bark ; sleeping, lying down, 
loving to slumber. Yea, they are greedy dogs which can never 
have enough, and they are shepherds that cannot understand : 
they all look to their own way, every one for his gain, from his 
quarter. Come ye, say they, I will fetch wine, and we will fill 



188 TEETOTALISH IK RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

sunelves with strong drink; and to-morrow shall be as this day, 
and much more abundant." " Like priest like people/* and with 
a sensual and drunken priesthood, no wonder the Jews were a 
sensual and drunken people. Contemporary prophets also bear 
testimony to the wide-spread intemperance and demoralization 
which at that time characterized the nation, involving alike 
priest and prophet, prince and people. Says Amos (ch. ii.) : 
" Thus saith the Lord ; For three transgressions of Judah, and 
for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because 
they have despised the law of the Lord, and have not kept his 
commandments, and their lies caused them to err, after the 
which their fathers have walked." 

(5.) The true prophets are inspired to denounce the sin, to 
point to its causes, and to indicate the remedy. In the following 
pas8a;;e the human and the Divine plan are contrasted, 

" Thus saith the Lord ; For three transgressions of Israel, and 
for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because 
they sold the righteous for silver, and the poor for a pair of 
shoes. . . And they lay themselves down upon clothes laid to 
pledge by every altar, and they drink the wine of the condemned 
in the house of their God. . . And I raised up 

of your sons for prophets, and of your young men for Ndzariies. 

But ye gave the Nazarites wine to drink : and 
commanded the prophets, saying, Prophesy not." Amos ii. 

Hosea says, " They make the king glad with their wickedness, 
and the princes with their lies. ... In the day of our 
king the princes have made him sick with bottles* of wine; 
he stretched out his hands with scorners." Hosea vii. 3, 5. 

The prophet Micah informs us that at this time the nation 
was so degraded, that they rejected the true prophet, and would 
only accord a hearing to those who flattered their vanity, or 
encouraged them in their dissolute practices. He says : — " If a 
man walking in the spirit and falsehood do lie, saying, I will 
prophesy unto thee of wine and of strong drink, he shall even 
be the prophet of this people." Chap, ii. 11. 

To arouse the nation to a sense of their degraded condition, and 
to put a check upon their lawless career of licentiousness and 
drunkenness, woes are denounced against the drinker, and those 
who tempt others to drink ; the intoxicating wines are described 
as bad and destructive, being likened to the poison of dragons, 
* Original in Khemah poison, as in Dent xxxiL 



INTOXICATING WINE DISCOUNTENANCED. 189 

and the cruel venom of asps, also to the serpent's bite, and adder's 
sting, and to God's wrath and indignation. Even the effect of 
inioxicating wine upon the human constitution is vividly por« 
trajed, and its very use is more than once prohibited, not only 
to kings and princes, but to all classes in general. Thus in every 
conceivable way is the use of intoxicating wine discountenanced. 

Moses says : — " For their rock is not as our Rock, even our 
enemies themselves being judges. For their vine is of the vine 
of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah : their grapes are grapes 
of gall, their clusters are bitter: Their wine is the poison of 
dragons, and the cruel venom of asps." Deut. zxxii. 31, 33. 

The Psalmist says : — ** For in the hand of the Lord there is a 
•cup, and the wine is red ; it is full of mixture ; and he poureth 
out of the same : but the dregs thereof, all the wicked of the 
earth shall wring them out, and drink them." Ps« Ixxv. 8. 

Solomon says : — •* For they eat the bread of wickedness, and 
drink the wine of violence." Elsewhere it is called the " wine of 
astonishment." *^ Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging: 
and whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise. Prov. xi. 1. 
" Who hath woe ? who hath sorrow? who hath contentions? 
who hath babblings ? who hath wounds without cause ? who hath 
redness of eyes? They that tarry long at the wine; they that 
go to seek mixed wine. Look not thou upon the wine when it is 
red, when it givcth his color in the cup, when it moveth itself 
aright. At the last it biteth like a serpent, and stingeth like an 
adder. Thine eyes shall behold strange women, and thine heart 
shall utter perverse things. Yea, thou shalt be as he that lieth 
down in the midst of the sea, or as he that lieth upon the top of 
the mast. They have stricken me, shalt thou say^ and I was 
not sick: they have beaten me, and I felt it not: when 
shall I awake ? I will seek it yet again." Prov. xxiii. 29-35. 
For comprehensiveness, correctness of description, and prohibi- 
tory force, this is the grandest teetotal passage that can be 
found in the wide field of either temperance or general litera- 
ture. 

In chapter zxxi., King LemuePs mother gives very good 
advice to her son. She says : — " It is not for kings, Lemuel, 
it is not for kings to drink wine ; nor for princes strong drink : 
Lest they drink, and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of 
any of the afflicted." 

This advice is in accordance with the strictest principles of 



190 TEETOTALISM IK RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

teetotalism. The following; verses, however, are frequently 
qaoted ap;ainst us. Let us exnmi le tbem : 

** Give strong drink unto him that is ready to perish, and win« 
unto those that be of heavy heart Let him drink and for;;et his 
poverty, and remember his misery no more." Prov. xxxi. 6, 7. 

This cannot be a command to seek in the intoxicating cup, 
oblivion from the sorrows and cares of life, for such an interpre- 
tation is opposed to the whole tenor and spirit of God's word. 
Says James, ** Is any afflicted ? let him pray." It is at a throne 
of grace that the afflicted must seek consolation and strength; 
not by applying to the bottle. What, then, is the meaning of 
the passage? In the preceding verses King LemuePs mother 
warns him against the use of wine and strong drink, and specifies 
her reasons for doing so. " Lest they drink and forget the law, 
and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted." Now to 
show the thorough worthlessness of the drink to aid us in the 
higher Work of life, she says, in evident irony, "Give strong 
drink," etc. As much as to say, wine and strong drink are not 
fit beverages for kings or princes, or for any other person having 
responsible duties to perrorm *, they are only fit for those who 
fleek oblivion from the cares of life and who wish to shirk its 
duties. 

The sixth and seventh verses, then, cited above, do not convey 
a recommendation to the poor and suffering to seek forgetfulness 
in the inebriating cup, neither is it a command for us to supply 
them with drink for this purpose ; but the expressions are sim- 
ply contrastive utterances with the view of giving force to the 
prohibitory advice of the fourth and fifth verses. Even suppos- 
ing that the passage conveyed a command or a sanction, such 
can only apply to a certain class, under very special circum- 
stances. The person to whom the command and sanction apply 
must be " ready to perish," that is, having committed some great 
crime, he must be upon the point of suffering the extreme 
penalty of the law — capital punishment ; for here is an evident 
allusion to a practice common among the Jews, viz : that of 
administering some stapefying wine to criminals doomed to 
death, in order to mitigate pain and deaden nervous sensibility. 
Now to those who quote this passage in favor of drinking, we 
put the question, — Are you ready to perish"? Are you about to 
suffer a violent and cruel death ? If not, then this passage does 
not apply to you. 



MIOHTT DRINKERS. 191 

Again, the person to whom the supposed sanction applies, 
must be suffering from ** bitterness of spirit," or to give the full 
force of the expression in the Ixz., tois en odunais, thej must be 
writhing in torturing anguish. We ask those who quote this 
text against us, are you suffering from bitterness of spirit, or 
writhing in torturing anguish ? If not, then this passage does 
not apply to you, but the prohibitory advice in the preceding 
verses does. It is not for such to drink, but to abstain. 

Further, if the text be a sanction at all, it goes a little further 
than moderation. It is a sanction to excess, the drinking is to 
be up to the point of oblivion, till thej forget their poverty and 
remember their misery no more. Can Bums have paraphrased 
it correctly? 

" Gie him strong drink until he wink 
That's sinking in despair, 
An' liquor guid to fire his binid 
That's press'd wi grief an' c&re ; 
There let him bouse an' deep carouse 
Wi bumpers flowing o'er, 
Till he forgets his love an' debts 
An' minds his griefs no more." 

There is some logical propriety in the poor drunken wretch 
who needs oblivion from a sense of his debasement and misery 
citing this text as a Scriptural defence of his conduct, but not 
when the moderate drinker cites it in defence of his practice. 
(For an able exposition of this text, see Temperance Bible Com- 
mentary.) 

Says Isaiah: — ''Woe unto them that rise up early in the 
morning, that they may follow strong drink ; that continue until 
night, till wine inflame them! . . Woe unto them that are 
mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle strong 
drink!" (ver, 11, 12.) Not only, then, are drunkards denounced 
men inflamed with wine, but also those who have so habituated 
themselves to the use of intoxicating liquor as to be able to con- 
sume a large quantity without being intoxicated. — *' Men mighty 
to drink wine,^^ and "wien of strength'^ who ^^ mingle strong drink J^ 

Says Jeremiah : — *' For thus saith the Lord God of Israel unto 
me ; Take the wine cup of this fury at My hand, and cause all 
the nations, to whom I send thee, to drink it. And they shall 
drink, and be moved, and be mad, because of the sword that I 
will send among them.'' (Chap. xxv. 15, 10.) Here, ihea^ in 



192 TEETOTALISM IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

imaji^ery drawn from the well known and visible action of intoxi- 
cating wine, we have described the punishments to be inflicted 
upon a drunken and worthless people. 

Sajs Ilabakkuk: — **Woe unto him that giyeth his neighbor 
drink, that pnttest thj bottle to Aim,* and makest him drunken 
also, that thou majest look on their nakedness." (ii. 15.) 

This passage applies to all who, from mistaken notions of 
hospitality, are continually presenting the glass to the lips of 
their neighbors and friends ; and emphatically to those who are 
engaged in dealing out, early and late, a drink which corrupts 
and demoralises the people. It also applies to those who are 
engaged in the manufacture of them, and to the government, 
that for the sake of revenue, legalizes and protects a traffic most 
destructive to the national welfare. 

From the reign of Solomon to the days of Ahab the Israelites 
appear to have made rapid strides in drunkenness and profligacy, 
and they continued their downward career till swept away in 
the Babylonish captivity. 

During the degenerate days of Ahab, about 900 b. c, flourished 
Jonadab, the son of Rechab, a descendant of Jethro the Midi- 
anite, Moses* father-in-law, and at that time the head of the 
tribe of Rechabites. To preserve his tribe and people from 
the general corruption of manners, and to secure their safety in 
the land in which they lived as strangers, he enjoins upon them 
abstinence from the use of strong drink, and other safeguards. 
Jonadab is gathered to his fathers, and well nigh three centuries 
roll away, when Jeremiah appears upon the stage. The times 
are troublous, and the Jews are even more degenerate than in 
the days of the wicked Ahab. The Rechabites, however, still 
exist intact as a tribe, and are still obedient to the sage advice 
of their renowned ancestor. Commanded by God, Jeremiah 
sends for the elders of the tribe, and takes them to one of the 
chambers of the house of God, and there places before them pots 
full of wine, and cups, and says unto them — '* Drink ye wine." 
This was not done to tempt the Rechabites to a violation of the 
command of Jonadab their father, but for the purpose of teach- 
ing the Jews a valuable lesson. 

The Rechabites respond — ** We will drink no wine : for Jona- 
dab, the son of Rechab, our father, commanded us, saying. Ye 
shall drink no wine, nor your sons, forever." As a reward for 

lo the original, poUon.—'FJK 



THE APOOBTPHA. 193 

tiieir attachment to principle, and for their filial obedieneei 
Jeremiah Goayej« to them the divine memag'e :^" Because ye 
have obeyed the commandment of Jonadab yoar father, and 
kept all hie precepts, and done according unto all that he hath 
commanded you : Therefore, thas aaith the Lord of Hoste, tha 
Ood of Israel ; Jonadab the Bpn of Rechab shall not "want a man 
to stand before me forever.'' 

Now, where are the Rechabites? Nearly three thousand years 
have passed away since these events occurred. During the.revolv- 
ing centuries, mighty empires have risen, flourished and decayed. 
Cities at that time opulent, powerful, and populous, the wonder 
and admiration of the ancient world, have strangely disappeared, 
a few mounds upon the banks of mighty rivers being all that 
remains to tell where they once stood. The Jewish nation is 
scattered far and wide, and her people have become vagrants in 
all lands -, yet amid all these convulsions and changes the Recha- 
bites have sunrived, and how as of old they are a generous, 
truth-loving and sober people, still cherishing with veneration 
the traditions of their great ancestor, and still obedient to his 
commands.r—See Temperance Bible Commentary. 

The Old Testament comes to an end; the prophet Malaehi 
writes its conoludihg words. But the Apocrypha, to a certain 
extent, takes up the story, for scattered throughout its pages are 
sentiments, at least, not unfavorable to our system. In the 
Book of Esdras we read : '' O ye men, how exceeding strong is 
wine I it causeth all men to err that drink it : It maketh the 
mind of the king and of the fatherless child to be all one : of the 
bondman and of the free man, of the poor man and of the rich : 
It turneth also every thought into jollity ond mirth, so that a 
man remembereth neither sorrow nor debt : And it maketh every 
heart rich, so that a man remembereth neith^ir king nor governor; 
and it maketh .to speak all things by talerts: And when they 
are in th^r cups, they forget their love both to friends and 
brethren, and a little after draw out swords : But when they are 
from their wine, they remember not what they have done.*' 
Ch.m.lS-24,ofl$tBook. 

In Ecclesiasticus we read, '^ Rebuke not thy neighbor at the 
wine, and despise him not in his mirth ; give him no despiteful 
words, and press not upon him with urging him to drink." Ch, 
xzxi. 31. 

Between the days of Malaohi and the dawning of &e CfaristUui 
17 



194 TEETOTALISM IN BELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

dispensation, two, or more, abstinent sects existed among the 
Jews. The Essenes, in Palestine, and the Therapeatas, at 
Alexandria. According to Philo and Josephas, they strongly 
resembled the older Pythagoreans; they followed none but 
peaceful avocations ; lived a very pious, regular, and sober life ;. 
opposed slavery, were remarkable for virtuous conduct and 
a noble integrity, and abstained entirely from all wine and 
strong drink. They also were long livers, many of them 
attaining to the age of an hundred years, ^' which,*' says Josephus, 
'Ms to be ascribed to their simple and plain diet; and the 
temperance and good order observed in all things.' ' 

Now the fulness of time having come, John the Baptist ap- 
pears to herald the dawn of the Christian dispensation.* The 
dispensation of types and shadows, of obscure promises, and a 
sensuous worship, is passing away, and a new and spiritual 
dispensation is about to commence, • leading men to a more 
spiritual worship, to a higher and diviner life, to a more direct 
communion with God, and to the exercise of a broader philan- 
thropy among men. John the Baptist appears, to prepare 
men's minds for the change by uprooting olden prejudices, and 
sweeping away olden errors. John was a Nazarite, a Nazarite 
from the birth, and by Divine command. lie was no ordinary 
man, but alike in his physical, mental, and moral endowments, 
a fit instrument for carrying out the great work appointed him. 
Our Lord bears this noble testimony of him. ^' Among those 
bom of women, there is not a greater prophet than John the 
Baptist." 

But, was our Lord himself an abstainer from intoxicating 
liquors f Did His example countenance this practice ? In re- 
plying to these queries, we may observe that our Lord was no 
ascetic in the modern sense of that term. He did not abstain 
from the innocent enjoyments and recreations of the people, but 
joined in festive and social gatherings, gracing them with His 
presence, and making all glad about Him. Nor did He refuse 
to partake of the *^good creatures" so munificently supplied 
by the Great Father. He enjoins upon His followers no fastings, 
no unnatural and painful mortifications of the flesh. When, on a 
certain occasion, some of the Pharisees came to Him, asking, 
" Why do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast, but 
thy disciples fast not?" He replied, "Can the children of the 
• See Temptranu BUfU CMiwUtOarp, •• Cbnneotiou of Old and New Teetameai* 



OUR LORD AN ABSTAINER. 195 

bride-cbamber fast, wbile tbe bridegroom is witb tbem?*' The 
ascetics of His day, offended at our Lord for encouraging by His 
presence the innocent merry-makings of the people, charge him 
with being *^a gluttonous man, and a irtne-bibber; a friend of 
publicans and sinners.*' Like many people at the present day, 
they were not able to distinguish between innocent merriment 
and alcoholic excitement, and ranked the exuberant outpourings 
of a contented mind with unholy pleasure and dietetic excess. 
Though our Lord associated himself with the people he came 
to bless and save, and countenanced their innocent recreations, 
we cannot infer that He countenanced the use of those intoxi- 
cating wines which antagonize innocent enjoyment, and tend 
to conyert a sober feast into a wild debauch. We must assume 
that He was well able to distinguish between those potent 
liquors — creatures of human invention — anil those bland and 
innocent beverages, the juice of the grape and the sap of the 
palm-tree, provided by the hand of God. Further, many con- 
siderations make it highly probable that our Lord was ^n 
abstainer. 1. . Because of the discriminating wisdom which we 
know He possessed, and the unsullied purity of His moral 
nature. He who knew so well the hearts of men, must cer- 
tainly have known what science and experience have so clearly 
revealed in regard to intoxicating liquors. Our Lord was too 
wise, too good, too pure, to countenance by His example, and to 
enjoin by His precepts, the use of a liquor condemned by the 
Old Testament Seers, and by Old Testament Institutions, as well 
as by tbe purest of the philosophical and religious sects of his 
day. ''Was he," asks Dr. Lees, "less discriminating than Plato, 
less a philosopher than Pythagoras, less a moralist than Epi- 
curus, less a reformer than Buddha f* 

2. On the only occasion which it can be shown that intoxi- 
cating wine was offered him, he refused to drink. '*And they 
gave him to drink, wine mingled with myrrh, but he received it 
not," Here we have direct evidence that our Lord rejected 
intoxicating wine under circumstances where the use of m ine, 
if allowable at all, might be resorted to without crimindity. 
But we have no evidence, either direct or indirect, that He ever 
partook of such wine, or encouraged its use in others. 

It is true, that at the marriage feast in Gana of Galilee, our 
Lord miraculously changed water into wine, but it is a pur« 
and groundless assumption that it was intoxicating. 



196 TEET0TALI8M IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

The whole weight of evidenoe is againat such a sappoeition. 
For, ooBsidcr, 

(I.) 7*he oecasion — a marriage feast. It is certainly very 
improbable that our Sarioar should endanger the sobriety of the 
invited guests, and of the bride and bridegroom, by exercising 
Almighty power in conTertiog an innocmt water into intoxicating 
wine. We have been present at many marriage feasts in tiiis 
country, but never attended one at which intoxicating liquor was 
used, without observing some of the guests unduly excited. 
There are so many '^ toasts" to drink, so many good wishes to 
express over the wise oup, that we cannot wonder at people 
getting drunk. 

(2.) The company, — '^And the mother of Jesus was there, 
and both Jesus was called and His disciples to the marriage." 
Now, with the presence of His mother, whom, as a son, He vene- 
rated and loved, and with the presence of His disciples, who 
Were looking up to Him as their Saviour and King, it certainly 
would have looked very strange, to say the least, had He pro- 
vided the people with the means of gratifying an abnormal 
appetite, thereby incurring the risk of offending the delicacy of 
His mother, and of impairing the faith of His disciples in the 
moral grandeur of His character and mission. 

( 3.) The purpose of ike miracle, — The exhibition of His glory, 
the glory of His power, and grace, challenging alike the con- 
fidence of His disciples and of the assembled guests. This 
purpose was accomplished. **This beginning of miracles did 
Jesus in Oana of Galilee, and manifested forth His glory; and 
His disciples believed on Him." The miracles of Christ, unlike 
a great many of the miracles of the ancient Seers, were uniformly 
of a benevolent charact<>r, and confirmatory of His own declara- 
tion concerning Himself: " The Son of Man came not to destroy 
men's lives, but to save them." Had the wine of this miracle 
been of an intoxicating nature, it would have been a manifes- 
tation of his power, but certainly not of His heneooUnce, It 
would, in fact, have been a curse in disguise ; for siteh ** wine is 
a mocker,^ ^ 

(4.) The characteristic expression — " good wine." The wine 
made by our Lord was good. Now intoxicating wines are, in 
fact and truth, not good, but bad and vile — they mock and de- 
ceive. Among the moral andents the sweet wines were deemed 
the best. Acoording to the Old Testament, this class of wince 



THE MIBAOLB AT CAHA. 197 

was also fn high repnto among the Jews. Now it was equally 
within the power of oar Lord to make the good wine, or the bad ; 
wine that *^ cheers and strengthens,^' but ** not inebriates,*' or wine 
that perverts the heart and stupefies the senses. He who came 
into this world to bless and to sare, cannot be supposed to have 
exercised His power in making a wine that destroys and deceives, 
(5. ) The inHant surprUe of the governor of ihefea$L — ^He was 
the first to taste the good wine. '* When the ruler of the feast 
had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence 
it was,*' he ''balled the bridegroom, and saith unto him. Every 
man at the beginning doth set forth good wine ; and when men 
haye ivell drunk,* then that which is worse : but thou hast kept 
the good wine until now." Says Dr. Lees :-—^' There was no 
waiting to observe the intoxieating, or supposed alcoholic effect. 
It was a question of taste and fiw&orP The usual custom was 
to provide good wine at tiite commencement of marriage feasts, 
for the use of t^e most intimate friends and more favored 
gi&estS, but toward the termination of the feast, when the guests 
present were composed principally of casual acquaintances, wines 
of inferior quality were served out. These marriage feasts 
generally lasted seven days. This miracle was most probably 
performed on the third or fourth day. Up to this time the guests 
had evidently been very liberally supplied with wine not re- 
markable for its excellence ; for the above statement made by 
the governor of the feast reveals a general oastom, having here 
its special application. Now upon the supposition that the wine 
80 liberally consumed during the early days of the feast was intoxi- 
cating, many of the guests must have been intoxicated, a few of 
them probably drunk. To maintain, then, that under these 
circumstances our Lord should make a sufficient quantity of 
wine of a similarly intoxicating character, to keep up the merry- 
making, and finish^the revel, is little short of blasphemy. It has 
been urged that the whole quantity was not at once converted 
into wine, but that the water became wine only when poured 
into the wine cup. This will not detract from the force of the 
argument, but only make it prospective. The whole quantity of 
water was evidently set apart for that purpose, and would doubt* 

* And when men have well drank] Kca, hotan methusthoaU "and when thej 
(the gaepts) hav« dmnk to the full." The governor did not refer to the 
inebriating effect, bat to the large guanU/y consumed, and this is the primary 
iignification of the word.— 'Temperance Bible Commentary, 



198 TEETOTALISM IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

less hnve formed wine so lon<]; as the demand and the water 
lasted, and the servants continacd to pour into the cups, and as 
the feast had yet three or four days to run, the whole quantity 
(probably 120 ji^allons) might be required. 

It is also alleged that the wine used at the Last Supper which 
our Lord celebrated with His disciples was intoxicating.*' Tho 
evidence, critical and historical, is against such a supposition. 

1. — Tho element used is called the ** fruit of the vine," and is 
never even mentioned under the name of wine. Further, intoxi- 
cating wine .is not, in the true sense of the term, the ^' fruit of 
the vine" at all, but a chemical compound altogether different 
in composition and properties from grape-juice. 

2. — The occasion of its use was the celebration of the feast of 
the passover. The Jews were commanded to celebrate this feast 
with matzoth^ the plural of nta/^aA, signifying ''sweet things," that 
is, things unfermented. According to Gesenius, matzah signifies 
** sweetness ; concrete, svpeet, not fermented." ** Seven days shalt 
thou eat matzothj and the seventh shall be a feast to the Lord. 
Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven days : and there shall no 
leavened bread (khahmaiz, Hhat which is fermented^) be seen 
with thee, neither shall there be seor [any yeasty or fermentable 
substance] seen with thee in all thy quarters." Exod. xiii. 6, 7. 

Mr. Ilerschel, a converted Jew, says: — "The word khomets 
[ferment] has a wider signification than that which is generally 
attached to leaven, by which it is rendered in the English Bible, 
and applies to the fermentation of corn in any form, to beer, and 
to all fermented liquors." 

Here then we have a very strict command applicable alike to 
liquids and solids, wine and bread. That the Jews so under- 
stood this command is quite evident from the general custom 
prevalent among them, both anterior, and subsequent to, the 
days of our Lord ; a custom which even to the present day 
extensively obtains among them. 

Says iMoses Stuart, Professor of Sacred Literature in the 
Theological Seminary of Andover, U. S. : — "Not only leavened 
breadj but other things which have undergone fermentation were 
excluded from the passover meal. Perhaps this usage, which 
was carried so far by the Jews, arose mainly from a strict regard 

* For a detailed consideration of this question, see the JPirtt Prize Esgay 
OD SaeramenUU Wine, by Dr. Lees; and the Seeond Prize Essay, by Rev. P. 
Meat Qfl, (1845). 



THE lord's supper. 199 

to the supposed real meaning of the command in Exodus, ohap. 
xii., which is not expressed by declaring that the Hebrews shall 
not e&tformenied bread^ but by declaring that they should not 
eat anything fermented. Now the word [that has been trans- 
lated] eating, is in cases without number, employed to include a 
partaking of all refreshments at a meal — drinks as well as 
foods." 

Again he remarks in the Blhliotheca Sacra (vol. i.): — ^^ I can- 
not doubt that khamatz [ferment,] in its widest sense, waa 
excluded from the Jewish passover when the Lord's Supper was 
first instituted ; for I am not able to find evidence to make me 
doubt that the custom among the Jews of excluding fermented 
wine as well as fermented bread, is older than the Christian era. 
. r . . That this custom is very ancient — that it is even 
now almost universal ; and that it has been so for time whereof 
the memory of man runneth not to the contrary, I take to be 
facts that cannot be fairly controverted." 

This custom exclusively obtains among modem Jewish com- 
munities. Dr. Cunningham, the learned Hebraist, says:— 
" What is now chiefly used by the Jews at the passover for wine, 
is a drink made of an infusion of raisins in water, which is 
either boiled at once or simmered during several days. It is free 
from alcohol and acidity. It is quite sweet. I have tasted it at 
the paschal table. No Jew with whom I have conversed, of 
whatever class or nation, ever used any other kind. But a Mr. 
Jonas informed me, that he believed the proper kind of wine is 
that expressed from the red grapes at the time." (For further 
testimonies, see Temperance Bible Commentary, pages 281, 2, 3.) 
Now have we any grounds whatever for supposing that our Lord 
deviated from the Mosaic command, and the general custom 
founded upon it? We know, on the contrary, that He came not 
to destroy the law and the prophets, but to fulfil them, and that 
it became him to fulfil aU righteousness. 

What kind of wine, we would further inquire, is most in keep- 
ing with the nature of this symbolic ordinance. A drugged and 
mixed wine, an emblem of wrath and the cause of strife, or the 
un form en ted juice of the grape that cheers and strengthens? 

3. — Consider the custom of the primitive churches. As sub- 
sidiary evidence, we may cite the long established practice of 
nearly all the Christian communities of the East, though widely 
separated from each other. Baron Tavernier, in his '* Peraian 



1 



SOO TBSTOTALI8U IN B£LAT10N TO THE BIBLE. 

Trarrit'' (1652), says of the Christians of St John, whom h% 
found rery numerous at Balsara (Bassorah), ^In the eucharist 
they make use of meal or floor, kneaded up with wine and oil ; 
for, say they, the blood of Christ being composed of two principal 
parts, flesh and blood, the flour and the wine do perfectly repre- 
■ent them. To make their wine they take grapes dried in the 
snn— which they call in their language zebibes^ -^Lnd casting 
water upon them, let them steep for so long a time. The same 
wine they ase in the consecration of the enp." The Christians 
of St Thomas, who were found on the coast of Malabar, and 
elaimed to ha?e derived the gospel from St Thomas the apostle, 
celebrate the Lord's Supper in the juice expressed from raisins, 
'' softened one pight in water,'' says Odoard Barfooea. ^' They in 
their sacrifices used mne prepared from the dried grapes," states 
Osorius (De Rebus, 1586). Ainsworth, in his ^^Trarels in Asia 
Minor," (London, 1842,) notes the administration of the sacra- 
ment among the Nestorians, and adds, '* Raisin water supplied 
the place of wine." Tischendor^ in his narratiTe of ''Yisifcs to 
the Coptic Monasteries of Egypt," remarks that at the eucharist 
the priest took the thick juice of the grape from a glass with a 
spoon ; and Dr. Qobat (Protestant Bishop of Jerosalem)^ in his 
Abyssinian journal, records the reception of some bottles of 
grape wine. " The wine is the juice of dried grapes with water." 
[The Abyssinian church was established in the fourth century, 
and numerous eye-witnesses who accompanied the English army, 
under Sir R. Napier, in 1866, amply confirm tins testimony.] 
The Abyssinian church still adheres to the primitiTe custom of 
administering the eucharist with unfermented wine. Thomas 
Aquinas, an eminent Roman Catholic divine, called the Angelical 
Doctor, who flourished in the thirteenth century, says, — if«#- 
tum autemjam habet apeciem vini^ et ides de musto potest eanfiei 
hoc sacramentum, "Grape-juice has the specific quality of wine, 
and therefore this sacrament may be celebrated with grape-juice." 
It was also a custom that obtained very eztenrnvely among the 
early churches to mix the wine with water; a practice com« 
mended by the Christian Fathers, and by connoils of the 
churches. It doubtless had its origin in the use of inspissated 
or solid wines, which of course could not be drunk till mixed 
with water. *' The practice of mingling wine with water, both 
at the passover and Lord^s Supper, is undoubtedly very ancient 
But. the widespread custom of boiling wines till the juice was 



ABSTIKENCI3 ENJOIKBD IN THE EPISTLES. 201 

deduced to a syrup or jelly, mnde the addition of water in lar^e 
quantities necessary, not to weaken the alcohoiio strraigth, but 
to render them fit for drinking at alL In regard to those which 
were fermented, and retained l^e alcohol, the per oentage of 
spirit was not greater than from 6 to 15 ; and when iiiis liquor 
was diluted with water in^the proportion of three to one of bulk, 
the beverage could not be compared with the ' fortified ' wines 
now in use. Eabbi Yehudcs is expressly said, in the Mishna, 
to have approved of boiled wines, the use of which at the pass- 
over would necessitate the liberal application of water. The 
antiquity of wine-and-vrater in the Ohrietian eneharist is higb. 
Cyprian pleads for it as an apostoiie tradition, and mystical 
reasons very attractive to the Fathers were alleged in its behalf." 
-^Temperance Bible Commentary, page 279, 

4. — It is objected that sinee Paul censured ihe Corinthians for 
drunkenness at the Lord's table, the wine nsed most have been 
intoxicating. We reply, the apostle Paul censures the Corinth- 
ians for irregularities at their feasts, not for drunkenness. ** For 
in eating every one taketh before other his own supper ; and one 
is peina (hungry), and another is fn^hueiy (overfilled, satiated.) 
The very construction shows tills rendering of t^e word methuei 
to be correct. Here we have two parties, the one is peina, 
hungry, and the other methuei, overfilled; hunger contrasted 
with repletion. The terms are antithetical, which they would 
not be if we render methuei *• drunken.' Sobriety and drunken- 
ness are antithetical ; bat hunger is not antithetical to drunken, 
its antithesis is overfilled. That the word will bear this render- 
ing, without doing any violence to its construction, or to its 
connection in the text, is quite evident by an appeal to the Sep- 
tuagint of the Old Testament. Jeremiah xxxi. 14: "I will 
satiate (methuei) the soul c^ the priests with fatness.'' Dr. 
MacKnight renders meihuei as ^'plentifully fed.'' Dr. A. Clarke 
states: — *'Some ate to excess, others had scarcely enough to 
suffice nature. Methuei, was filled to the full ; this is the sense 
of the wotd in many places of Scripture.'' 

The epistles contain many passages where total abstinence is 
enjoined both expressly and by implication. In the following 
passages abstinence is enjoined as a doty. 

1 Tim. iii. 2, 3. " A bishop then must be blameless, the hus- 
band of one wife, abstinent (neephalion), of sound mind, of good 
behavi^HE, given to hospitality, apt to teaeh; meep«roittON (ndt 



202 TEETOTALI8M IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

near wine), no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre ; bat patient^ 
not a brawler, not covetous.*' 

Bishops are to be, among other things, abstinent, sober-minded, 
and ^*not near 1^mc'^• and why? That they may be examples of 
Bobriety and self-government to the flock of God. But these 
duties are equally incumbent upon tb« members of that flock, 
who are to emulate those virtues which they see exemplified in 
the lives of their bishops; they are no more to be polygamists 
than drinkers. 

1 Thess. V. 6-8. ** Therefore, let us not sleep, as do others ; 
but let us watch and be sober. Kai neephomerij * and be absti- 
nent.' For they that sleep, sleep in the night, and they that 
be drunken, are drunken in the night. But let us, who are of 
the day, be sober, neephomen [be abstinent,] putting on the 
breastplate of faith and love ; and for an helmet the hope of 
salvation." As children of the light, and of the day, we are to 
put away dark deeds, and to abstain from that which begets 
dark thoughts and evil desires, and to act as children of God, as 
enlightened and purified by divine truth. 

1 Peter iv. 7. '* But the end of all things is at hand: Be ye 
therefore sober, sophroneesate, sober-minded. 

And watch unto prayer" — Kai neepsate eis ias proseiichas^ and 
abstinent in order to prayers. 

The tendency of intoxicating liquor, even when taken in great 
moderation, is to take the edge off the devotional spirit, and to 
produce a disinclination to engage in pure spiritual exercises. 

1 Peter v. 8. "Be sober, be vigilant; because your adver- 
sary, the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom 
he may devour." 

Be sober — neepsate, ** be abstinent." 

Seeking whom he may devour — Zeeton tina Tcatapiee, " seeking 
whom he may drink down." Says Dr. A. Clarke: — **Itis not 
every one that he can swallow down. Those who are sober and 
vigilant are proof against him; these he may not swallow down. 
Those who are drunk with the cares of this world, and are un- 
watchful, these he may swallow down. There is a beauty in this 
verse, and striking opposition between the first and last words, 
which I think have not been noticed ; — be sober, neepsate^ from 
nee not, and piein, to drink, — do not swallow down — and the 
word katapiee, from kata, down, and pf'ein, to drink. If you 
swallow strong drink down, the devil will s^alhsw you down. 



THE WINE BECOMMENDED. 203 

Hear this, ye drunkards, topers, tipplers, or by whatsoeyer name 
ye are known in society, or amonp; your fellow-sinners, strong 
drink is not only your way to the devil, but the deviPs way into 
you. Ye are such as the devil particularly may swallow down." 

That NeephaleoHj Neephomenj etc, are correctly rendered in the 
above passages, is quite evident by an appeal to Greek and to 
Jewish Greek writers, who flourished about the same time as the 
apostle. — See Works o/Dr, Lees, vol. 2d, 1853. 

Says Josephus, speaking of the divinely appointed abstinence 
of the Jewish priests : — apo dkratou neephontesj **they abstained 
from wine." — See Jewish Wars, b. 5, ch. 6. 87. 

After the age of the apostles, Plutarch, in his Precepts of 
Health, gives the word the same rendering. *^ Many times we 
offer unto Bacchus himself, certain sacrifices called NeephcUia (or 
sober), in which no wine is used." 

Lexicographers give the same rendering of the word. 

According to Scott and Liddell : — *' Neephalios, sober ; and 
of drink, without wine, windess.'- 

According to Donnegan : — " Neephalios, adj. abstemious, Met. 
discreet, performed without using wine^ as in certain religious 
rites," 

According to Robinson: — *'Neepho, fut. n€epso,U> be sober, 
temperate, abstinent, especially in respect to wine. Tropically^ 
watchjul, circumspect,'* 

The duty of abstinence is also implied in many of those pas- 
sages in which we are called upon to cultivate the higher graces 
and virtues of Christianity. — See chapter vi. 

We will now examine the leading objections. 

1. — The Bible recommends wine, it speaks of it as a good thing, 
cheering both God and man, and ranks it among blessings which 
are to be conferred upon an obedient people. ** Therefore, God 
give thee of the dew of heaven, smd the fatness of the earth, and 
plenty of corn and wine^* Gen. xxvii. 28, 

"He will bless the fruit of thy land, thy com, and thy wine,* 
and thine oil." Deut. vii. 13, 

True 1 but it is equally so that in the Bible wine is also con- 
demned ; that it is spoken of as a bad thin^; that it is likened 
unto God's wrath ; that it is described as possessing all the 
deadly properties of the adder's sting and the serpent's bite; and 
that many cautions a^e dealt out against its use. . What then? 

• The original is Uroth, "rine fruit,*' not yaj/in, "wine."— En, 



204 TEET0TALI8M IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

4 

Does the Bible contradict itself? Certainly — if the wines spokea 
of M a blessing be the same in composition and physiological 
action as the wine prohibited and condemned. It follows, then, 
either that the Bible contradicts itself, and is no longer a reliable 
gnide in matters of faith and practice, or that two totally different 
and distinct kinds of wi&e are referred to; the one injurious and 
intoxicating, therefore forbidden, and the other beneficial to the 
human constitution, unintozicating, and therefore recommended; 
for observe, in those passages where wine is condemned, no refer- 
ence whatever is made to the quantity of wine. It is the quality, 
not the quantity, that is spoken of in terms of disapproval and 
eaution. It is wine, not an excessive quantity of wine, that is a 
mocker. It is strong drink that is raging. It is wine that 
biteth like the serpent, that stingeth like the adder ; upon which 
we are not to gaze when it giveth its color in the cup; that kings 
and princes are not to drink, and which caused both priest and 
prophet to err. 

When we come to inquire more particularly, we find direct 
reference made to more species of wine than one, wines totally 
different in their composition, and in their action upon the human 
frame. There were in extensive use among the Jews seyeral 
sorts of wine, known by different names, and producing vastly 
different effects. Some of them were mild and unintoxioating, 
others were medicinal, while others again were hot and intoxi- 
cating, and detrimental to health and morals. 

In the original Scriptures, these different kinds of wine are dis- 
tinguished, either by certain generic terms, the import of which 
is to be ascertained by an examination of the context, or by spe- 
eific names, significant of their properties. In the Hebrew Scrip- 
tures there are eight, in the Greek four, different words, all trans- 
lated wine in our version, viz: — Hebrew, — Yayin, Khamarj 
Mesek, Ahsis, Soveky Tirosh, Ashishah, Shemarim, Greek, — 
Oinos, Gleukos, Oxos, and Akraton, The Hebrew Shakar, it 
translated once strong-wine, but generally strong-drink. 

Yayin, Khamar and Shakar, are generic terms, just as wine 
and beer are in our language. Yayin refers to the liquid pro- 
duct of the vine, in the form of grape-juice, whether fermented 
or unfermented, intoxicating or unin toxica ting. This word 
occurs one hundred and forty-one times in the Old Testammit. 
It is probably derived from an obsolete root, signifying boiling or 
foaming, and originalLy conveyed the idea of the blood of the 



QEKEBIC TSRX8. ^05 

1gtvp% foaming in the wine vat. In the eourse of time) when winei 
became fermented and drugged, the term was itill applied to 
them, and 80 yayin eame to be a generic term, denoting* wines 
of all 6(M>t6, from the pore foaming jaioe of the grape to wines 
the most stupefaotive and impure. 

Tayifit therefore, sometimes denotes a blessing, sometimes a 
curse. In some passages it is recommended, m others it is con- 
demned, and even its use interdioted. 

Khamer is cJso a generic term. It is the GhaMee synonym 
of yayiUf and occurs in Ezra vi. 9, and Daniel v. 1, 2, 4, 23. 
Says Dr. Lees: — ''Its derivation is from the Hebrew khemerj 
which may be translated foaming or itirbidy or as we say in 
English, * yeasty/ barmy j scummy. It has, therefore, a very 
wide application, and its meaning comprehends 'all sorts of 
wine,' without shutting us up to any in particular.'' — Temper" 
ance Bible Commentary, Prelim. Die, 

Sbakar is the generic term denoting ''sweet drink," without 
any refermice to its state as fermented o^ unfermented. It is, in 
fact, a general name for liquors -made from date, grain, or other 
fruits, but not from the grape. Says Dr. Lees: — "To argue 
from analog, we may suppose that the term ehakar would 
pass through the same changes of meaning — or to speak more 
accurately, be as variously applied — as its companion yayin; that 
originally, it signified the juice or syrup of fruits other than of 
the vine, expressed or inspissated, but subsequently, when the 
people became corrupted from their primitive simplicity, and 
the pure drink had been drugged or fermented, the * sbakar,' 
which is ' raging.' Sheckar^ therefore, may be regarded as a 
like generic term with yayin ; hence, we perceive, they might be 
applied to tn6o classes vf drink-^ which each, in its pure and ■ 
simple state, whether natural or prepared, is equally sanctioned, 
recommended, or ordained; while each, in its depraved or 
drugged condition, is alike disowned, disapproved and de- 
nounced/' Again he says, " Shechar was applicable to the 
following articles : — Firsi, the natural liquid syrup, or sacchamm^ 
obtained from incision of the palm or pressure of the date; 
second, the natural syrup inspissated for the purpose of preser- 
vation ; thirdf this inspissated juice mingled with drugs — 'mixed 
palm wine'; fourth, the once sweet luscious syrup when, from 

* Strtetly, appfied to aU, not signifying all, or any. Man, angel, wife, fot 
Ipataooei, twrnvto all, turt clo -not denote «ny special kioda.— ftp. 



206 TEET0TALI8M IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

carelessness or exposure to heat and air, it had ^ grown tart and 
bitter'' — fermented shechar.*' 

If we consider the origin of the word, and also its namerons 
derivatives, it will be still further evident that in its original 
application it was used to designate drinks, not on account of 
their intoxicating properties, but their sweetness. 

Says Dr. Lees: — '^Modern philologists conoede its reference 
to a drink made from the palm tree, honey, etc, ; and that the 
verb formed from it, or from which it is derived (as the case may 
be,) primarily signifies to Jill, clot/, satisfy, or scUiatej which, 
though properties of a saccharine drink, are by no means those 
of a stimulating one. It is the distinguishing quality of stimu- 
lants, that they tend to generate an appetite for more — ^a physi- 
cal craving which, in its consummation, is insatiable.''^ 

In all the Indo-Germanic and Semitic languages, the word for 
sugar has a common root with this term. Dr. Lees says: — **Tbe 
affinity of terms furnishes strong evidence as to the original 
character of shechar» The Arabic sakkar or sukker, the Sanscrit 
sarkara, Tamool sakkara (the primitives of which signify * sweet 
salt'), are clearly identified with the Hebrew shechart the In- 
dian sacchary and skuker-kund (from which last is our eugar- 
candy), the Persian shukkur^ the Greek saccharon, and the Latin 
saecharum. Now these derivations would have been impossible 
if the Oriental root had not once signified sweetness. The affinity 
is also traceable in all the modern languages. The Spanish and 
Portuguese word for sugar, derived through the Saracens from 
the Arabic sukker, by adding a or aZ (as in oZ and kohol), is 
azukar, and the common word molasses is an abbreviation of the 
phrase mel-deassucar, 'honey of sugar.' From the Latin we 
have our own saccharine, the German zucker, the Italian zucchero^ 
and the French sucre, and probably from the German our com- 
mon words sitgarj and sukkar (a sweetmeat)." 

This word is mentioned twenty-three times in the Old Testa- 
ment, and VL every passage but two, in terms of disparagement 
and warning. Wherever, however, we meet this word in the 
Bible, philological research can go but a little way in leading us 
to its correct signification. All that philology informs us is, 
that sweet-drink is in that particular passage referred to, but 
whether that sweet-drink be fermented or unfermented, intoxi- 
cating or unintoxicating, from the mere appearance of the word 
we cannot tell, and we must seek to ascertain its correct signi- 



SHAKAR — SWEET-DRINK. 207 

fication by examining it in the light of its context^ the general 
scope of the passage, and the genius of the Bible. 

In the twentj-and-one passages there can be no mistake what- 
ever as to the application of the term. It is sweet-drink that 
has become strong ; strong by alcoholic fermentation, or by the 
admixture of deleterious drugs, strong to corrupt the morals, 
inflame the passions, and overthrow the reason ; it is therefore 
condemned, being prohibited to priest, nazarite, king and prince, 
whilst woes are denounced against those who rise up early in the 
morning that they may follow it, and against men of strength 
who mingle it. 

The two exceptional passages are: (1.) Numbers xxviii. 7. 
" And the drink-offering thereof shall be the fourth part of an 
hin for the one lamb : in the holy place shalt thou cause the 
strong wine to be poured unto the Lord ybr a drink-offering." 

The strong wine, shakar, " sweet-drink :" This is the only pas- 
sage where the authorized version gives to sJtdkar the rendering 
of strong- wine. When, however, we consider the general char- 
acter of the Jewish sacrifices and offerings, it is preposterous to 
assume that the sweet-drink in this case must be intoxicating. 

(2.) Deut. xiv. 26. ** And thou shalt bestow that money for 
whatsoever thy soul lusteth after, for oxen, or for sheep, or for 
wine, or for strong drinkj or for whatsoever thy soul desireth : 
and thou shalt eat there before the Lord thy God, and thou shalt 
rejoice, thou, and thine household." 

Strong drink] Shakar, " sweet-drink." " Strong" is an inter- 
polation by the translators, and is not to be found in the original. 
The holy associations of the text forbid the idea of intoxicating 
drink. 

Direct reference is made to one of the great annual gatherings 
of the people, gatherings at which assembled both male and 
female, old and young. Now if we interpret the passage as a 
permission to purchase and to consume strong drink, the most 
lamentable and disgusting scenes must have ensued. We know 
that at the present day, wherever we have a large number of 
people and strong drink is consumed, scenes of drunkenness and 
violence are the result. This is invariably so, whatever occasion 
attrsicts a large concourse of people, whether it be a horse-race 
or a holy-fair. Only a few years ago, in taany parts of Scot- 
land, when the people assembled to celebrate the Lord's Supper, 
it became an occasion for drinking and drunkenness; and oveu 



208 TEETOTALI8M IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

the solemnity of the ordinance appeared to be no cheok. More* 
over the bevera^se, shakar, must have been an innocent liquor^ 
because women and children, as well as men, were permitted to 
partake of it. There was evidently no restriction, eiUier as to 
quantity or person. Now intoxicating liquor of any kind, and 
in any quantity, is very injurious to all classes, but especially to 
women and children. To those who object to the evident pro^ 
priety of rendering; this word in accordance with the context, the 
general scope of the passage, and the genius of the Bible, we 
ask, what right have you to adopt this method in the rendering 
of the word luateth, which you interpret as meaning, not unre- 
strained indulgence and lawless desire, but lawful deeire, and 
the proper and innocent gratification of the appetites ? 

As under our generic term vnne, there are a large variety of 
species, as champagne, port, claret, raisin, etc.. so under the 
generic term yayin, there were a great variety of species. 

Tiroshy said to be " in the cluster," was the produce of the 
vine in the natural form of grapes. It occurs thirty-eight 
times, andj with one exception, is always spoken of as a blessing. 
'^ Whoredom, wine, (yaym), and new- wine (tirosh), take away 
the heart." To take away the heart, does not signify to intoxicate, 
but to captivate and to lead astray. ^' The meaning of this verse 
is,*' according to the Westminster Divines, " that their abundance 
makes them run into all riot, in carnal, sinful pleasures.'' In 
every pasf>age but the above, tirosh is spoken of as a good thing, 
and it is associated in nearly every passage with detgan^ trans- 
lated corn, etc., with yitzhar^ mistranslated oil, but denoting, 
according to Dr. Lees and many competent philologists, " orchard- 
fruit,'' as figs, olives, pomegranates, citrons, etc. 

Aksis signifies fresh grape-juice, or must It occurs in five 
passages: Cant. viii. 2; Isa. xlix. 26; Joel L 5, Joel iii. 18; 
Amos ix. 13. In Cant. viii. 2, it denotes the juice of the pome* 
granate, an innocent beverage. In Joel iii. 18, it is spoken of 
under a very beautiful figure, having its counterpart in nature, 
the bursting of ripe grapes as they hang in pendant clusters from 
the vines, clothing the mountain's side. In Joel i. 5, drunkards 
are called to lament because their supply of " ahsis'' is cut off, 
not because of its intoxicating character, but because this formed 
the necessary bdsis df those drugged and fermented wines which 
they took so much pleasure in drinking. In Isa. xlix. 26, it ia 
associated with a terrible calamity which is to overtake the 



HESEK — MIX£D WINE. 209 

enemies of Israel. Professor Doaglas says : — " The passap^e, * They 
shall be drunken with their own blood as with sweet-wine,' is no 
proof that must^ which is intoxicating, cannot here be meant ; 
for neither is blood intoxicating : but all the meaning that the 
verb conveys is, to drink till one is satiated or cloyed.'' 

Sobhe signifies inspissated wine; that is, grape-juice boiled 
down to a conserve, and requiring to be mixed with water before 
it could be drunk. It occurs but thrice. Isa. i. 22; Hosea 
iv. 18 ; Nahum i. 10. In Isaiah and Hosea it is spoken of in a 
connection that indicates at once its innocent character. " Thy 
sobhe is mixed with water." ** Their sobhe is sour." In Nahum 
it is associated with drunkenness and destruction. And while 
they are drunken as drunkards, [\ikrS€ihvahm sevuimj'] and as 
(with) their soveh [rich wine] (they all) soaked." — Temp. Bible 
CommerUary, 

Gesenius renders the text — " For perplexed like unto thorns, 
and drunken as with their wine (sobhe) they shall be devoured 
as stnbble." Probably sobhe^ or a conserve of grapes, was mixed 
with water, and in this form used as a vehicle for the exhibition 
of strong, narcotic drugs, when of course the wine would prove 
stupefaotive and intoxicatins^. 

Khemer. This word signifies the ^^ foaming blood of the grape." 
It occurs but three times in the Hebrew Scriptures; Deut. xxxii. 
14 ; Ps. Ixxv. 8 ; Isa. zxvii. 2. 

In Ps. Ixxv. 8, it is used as a verb; yayin khamar^ "the 
wine foams." In Dent, xxxii. 14, it is translated " the pure 
blood of the grape ;" in Isa. xxvii. 2, " red wine." " A vineyard 
of foaming juice," would be a more correct rendering, unless the 
real word be kheined^ " fruitful." 

Mesek signifies mixed wine, wine mixed with water, or drugs. 
Says Kev. W. Ritchie : — " It was customary for the ancients to 
mix their wine with myrrh, mandragora, opiates, and other strong 
drugs, to create, or increase its intoxicating quality. This 
drugging, or mixing of wine, is obviously very different from the 
mingling of the wine by Divine Wisdom. The latter was a 
mingling of the inspissated grape-juice, with milk or water to 
dilute it, that it might be rendered a mild refreshing beverage 
for Wisdom's children. The former was a mixing of the liquor 
with drugs to form a strong drink that was raging, and of which 
God declares, at the last it biteth like a serpent and stingeth 
like an adder." (Scrip, Testimony, p. 169.) Mesek, with its 
18* 



210 TEETOTALISM IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

related forms meseg and mitMok, occur four times as noans, and 
in a verbal shape sigiyfjing to mingle, five times. ^'In the 
hand of the Lord there is a cup, and the wine foams; it is full 
of mesek^ mixture." " Who hath redness of eyes ? They that 
tarry long at the unne; they that go to seek mimsakj mixed 
wine," wine of greater intoxicating power. In Isa. Ixv. 11, we 
read, '^ But ye are they that forsake the Lord, that forget my 
holy mountain, that prepare a table for that troop, and that 
furnish the drink-offering unto that number." The literal 
rendering of the Hebrew lament mimsahkj is ^* and to fortune a 
mixture." Meni was probably the name of some goddess wor- 
shipped by the idolatrous Jews, to whom a mixture (mimsahk) 
composed of wine and other ingredients, was offered in sacrifice." 
{Temp, BibU Com.) There is not a single passage where mesek 
is spoken of in terms of commendation ; but in each passage it 
is spoken of in terms of denunciation and warning. 

Shemarim is derived from shamar, ** to preserve," and has the 
general signification of " things preserved." In Isa. xxt. 6, ** a 
feast of {wines on) the lees well refined," wines on is an inter- 
polated gloss. Sometimes the term is used merely to designate 
the dregs or sediment of the wine. Ps. Ixxv. 8, ^^ But the dregs 
thereof, all the wicked shall wring out and drink" (suck). 

Ashishah, This word, perhaps from a root signifying "fire," 
denotes a preparation of dried fruit. " By universal consent," 
says Prof. Douglas, " it is now understood to be some kind of 
cake, probably a cake of dried fruit." It occurs in 2 Sam. vi. 19 ; 
1 Chron. xvi. 3 ; Cant. i. 5 ; Hos. iii. 1 : and is unfortunately 
rendered ** flagons," and "flagons of wine." 

In the New Testament we have the following words translated 
wine : 

OinoSy a generic term, the analogue o^yayin. It is applied to 
all sorts of wine. It occurs in thirty-two passages. " In (nany 
of these, nothing is said to determine the nature of the wine 
referred to. In several it is employed as an emblem of Divine 
wrath. In a yery few it is alluded to as a blessing." But in no 
single instance can we put our finger upon any passage, and 
say, here wine of an intoxicating character is recommended, or 
approved. 

Sikera, " strong-drink." This occurs but once — Luke i.'25, 
and the use of it is forbidden to John Baptist. 

Oleukosj "sweet-wine." This occurs but onoe-^Acts ii. ISi 



UKFEBMENTED GRAPE-JUICE. 211 

" Others moeking said, these men are full of new wine.'' It 
Biguifiea a *^ sweet-wine," without any reference to its state as 
fermented or unfermented ; we are left to ascertain this by its 
connection. 

OxoSj ** sour-wine," or vinegar, occurs Matt zxvii. 34; Mark 
XV. 36 ; Luke zxiii. 36 ; John xix. 29, 30 — all referring to the 
vinegar presented to Jesus on the cross, and received by Him 
because unmixed with any stupefying wine, or other drug. 
Temp. Bible Com,, p. 426. 

We call attention here to the follovnng facts *. 

1. That during the whole course of Jewish History, the use 
of unfermented grape-juice, and of other sweet and unfermented 
* beverages, extensively obtained among them. This practice was 
not confined to the Jews, but it was a prevailing custom among 
the different nations with which they were called to associate, 
but especially of the Greeks and Romans. — See Wines, Ancient 
f and Modern, by Dr. Lees. 

This custom of using the unfermented grape juice has not yet 
become extinct. The Rev. H. Homes, American Missionary at 
Constantinople, says : 

"Simple grape-juice, without the addition of any earth to neutralize 
the acidity, is boiled from four to five hours, so as to reduce it to one 
fourth of the quantity put in. [Tliis preparation is called nardenk.] 
The grapes usually chosen are the species naturally sour, or such as will 
not ripen. After the boiling, for preserving it cool and that it may be 
less liable to ferment, it is put into earthen instead of wooden vessels, 
closely tied over with skin, to exclude the air. Its color is dark, its 
taste an agreeable sour-sweet; and it is turbid, vegetable gluten being 
suspended in it, even when it has been standing for a long time. It 
ordinarily has not a particle of intoxicating quality, being used freely by 
both Mohammedans and Christians. Some which I have had on hand 
for two years has undergone no change; still, when not sufficiently boiled, 
if exposed to the air and heat, it undergoes a degree of fermentation, 
and becomes exhilarating and perhaps intoxicating. NABD£NK 13 
USED AS A SYRUP FOR A BEVERAGE, one part of the syrup 
to. from six to fifteen of water. In the Bedek Seminary it has been 
^ often used by the boys to eat with their bread, as in America we use 
molasses. It is sold by all the grocers of Constantinople at the same 
price, or cheaper than wine. It is not all made from the grape, but 
some of it from apples, and some of it from pomegranates, whence it 
originally had its name. As there has been great search for an unfer- 
mented wine — ^a wine that would not intoxicate — as soon'as I came upon 
the trace, two years since, of such an article as nardenk, I most persever- 



212 TEETOTALI8M IN BELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

iaglj followed it op. till I sboald find out what it was. For, alihotigii 
in the present use of language, an un fermented* wine is an impossibii-^ 
itj, yet here is a cooling grape-liquor not intoxicating; and which, in the 
manner of making and preserving it, seems to correspond with the 
recipes and descriptions of certain drinks included bj some of the ancients 
vnder the appellation, wine." 

(2.) That these beyerages are oalled wine. In the Hebrew 
Scriptures the fresh grape-jaioe is repeatedly designated as wine* 
Gen. xliz. 11, — " He washed his garments in ioin€, and his clothes 
in the blood of grapes." ** This is a striking example of the par- 
allelism which formed one of the features and beaqties of 
Hebrew poetry — the two clauses differing in language but corres- 
ponding in sense — 'garments^ answering to * clothes/ and 
' wine* (yayin) to the * blood of grapes^ (dam tmahvim),^' ( Temp* 
Bible Com.) Deut. zzTiii. 39, — '* Thou shalt plant vineyalrds, 
but shalt neither drink of the wine (jayin), nor gather the 
grapes.^' Isa. xvi. 10, — *' And gladness is taken away, and joy 
out of the plentiful field ; . . . . the treaders shall tread 
out no wine (yayin) in their presses ; I have made their vintage 
shouting to cease." Here *' wine" applies either to the expressed 
grape-juice as it flows from under the feet of the treaders in the 
wine-vat, or to the grapes themselves as containing wine. 

The authorized version also bears the same testimony by 
translating different Hebrew terms for mtMt into wine, new wiae| 
red wine, etc. 

Eminent writers and lexicographers, both ancient and modem, 
also bear the same testimony. 

Columella says, a. d. 55: — ^<You must make sweet-wine 
(vinum) in this manner : gather the grapes, spread them in the 
sun during three days ; on the fourth at noon, tread out the 
grapes ; while they are hot take mustum lixivium — i. e. must, 
which flows into the lake before being squeezed out with the 
press; when it has left off boiling up, put well-bruised flower-de- 
luce, not above an oz., into sixty sextarii of it; rack it off its UeSj 
and pour it into other vessels^ This wine will be sweet, firm, 
and wholesome for the bftdy." — Lib. xii. ch. 37. 

Noah Webster, Lli.D., the learned lexicographer, (1828), de- 
fines — " Must, new wine; — wine pressed from the grape but not 
fermented." — Diet, of the Eng, Lang. 

Says Dr. Ure, F. B. S., an eminent chemist, 1836 : — " Juice, 
when newly expressed, and before it has begun io fermentf is 



HOBEBK DBINKS. 218 

ealled must^ and in common language, sweet-wine." — Dictum^ 
ary of Arts, p. 823* 

3. That wine of this cbaracter is nowhere condemned in the 
Bible, but is invariably well spoken of, and in many passages is 
represented as a blessing. 

4. That there was also in extensive use among the Jews 
another class of wines ; wines rendered intoxicating by fermen- 
tation or drugging. Neither was the practice confined to the 
Jews ; it extended to neighboring nations. 

5. That everywhere in the Bible wines of this character are 
spoken of in terms of condemnation nand warning. 

We oome now to inquire^ under what beading must we range 
the wines now in common use? Must we rank them with the 
pure, bland juice of the grape, or with those deadly mixed and 
alcoholic wines that experience, revelation and reason alike con- 
demn ? There surely can be but one reply I We must rank them 
with the deadly mixed vnnes of the ancients ; wines that cause 
contention and redness of eyes; wines that deceive and mock 
the drinker ; that bite like the serpent and sting like the adder. 

Consider now ihe facta in regard to modem drinks. 

There are many wines now in use, but in them there is 
yery little juice of the grape, a good deal of log- wood color- 
ing, sugar of lead, bad eider, brandy, and other deleterious sub- 
stances. In London alone, more port is consumed than is 
produced by the entire vintage of Oporto, and yet London 
supplies a large portion of the civilised world with portl Even 
the imported wines are fortified and adulterated for the Eng- 
lish market; port wine being colored with elder-berries, and 
receiving at the rate of twenty -five gallons of strong brandy per 
pipe. How men professing to be Christians, can attempt to 
defend the drinking of such deadly mixtures from the word of 
God, we do not anderstand ; for not one of them can be drank 
with safety, not even our own. home-made wines. Raisin wine 
contains about 24 per cent, of alcohol, and ginger wine 15 per 
cent. Orfila, after describing the manner in which wines are 
adulterated, says: — "A wine dealer on his deathbed acknow- 
ledged, in the bitterness of penitential sorrow, that he had often 
seen his customers wasting away around him, poisoned by that 
he had meted out to them, and that same\iDine which was the 
cause of their decline, was often prescribed by their physicians 
as a means for their recovery .'* 



214 TEETOTALISM IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

The class of liquors in very eztenBiye ase, known as mm, 
whisky, brandy, gin, porter^ stout and al^, are, without excep- 
tion, analogous in their effects to the deadly mesek. They make 
men drunk aod wicked; they cause redness of eyes; they 
engender disease ; they bite like serpents, and they sting like 
adders. They ought, therefore, with the mesek and condemned 
wines of the Bible, to be interdicted and banished from our 
midst It certainly appears a very strange perversion of reason- 
ing, to argue because the Bible commends a few innocent ttnin- 
tozioating preparations of the grape, or palm-juice, God's 
approving smile will rest apon the use of those deadly drinks 
which are seen to contribute so much to swell the sum of human 
misery, and fill to overflowing the cup of the world's transgres- 
sions! 

That our modem drinks are far more deadly than those com- 
monly used by the ancients, is very plain. Chemistry has come 
to the aid of villany, and deadliest agents are now so disguised 
and blended as to give to the liquors containing them all the 
flavor and fascination of the genuine thing, and yet to lose 
none of their pernicious properties. The ancients knew how to 
mingle a little moderation with their drinking customs, at least 
in reference to the strength of their wines. Their strongest wines 
they mixed with water : we drink ours pure, and can hardly get 
them strong enough. Anacreon, who sang so much of love and 
wine, says: 

" Bring hither, boy, a mighty bowl, 
And let me quench my thirsty soul; 
Fill two parts water, fill it high, 
Add one of wine, for I am dry: 
Thus let the limpid stream allay 
The jolly god's too potent sway. 

Quick, boy, dispatch — ^my friends, no more 
Thus let us drinking rout and roar ; 
Such clamorous riot better suits 
Unpolished Scythia's barbarous brutes: 
Let us, while music tunes the soul, 
Mix temperance in the flowing bowl." 

But, now-a-days, men drink the strongest and most fiery 
liquors, as though tbeir stomachs were made of leather, and theit 
sinews of iron, and then, forsooth, go to the Bible to seek a pre- 
tence for their shameful and infatuated practices] 



TIMOTHY. 215 

Our opponents quote against us, Paul's advice to Timothy, 
^' Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stoniHcb'a 
sake and thine often infirmities/' 1 Tim. v. 23. This passage 
will not serye our opponents, for observe : 

(1.) Timothy was, previous to this advice, an encraiiU^ a 
water-drinker. 

(2.) Paul does not condemn Tuoaothy on account of his teeto- 
talism, but rather seeks to confirm him in his abstinence. See 
1 Tim. iii. 2-3-8. 

(3.) Though in this Paul advises Timothy to use a "little" 
wine, he does not command it, and wo have no record that 
Timothy complied with the advice. 

-(4.) Though the use of wine is recommended, it is not recom- 
mended as a beverage, but as a medicine, to be taken in a certain 
abnormal state of body, and under proper restrictions. Hence, 
before any person can apply this passage to themselves,, they 
must ascertain with great exactitude three particulars : (1.) That 
their stomach complaint and infirmities resemble Timothy's, 
and so require the same treatment. Stomach complaints vary 
greatly in di£ferent persons, and the treatment that may suit one 
kind of stomach complaint will not suit another. Alcoholio 
liquors are very far from being suitable medicines in cases of 
indigestion, and, generally speaking, only aggravate the disorder 
or retard recovery. (2.) They must ascertain that the wine they 
are about to gulp down resembles that which Paul recommended, 
both in its composition and properties. Any mistake here may 
be attended with the greatest disaster ; yet unless this point be 
known, there may be as much difference between the medicinal 
properties of the wine Paul recommended, and the wine actually 
used, as there is between jalap and catechu, or rhubarb and 
laudanum. 

But if an argument founded on general custom be of any 
value, we are bound to believe that Paul referred Timothy to 
one of those healthful, invigorating, and unintoxicating wines 
that cheer and nourish the system without producing intoxica- 
tion. These, in fact, were the true medicinal wines of that day. 
Athenasus says of the sweet Lesbian : — " Let him take (gleukos) 
sweet- wine, either mixed with water or warmed, especially that 
called ^ro^ropo*, as being very good for the sUymachy 

Whatever was the nature of the wine referred to in the above 
passage, it cannot apply to a large migority of those now in use, 



216 TEETOTALI8M IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE. 

Still less can it apply to ardent spirits or beer. Ardent spirits 
were totally unknown to the ancients. Alcohol was not dis- 
ooTered till above a thousand years after PauVs recommendation 
of wine, and ardent spirits did not come into general use till 
fifteen oenturies after. The Israelites, too, had no beverage 
analogous to our beer. Palm wine (sikera) was the nearest 
approach to it, but then palm wine is not beer. (3.) They must 
ascertain the quantity of the wine to be taken at a dose, the 
frequency of its repetition, and the mode of its administration. 
Concerning all these particulars the passage is silent. It speci- 
fies a '* little,*' but what that may mean we cannot tell, see- 
ing people differ so greatly upon this point. One person may 
consider that a wine-glass full, repeated twice a day, is a little ; 
but in the estimation of another, a bottle or two per day is a 
very little affair. 

It is objected that there are certain passages in which the 
lawfulness and propriety of moderate drinking are at least 
implied. Such, for instance, as Ephes. v. 18, ** Be not drunk 
with wine, wherein is excess,'* 1 Tim. iii. 8, '^Likewise must 
the deacons be grave, not double-tongued, not given to much 
wine, not greedy of filthy lucre." Titus ii* 3, *^The aged 
women likewise, that ikey be in behavior as becometh holiness, 
not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good 
things." 

It is urged that excess only is deprecated, and therefore the 
moderate use is impliedly allowed. 

We reply: That this principle of interpretation is unsound, 
and that, if generally adopted, it would give encouragement to 
every species of abomination. 

If, when we are exhorted not to be given to much wine, the 
meaning is, that we are to take somej then, when in Bible 
language we are exhorted not to be overcharged with surfeiting 
and drunkenness, the meaning is, we may practise such excesses 
to some extent I If so, when in Bible language we are exhorted, 
'' Be not drunk with wine wherein is excess," the meaning is, 
though excess in the use of wine is condemned, yet it is 
permissible to get drunk with beer or spirit, and, though 
to get excessively drunk is forbidden, it is allowable to indulge 
in the incipient stages of inebriation. Or, when the Bible 
says, "Be not over-much wicked," the meaning is, that whilst 
we are not to run into great extremes of wickedness, yet it ia 



KEW WINE AUD OLD BOTTLES. 217 

quite right to sin in moderation, and to commit oarselves 
to the milder acts of transgression. Again, when Isaiah 
says, *' Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning^ that 
they may follow strong drink ; that continue until night till 
wine inflame them/' — the meaning is, that whilst we are not 
to indulge in early or late drinking, or to continue drinking from 
morning till night, it is quite proper to drink in the middle of 
the day, or at intervals during the day I 

But, second^ the above passages contain a mode of expression 
very common in all languages, and of frequent occurrence in 
aphorisms and proverbs*, a mode of expression that does not 
confer a license to do, or to neglect, that which is not expressed. 
'' When alone, we have our thoughts to watch, in our families 
our tempers, and in society, our tongues." This does not mean 
that we are not to watch our thoughts, tongues, and tempers, 
elsewhere. We are merely set upon our guard as .to the faults to 
which we are most liable, under the circumstances specified. In 
private, the great danger to avoid is wrong thinking; in our 
families, wrong tempers; in public, rash and wrong words. 
And so when we read, *^ And be not drunk with wine wherein is 
excess ; but be filled with the S^rit," — it does not mean that a 
little drinking is compatible with being filled with the Spirit, 
but that we are to seek our satisfaction in the Spirit of God 
filling our hearts, and not in wine filling our stomachs and 
stupefying our senses. 

It is objected that the new wine of the Bible must have been 
intoxicating ; and that, as this kind of winle is frequently spoken 
of in terms of commendation, it cannot be a sin to partake of it. 
Luke V. 37-39, — " And no man putteth new wine into old bottles j 
else the new wine will burst the bottles, and be spilled, and the 
bottles shall perish. But new wine must be put into new 
bottles; and both are preserved. No man also having drunk 
old wine straightway desireth new : for he saith, The old is 
better." 

"And no man putteth new wine into old bottles." Why? 
Because the new wine, being in a state of fermentation before 
being put into old bottles, would be sure to burst them ? 
Certainly not; for this would equally apply to the new 
bottles. Grape-juice in a state of fermentation would burst the 
strongest hide of which bottles could be made, if no vent was 
allowed for the accumulated carbonio-acid-gas to e8C(ai>e. The 
1ft 



218 TEETOTAUSM IK RELATIOK TO THE BIBLE. 

explanation is to be found in the state of the old bottle. 
Certain glatinous particles from its former contents had got 
deposited upon the inside of it, and those being exposed to the 
atmosphere, had become the soil for the yeast plant: so that, 
when new wine was poured into the bottle, fermentation would 
at once begin, accumulations of carbonic acid-gas would' follow, 
and burst the bottle. If, however, new wine is put into new 
bottles, no fermentation would be communicated, and the 
atmospheric air being carefully excluded, both the new wine and 
the new bottles would be preserved. 

In reference to old wine being better than new, this applies 
with very great force to the unfermented wines, which improve 
by age. " Mr. Wright's passover wine [made of the pare un- 
fermented grape-juice, and preserved in vacuo] is found to im- 
prove in flavor by keeping, though no chemical change, and 
certainly no fermentation occurs. An explanation may be 
found in the fact that the original aromas of the grape, fine and 
subtle particles, being by the act of crushing mingled with the 
saccharine and albuminous matters, become leas perceptible to the 
palate; but, by being kept, they are mechanically separated 
again, and so impart a fuUec and distincter flavor by first 
touching the nerves of taste." — Temp, Bible Com,, p. 294. 

It is objected that the Bible nowhere enjoins abstinence, and 
therefore, teetotalism is anti-scriptural. 

We have driven the objectors from their special grounds, and 
they seek a last refuge here. To show the fallacy of this 
objection, we will put it in the form of a syllogism. 

Whatever is not enjoined in the Bible is anti-scriptural, and opposed to 
the will of God. 

Teetotalism is not enjoirud in the Bible ; therefore teetotalism is anti- 
Bcriptaral, and opposed to the will of God. 

Where lies the fallacy ? The minor proposition may*be dis- 
puted, but not the conclusion, as a conclusion. The fallacy 
evidently lies in the assumption of the major, as the following 
will show. 

Whatever is not enjoined in the Bible is anti-scriptural, and opposed to 
the will of God. 

But Sunday-schools, soup-kitchens, penitentiaries for fallen girls, ragged 
schools, hospitals, the abolition of slavery, etc., are not enjoined in the 
Bible. 

Therefore they are anti-scriptaral, and opposed to the will of Qod. 



t 

I 



BIBLE PBINCIPLSS. 219 

Let OS, however, amend the mtgor proposition, and see then 
bow it will apply. 

Whatever is not in harmony with the tpirit and object of the Bible, is 
anti-Bcriptnral, and opposed to the will of God. 

Slavery, polygamy, and the nee of intoxicating liquor, are not in har- 
mony with the spirit and object of the Bible. 

Therefore they are anti-scriptural, and opposed to the will of God. 

Here we have no fallacy. The major proposition is evidently 
and indisputably oorrect, and so are the minor, and the conclu- 
sion. Let us, however, take the proposition out of the negative 
form, and present it in the affirmative. 

Whatever is in harmony with the teachiags and spirit c^ the Bible, is in 
accordance with the will of God. 
Teetotalism is in harmony with the teachings and spirit of the Bible. 
Therefore teetotalism is in accordance with the will of God. 

Here the major proposition is self-evident to all who accept 
the Bible ae a revelation from God. In chapter vi. we have 
clearly shown that teetotalism is in harmony with the general 
teachings and spirit of the Bible. Hence the conclusion follows 
as a logical necessity. 

In regard to the assumption, that whatever is not expressly 
enjoined in the Bible is opposed to its spirit and aims, we must 
remember that it is not a book of details. It does not lay down 
special precepts to guide us in aU those multitudinous circum- 
stances under which mankind may be placed. Why, the world 
itself would not hold such a book, and to master it, we should 
have to attain to the years of Methuselah. 

The Bible in the main, is a book of grand and broad principles, 
easily applied to the circumstances of life. These principles are 
but few in number, easy to understand and remember. And 
what the sincere Christian should inquire, is this : — Is the 
temperance enterprise in harmony with these principles, or 
opposed to them ? If the former, our duty is plain and unmis- 
takable. If the latter, our duty is equally plain and unmistaka^ 
ble. When the parliament of Tahiti consulted the queen respect- 
ing the admission of intoxicating drinks, she said, '*Let the 
principles contained in the New Testament be the foundation 
of all your proceedings *,^' and immediately they enacted a law 
against trading with any vessel that brought ardent spirits. 
It was not so much any isolated text, as ^Hhe principles'^ of 
the book generally, that guided their determination. They saw 



220 TEETOTALI8H IK RBLATION TO THE BIBLE. 

that lf>ve to €hd and man is the grand principle of the book, and 
that this love enjoins us to do nothing which would prove the 
means, directly or indirectly, of making a brother stumble, offend, 
or become weak, or fall into sin. 

The attentive investigation of the Bible aspect of the tem- 
perance question has led us to the following conclusions: 

1. — That the use of intoxicating liquor is nowhere recom- 
mended, sanctioned, or commanded in Scripture. 

2. — ^That many cautions are dealt out against the use of drinks 
that intoxicate, and, in many passages such use is strictly con- 
demned and prohibited. 

3. — That abstinence from the use of wine and strong drink, is 
nowhere condemned in the Bible. 

4. — ^That in many passages this practice receives commenda- 
tion, and in several instances is actually enforced. 

5. — That, as regards temperance, tbe teachings of the Bible are 
in harmony with the teachings of experience and the deductions 
of science. 

6. — That, therefore, it becomes the duty of all who profess to 
accept the Bible as a revelation from God, to abide by its deci- 
sions, and to do all they can, both by their personal example and 
social influenoe, to secure tbe success of the temperance move- 
ment 



BAOCHUB DirrHBOirEDw 221 



CHAPTER VIIL 

GOD^S GREAT RBMBDT TOR THE WORLD'S GREAT CURSE. 

Prop. IX. — '' That total and universal abstinence from making^ 
selling, and drinking intoxicating liquoTf is Ood^s remedy for 
the intemperance of which we complainJ'^ 

As /we contemplate the ravages of our National Drinking 
tjBtem, and behold the numerous and gigantic evils that flow 
from it, we are led to exclaim in the words of a Hebrew Seer, 
"Is there no balm in Gilead, is there no physician there?*' or, ia 
the words of the eloquent Pascal, " Has man then found no 
remedy for the ills of man ?*' We believe that there is a remedy 
for this great evil, and that we have found it. A remedy infallible 
in it^ operation, and certain in its results. That remedy is the 
prohibition of all intoxicating liquors, applied by Individuals 
to their use as a beverage, and by Society to their manufacture 
and sale as a business. 

In Chapter it. we have shown that in this liquor traffic it ia 
the supply that leads to the demand ; therefore any remedy that 
comes short of stopping the supply cannot prove ^successful. If, 
indeed, we could b^ moral suasion induce the people universally 
to abstain from strong drink, this would be tantamount to sup- 
pressing at once its manufacture and sale ; but as the day is yet 
far distant when we may hope to gain such an ascendency over 
the appetites of the people as to induce them, one and all, to 
abstain, we must apply a more radical and external remedy, viz : 
the legislative prohibition of the traffic. 

National evils require national remedies. Were drunkenness 
an offence confined to the individual, we might content ourselves 
with moral suasion. But when we remember that this is a 
National Vice, inflicting untold evils upon the community at 
large, we are bound to look at it in this, its broader character, 
and to provide a remedy as broad as its causes and agencies. 

Teetotalers are divided into two classes. The exclusively 
19» 



iZ2 god's remedy for the world's great cursel 

moral-suosionists, and those who carry out moral suasion to 
the prohibition of the traffic. 

The former class, who are getting ''small bj degrees, and 
beautifully less," take their stand upon the doctrine of expe- 
diency. The latter class, who, at no yery distant date, threaten 
to absorb the former, take this stand : — That it is morally wrong 
to manufacture the drinks — morally wrong to sell the drink — 
morally wrong to drink the drink — morally wrong to give the 
drink — morally wrong in any way to encourage its manufacture, 
sale, and use; and that the only effectual remedy for this 
national curse is the legislatiye prohibition of the traffic in all 
its departments. No one, however, repudiates the doctrine of 
expediency and of moral suasion. We believe that it is not 
expedient to take intoxicating drinks ; and we also believe it to 
be our duty to try to persuade men to abstain from the liquor and 
to vote down the liquor shop. Were not intemperance a physi- 
cal as well as a moral evil — a national as well as a personal vice 
— moral suasion might of itself suffice ; but here we have a com- 
bination of the whole. The personal vice of intemperance has 
become a great national curse, and the moral mischief has a, 
phytsical cause, viz: a diseased organism induced by the so 
called moderate use of alcoholics. We therefore require Moral 
•uasion to educate the people as to the nature of these bever- 
ages, to save, in the meantime, a few drunkards from the doom 
awaiting them, and to gather around us the (as yet) uncon- 
taminated. We also need Prohibition, as the only measure 
that can eOectually stay this pestilence, and deliver our people 
from its power. In truth, moral suasion is palpably insufficient 
to stay this plague. We readily grant that it has done much — 
that many drunkards have been reclaimed by it — that the public 
sentiment has been educated by it — that thousands have been 
kept sober by it; and that by it a salutary check has been put' 
upon the drinking usages. In the meantime the blandishments 
of the traffic have also increased, and its snares have been spread 
far and wide to entrap the unwary ; and though drunkenness 
s no longer a fashionable vice, yet we have about as much 
drunkenness as ever. Secret and indoor drunkenness among 
the wealthy — beer-shop and public-house drunkenness among 
the working-classes — and confectioners' and grocers' shop drunk- 
enness among the ladies 1 

Bepeatedly have we seen men raised up by Providenoo to 



THE LAPSED MASSES. 228 

denounce this evil, and to fight against it. Like giant barriers 
they stood, and as the surging waves came rolling onward they 
were hurled back again, the land they formerly submerged was 
reclaimed, and thousands of poor struggling inebriates were 
snatched from the retiring waves and brought safe to shore. 
But lol to our dismay, the flood-tide of the traffic has set in; 
and again the reclaimed ones have been submerged; the toil 
and anxiety of years has apparently been thrown away, and 
all our hopes have been doomed to cruel disappointment. 

It has been computed that more than three-foarths of those 
who sign the pledge fall again, some within a week of signing, 
and others after only a few months* trial of abstinence; while of 
drunken women the cases are rare indeed of those who have 
been induced to sign the pledge, or who, having signed it, have 
adhered to it for any length of time. From the experience we 
have had for many years among the intemperate of many classes, 
we consider a drunken woman all but irreclaimable, so long as 
the facilities for obtaining drink exist ; indeed, this applies also 
to a. large majority of the opposite sex. Says Bailie Lewis, ** It 
may appear to some an unwarrantable statement, but after 
studying the character and condition of the 'lapsed masses' 
for the last twenty years, I feel compelled to state that there are 
thousands of our fellow-countrymen so sunk and saturated in 
moral and physical dilapidation, that humanly speaking, they are 
beyond the power of reclamation ; in short, that without a change 
in the social conditions by which they are su'n*ounded, no power 
can arrest them in their perdition-ward career. This may be 
deemed, and no doubt is, a terrible thought, but it is as truthful 
as it is terrible, unless the teachings of history, experience, and 
observation, are to be utterly disregarded." 

It is not so easy to break off intemperate habits as some people 
suppose. In fact, it is not an easy matter, in many cases, for 
even a " moderate drinker*' to give up the use of strong drink. 
Many of this class think otherwise, but a single trial soon con- 
vinces them to the contrary. They then discover, to their aston- 
ishment, that it takes a tremendous struggle, enduring, it may be 
for two or three months, before they can conquer the appetite 
which the '* moderate use" of strong drink had secretly but 
surely created. If it be so difficult for a moderate drinker to 
abstain, how much more difficult must it be for the drunkard? 
1 w hat a conflict ! Yea, what an agony ! to conquer the fiend 



224' god'b bemzdy fob tbe world's great cubsr. 

within him. What sleepless nights! What hoars of anguish 1 
What ceaseless fightings ! and all this to go on, in some in- 
stances for months, before the passion for strong drink can be 
brought into subjection. £ven then, what carefulness 1 What 
ceaseless vigilance ever afterwards 1 A single taste of the liquiMr, 
even though by accident, as medicinally, or at.4Jie table of the 
Lord, will, in a moment, rekindle into a sudden and quenchless 
blaze the suppressed but not extinguished flame. 

It is an easy thing to become a drunkard. Faeilia descensus 
Avemi. '^ It is easy to descend to perdition." The roadas down 
hill, seductive and slippery ; but having once become a drunk- 
ard, it is not so easy to ascend that steep and slippery path. 
To accomplish this, demands an iron will, a firmness and de- 
cision of character which few persons possess. 

Now, even if we take for granted that moral suasion will 
finally prove successful, its stanchest advocates must confess 
that a *^ consummation so devoutly to be wished" oan only be 
accomplished after a very long period. In fact, if we are to judge 
of its final success by the operation of other great moral move- 
ments, as for instance, the preaching of the gospel, it cannot 
succeed till the lapse of some thousand years; and, in the 
meantime, year by year, myriads of victims must be sacrificed 
upon the altar of Mammon and Indifference, — ^year by year, 
drunkards must be manufactured from the ranks of moderate 
drinkers, to take the place of the fallen — ^year by year, men must 
be deprived of all that can ennoble and beautify character — 
year by year, hearts must bleed and break in solitude through the 
intemperate habits of those nearest and dearest to them — ^year 
by year, children neglected and abused, must cry vainly for 
bread, and sicken and die from cruel starvation — and year by 
year, our sons springing up to manhood, our daughters blooming 
into womanhood, must be exposed to the fascinating seductions 
of this accursed traffic. We cannot suffer this to go on. We 
cannot stand by the turgid swollen waters, and gaae upon the 
wailing victims borne helplessly past us, and wait till the waters 
shall subside, so that we may go over dry-shod. 

Ever since intemperance commenced its ravages in the world, 
great and good men have arisen whose intuitional or inspired 
wisdom led them to trace clearly its cause, and to provide and 
enforce the remedy. — See Chapter iv. (Dr. Lees in his Works^ has 
collected a large number of examples from antiquity.) 



TEMPERANCE TRUTH. * 225 

The primitire Chrifttians were remarkable for their sober and 
frugal habits, and it would appear that several abstiuent sects 
flourished among them. Says Minutius Felix: — *^ Our feasts are. 
not only chaste, but sober; we indulge not ourselves in ban- 
quets, nor make our feasts with wine, but temper our cheerful- 
ne«. with gravity and seriousness." 

Clement, of Alexandria, A.D. 190, says: — "I admire those 
who have chosen an austere life, and desire no other beverage 
than water, th« medicine of a wise temperance, avoiding wine as 
they would fire. Young men and maidens shpuld forego this 
medicament altogether, for hence arise irregular desires and 
licentious conduct. The circulation is hastened, and the whole 
body excited, by the action of wine on the system. The body 
inflames the soul." 

During the dark ages, when the nations of Europe seemed to 
be drifting into the wildest anarchy, or primeval barbarism, 
this grand remedy was lost sight of. '^Darkness covered the 
face of the earth, and gross darkness the people,'* and for a time 
intemperance threatened to plunge society into a state of the 
most revolting savagery. 

In that dark hour, when despair was fast settling down upon 
the minds of men, and the great and good stood by in almost 
hopeless sorrow, there was disentombed from the dust of ages 
the great discovery, that drunkenness is caused by drinking, and 
this again by the liquor traffic fostering those baneful drinking 
customs. 

Not all at once, however, did this truth break in upon us, but 
gradually, and as we were able to bear it. First dimly, and with 
flickering and uncertain ray did the light appear*, afterwards 
with clearer and more steady blaze, and now with all the bright- 
ness of the unclouded sun shining in meridian splendor. At first 
it was thought that if we could only banish the more potent 
liquors, and teach men to use moderately the milder intoxicants^ 
we should stem the evil. This failing, we thought that if we 
could, by moral means, induce the people to abstain entirely, we 
should succeed*, but we have discovered that the enemy, sup- 
ported as he is by appetite and prejudice, passion and ignorance, 
custom and pecuniary interest, is too strong for moral suasion, 
and laughs contemptuously at it. He is, in fact, impervious to 
all arguments of a moral and persuasive character; and now 
the truth, after long years of doubt and agony, has forced itself • 



226 god's remedy for the world's great curse, 

upon as, and it is this — that together with moral suasion, we 
must have the total prohibition of the liquor traffic. 

This remedy is God's Remkdt; it bears upon it the Divine 
impress. Its every feature declares it to be 'of God. It is the 
expression of the laws of the moral and physical world. It is in 
accordance with the nature of the malady, and is founded upon 
a certain knowledge of its causes. Like all great truths, it is 
also very simple. 

Substitute ''abstain" for "believe/' and the beautiful words 
of Cowper certainly apply here: 

" 0, how unlike the complex works of man, 
Heaven's easy, artless, uDencamber'd plan; 
No meretricious graces to beguile, 
Ko clustering ornaments to clog the pile; 
From ostentation, as from weakness free. 
It stands like the cerulean arch we see, 
Majestic in its own simplicity. 
Inscribed above its portals, from afar- 
Conspicuous as the brightness of a star, 
Legible only by the light they give, 
Stand the soul-quick'ning words — BELIEVE and live/" 

This remedy is of universal application, and adapted to meet 
the wants of all classes. It is not a remedy for the rich only, or 
for the poor only. Experience has taught us its safety as well 
as its suitability ; and a document signed by two thousand of 
the most eminent members of the medical profession, attests 
'^ that persons accustomed to such drinks may with perfect safety 
discontinue them entirely, either at once, or gradually, after a 
short time.'' 

Fear not, then, poor drunkard, to apply this remedy { Strong 
drink has not yet become a necessity of thy existence — it is only 
thy tyrant — and though thy limbs be palsied, and thy body 
crushed with the intemperance of years, thou mayest yet abstain. 
True, abstinence may not renew thy youthful vigor; for, alas! 
in the physical world there is no forgiveness of sin, and thou 
mayest have to bear to the grave the scars of the horrible strife 
through which thou hast passed; yet, if thou abstainest by God's 
grace, from strong drink, thou shalt never again be drunk, but 
with clear mind thou wilt be able to face thy destiny. 

This remedy is a most effectual one,* It is commensurate with 

* In truth, ail remedies are effectual : thai is, they remove the disease; 
•od, their ^eetuality is the proof of their beinga remedy at all.— Ed. 



MAINE-LAW PARISHES. 227 

the evil to be removed, and has never yet failed, when applied 
according to the prescription. If, however, there be remissness 
in the application, then to that extent intemperance and its 
consequent evils will creep in. "We have a striking example of 
this in the experience of Saltaire, a town of four tlioasand in- 
habitants, situate in the West Eiding of Yorkshire. Saltaire 
belongs to Sir Titus Salt, Bart., and all the workmen are in his 
employ. A desire to promote the physical comfort and the 
social and moral well-being of the people, induced this gentleman 
to banish the liquor traffic from the town. This was attended 
with the best results — the absence of drunkenness, crime and 
pauperism. The people were characterized by their industry 
and thrift, and their homes became a reflection of their own 
habits, presenting an air of cleanliness and comfort. 

After a time, however, a number of working men from a 
distance, being employed to carry out certain improvements in 
the town, raised an outcry at being deprived of their customary 
potations. To meet their wishes five grocers were authorized to 
take out licenses for tabU-heer, not to be drunk on the premises. 
The natural effects were sooYi visible, in insubordination among 
the men and drunkenness among the women. This state of 
things led Sir Titus Salt to forbid the grocers taking out their 
license a second year, and when the beer ceased to be sold, order 
and sobriety resumed their reign. 

In fact, the vjrhole history of the liquor traffic shows that 
the amount of intemperance depends exactly upon the facili- 
ties for obtaining intoxicating liquor*, — that restrictive measures, 
just in proportion to their stringency, diminish drunkenness; 
and that when such restrictions are relaxed, drunkenness in- 
creases; — but that total prohibition only can entirely remove 
the evils. 

There are hundreds of parishes and villages in the United 
Kingdom, in which magistrates and landed proprietors, from a 
profound conviction of the manifold evils flowing from the liquor 
traffic, have entirely suppressed it. 

In the province of Canterbury alone there are nearly one 
thousand four hundred of such districts; and what is the 
unanimous testimony concerning them ? Why, " That the 
people are characterized by sobriety and good conduct — that 
crime and pauperism are great rarities— that the people are 
perfectly satisfied with the absence of the traffic^ and that they 



228 god's bemedy fob the wobld's gbeat cubse. 

will Dot even troable themselves to go to the neighboring village, 
perhaps only a couple of miles distant, for the purpose of obtain- 
ing drink." 

We cite the following from the Appendix of the Report on 
Intemperance, of the Lower House of Convocation of Canter- 
bury. 

2063. — '* There is no public-honse or beer shop, I am glad to be 
able to say, in this pariah. Of this the good is great, the inconvenience, 
if any. in comparison exceedingly small. It promotes, almost ensures, 
sobriety and temperance. Were there any beer-drinking shops many 
would be tempted by the company, as much as by the beer, to spend 
portions of their earnings there, who now go home to their house-keep- 
ing. The village is very quiet and orderly. The constable's office is a 
tineeure, and a drwnken man a very rare sight. If any one will or must 
bay beer, he can send or go to a public-house a mile and a half distant, 
in another parish, — the inconvenience of which is not insurmountable, and 
is a useful check." 

2233. — ..." During the eighteen years I have 

been in this parish the health of the people has been unusually good. 

There has not been one serious injury in it during the 
whole period. The moraU of the people are so free from any gross 
stains, that I am at times afraid of their suffering spiritually from their 
thinking too highly of themselves. They furnish no cases for the parish 
constable or policeman. Men working on the roads leave their tools 
by the wayside when they return home for the night, without any fear 
of not finding them there in the morning. The people, without exception, 
are decently clothed, and there has been no case oj insolvency since 1 came 
here. By applying to the landowners, I have succeeded in persuading 
them to suppress three beer-shops in neighboring parishes, and 
prevented the establishment of another which was attempted. There 
are, therefore, now contiguous parishes here without public-houses; 
and very favorably can I report of those with which I am not officially 
connected. The improvement which results from the absence of these 
temptations in our parish extends into other parishes around it, and the 
change in the last eighteen years for miles around is very evident. 

I have ministered in large towns, and know something of the 
sins and sorrows that abound there through this one cause. If this evil 
could be suppressed, whaj; might we not expect the influence of Britain to 
be upon the world ?" 

2262. — " The good influence observable in my parish may be inferred, 
when I mention the total absence of crime. I have never heard of a 
tingle ease of thieving or poaching brought against any of my people, 
though living in the midst of well-stocked preserves; there are no 
gangs of unruly young men to be seen loitering about the lanes on a 
Sunday— there is always a good attendance at church on that day ; the 



CONVOCATION BEPORT ON INTEMPERANCE. 229 

ordinances of religion are generally well observed. .... 
AUliough the parish is poor, the offertory, collected monthly, from the 
whole congregation, far exceeds the wants of the sick and the aged, so that 
we are able to give yearly to missionary objects. The cottagers are weU 
clothed, and the majority of them are in a position to keep a cow and a 
pig, and several of the young laborers have sams of money in the savings 
bank. We have a cricket club in the parish, and I attribute the orderly 
behavior of the members to a rule of their own, forbidding the intro- 
duction of strong drink to the field; if there had been a beer-shop, I 
should probably have failed in this plan of providing amusement for the 
young men during the summer months; the love of the game, not the 
opportunity of drinking, now attracts them,. and on leaving the field they 
invariably go quietly home. . . We have not a single pauper 
in the workhouse, and no recipient of out-door relief from among the 
poor of the parish — in short, we may be called a prosperous community. 
As a rule the men's wages (Ila. and 12s. per week) are 
brought to the wives on the days of payment. . . I have never 
known a case of poverty or ill-health brought on by intemperance since 
my residence here." 

The followiDj; affords a series of contrasts in which a Maine- 
law Tillage shows to decided advantage : 

2273. — " For six years I was incumbent of a parish with a popula- 
tion of between three and four hundred persons, in which there was 
neither public-house nor beer-shop: and during the whole of my in- 
cumbency I never encountered a single case of intemperance amongst my 
people, who were industrious, orderly, and well conducted in all 
respects; though not all belonging to the National Church, attentive 
to the ordinances and duties of religion. For the last fifteen years I 
have been pastor of a parish, of which the population amounts to one 
thousand five hundred, and though during the present incumbency the 
parish church has been rebuilt, and two chapels of ease, in separate 
hamlets, have been erected, the accommodation in all these being free 
and unappropriated, ample schools adequate to the requirements of the 
whole population provided — an institute, a cricket club, cottage allot- 
ments for all who require them, a female friendly society, clothing and 
medical clubs, village choir, penny readings, and cheap concerts sup- 
plied ; — and the pastoral staff consists of a rector and two curates, 
supplemented by a body of benevolent and active district visitors,— the 
public-houses being under no control as to numbers or conduct, much 
intemperance, with all its attendant evils of poverty, wife-beating, neglected 
households, disregard among the working classes of religion, prevails ; and 
within a few mouths four cases of sudden death, caused by intemperance, 
have occurred." 

Ireland illastrates the same trath. In a district of Tyrone, 
20 ' . . 



230 god'b remedy for the world's qbeat cubse. 

■izty one and a half square miles in extent, from which all the 
whisky-shops have been cleared off, the poor-rates have im- 
mensely diminished, the police-station has been removed, and 
the people live in comparative comfort 

So in Bcssbrook, a town containing a population of about three 
thousand persons, pleasantly situate in the county of Armagh. 
The sole proprietor of the town is Mr. John Grubb Richardson, 
of Moyallen, a leading member of the Society of Friends. 
The people are all in his own employ, most of them being en- 
gaged in the flax-spinning mill. Mr. Richardson, both in the 
construction of the town,' in the house accommodation, and in 
the different establishments, as reading-room, library, schools, 
and dispensary, has paid strict regard to the physical and moral 
well-being of the employes. The distinguishing feature of the 
town, however, is the absence of drink-shops, and consequently 
the absence of crime, pauperism, pawn-shops, and policemen. 
There are two cobperative stores in the place belonging to the 
workers—one to adults, and the other solely to juveniles of the 
Band of Hope, who are its only shareholders. Both are well- 
conducted, and pay good dividends. Each employ^ pays so 
much a week to a sick fund, which is supplemented by Mr. 
Richardson to the amount of £150 per annum. This entitles 
each member, in case of sickness, to medical attendance free of 
cost, and to half the ordinary wages during the time such sick- 
ness continues. Now, though the inhabitants are all Irish, there 
is no quarrelling, and no filthy apartments, with chickens and 
pigs as joint occupiers. 

On the other hand, there are numerous villages in the king- 
dom, possessing equal, or superior advantages, with this one 
drawback only, the liquor traffic exists in their midst, — and 
what is their condition? Why, with the sale of intoxicating 
liquor, crime and pauperism abound. Children are uncared for 
and uneducated. Homes are untidy, sounds of strife continually 
resound from them ; whilst acts of violence and immorality are 
frequently perpetrated. 

We may here refer to two villages in Northumberland, pos- 
sessing many features in common. The one C ge, the other 

C ; both are pleasantly situate ; the surrounding scenery 

picturesque and beautiful, though the former has the advantage. 
Both have railway communication with considerable towns a few 



KORTHUMBRIAN VILLAGES. 281 

miles distant; both also are purely agricaltaral. In each yillagi 
there is a reading-room and library, and a national sohool under 
government inspection. In both, the religious wants of the 
people are well attended to ; there being in the larger Tillage a 
church and three chapels ; in the latter and smaller, a church 
only. There is, however, one striking point of contrast. The 

village of C o belongs to Sir W. C. Trevelyan, Bt., and there 

are no public-houses or beer-shops in it. For the accommoda- 
tion of travellers, there is a large and commodious temperance 
hotel at the railway station, with livery stables and horses, and 
conveyances for hire. The general condition of this village is 
satisfactory. The reading-room and library are well patronized ; 
the homes of the people are remarkable for their comfortable 
and tidy appearance ; the inhabitants are characterized by intelli- 
gence, civility, and sobriety. Crime, pauperism, and strife, are 
unknown, and bastardy also. . 

In the former village, C ge, there are seven public-houses, 

and about half-ardozen small shops for the sale of table-beer. 
Omitting the latter, there is one public-house to every one hun- 
dred and seventy inhabitants. Now what are the fruits? Why, 
there is much drunkenness among the people. Many families, 
in Consequence, are reduced to poverty ; crimes of violence and 
thefb are of frequent occurrence, and the grossest immoralities 
abound. The moral tone of the village is exceedingly low, the 
reading-room and library are neglected, a large proportion of 
the inhabitants attend no place of worship, and no recreations 
but those of a gross character are relished. 

In all our numerous inquiries, we have never yet succeeded in 
discovering a single town, district, or village, where the presence 
of the liquor traific has been characterized by the absence of pau- 
perism, immorality, and crime, and the consequent happiness 
and prosperity of the community. Neither have we succeeded 
in discovering a single town, village, or district, where the 
absence of the liquor traffic has been characterized by the pre- 
sence of pauperism, immorality, crime, and the mental and 
moral debasement of the people. 

^^ The working of God's laws is the manifestation of God^s 
will,^' says Dr. Lees, ''and hence the fVuits of prohibition estab- 
lish that it is in accordance with the Divine Wisdom." It is 
effectual, because it touches the real causes of the evil. Well- 
intentioned people propound certain nostruvMy but the most that 



232 god's remedy fob the wobld's gbeat cubse. 

any of them can accomplish is merely to palliate the evil. Be> 
move it they canDot, for most of them have already been tried, 
and have siji^ally failed. Let us, however, glance at a few of 
these panaceas. 

1. — Education. — They say, *' educate the people, and that will 
remedy the eviL" This would be quite true if ignorance were 
the cause of intemperance; but this is not so. The educated 
classes are not free from this vice, and many uneducated persons 
are. Read the annals of literature, and you will find that many 
of the noblest minds have been prematurely extinguished in the 
darkness of death, through drink. God forbid that we should 
rake up the annals of departed greatness, and tell of vices that 
disgrace our grand civilization ; yet ever and anon the names of 
departed great ones — men who have woven for themselves, in 
their works of genius, an imp^erishable wreath — ^flit across our 
minds, and we mourn as we think of the vice that cursed their 
lives, and cut short their career. 

[The statistics of the author's paragraph, referring to the Bing- 
hamton Inebriate Asylum, New York, are quite incorrect. We 
therefore omit it from this edition. — 3d. Am. Edition."] 

Medical men, who ought to be the best informed in those 
branches of knowledge likely to act as an effectual check to 
excess in drink, are, nevertheless, strangely prone to intemper- 
ance. Go where we will, we find drunken doctors endangering 
the lives of their patients, and shortening their own by their 
intemperance. 

Clergymen of different denominations are also strangely addicted 
to this vice, and are frequently inspired by a far different spirit 
from that which ought to animate them. 

Lawyers are not remarkable for abstemiousness. We have 
seen members of the legal profession so tipsy in open court as to 
be quite incompetent to conduct their client^s case. ^' As drunk 
as a lord/^ is a kind of proverbial expression, denoting beastly 
intoxication, and was derived from the prevalent intemperance 
of the (not ignorant) aristocracy; and drunkenness still prevails 
among them in their clubs and homes. 

If education be a remedy for intemperance, we may expect to 
find, that in proportion as education extends among the people 
intemperance will decrease, and that the best educated countries 



EDUCATTOK, 233 

will have the fewest drankards. Is this really the case? Facts, 
stern and incontrovertible, say, No I 

Look at Scandinavia, a country that can boast of the finest, 
most intelligent, and best educated peasantry in the world. Yet 
what was the condition of this people a few years ago? Why, 
drunkenness was the great and prevailing curse, and beneath its 
blighting influence the people were fast drifting to destruction. 
And what at last put a check to this great evil? More education? 
No I But sternly repressive measures from the central authority. 

Scotland, again, is at once the best educated, and not the least 
drunken part of the Kingdom. 

Prussia, one of the best educated states in Europe, with a 
compulsory system of education that does her great credit, is by 
no means renowned for the sobriety of her people. Dr. Wald, 
of Konigsberg, informs us, — '*That Berlin had in 1845, as com- 
pared with 1745, one thousand hve hundred more taverns, and 
one church less ! That out of sixty children under six years of 
age, in the Orphan Asylum, forty had been accustomed to sip 
spirits, of whom nine were infected with a depraved appetite for 
them. That in the vale of Barmen, one of the most religious 
districts of Rhenish Prussia, there were above four hundred 
public-houses for the sale of Brauntwein (brandy) ) and out of a 
population of 80,000. not less than 13,000 dram-drinkers. That 
in the conscription of 1852, for a district of Western Prussia, 
out of one hundred and seventy-four young men, only four were 
declared admissible by the inspecting surgeons^ the remaining 
one hundred and seventy being physically incapacitated by 
dram-drinking." — Dr. Lees* Prize Argument, 

As the Convocation of Canterbury Report on Intemperance 
says : — ** The only education that can cope with the evil, is one 
that shall cultivate not only the mind, but the heart — which shall 
embrace the encouragement, by every proper means, of a love 
of home and home enjoyments — as the natural and proper coun- 
teraction of the seductions of the public-house ; and the general 
dissemination among the people of sound information as to the 
actual effects of our drinking habits upon their moral, social, 
and physical condition.'* — See Report^ p. 13. 

2. — Eecreations. — Man was made to play, as well as to work. 
His very constitutioif and tendencies — his capacity for enjoy- 
ment — prove this ; and it is the duty of a state, and of all phi- 
lanthropic persons desiring to promote the well-being and happl- 
20* 



234 god's remedy fok thk world's great cttrsr 

ness of the people, to proyide and encouracre enjoyments of an 
innocent and refining character. "By innocent pleasure,'* says 
Dr. Channing, "I mean such as excite moderately, such as 
produce a cheerful frame of mind, not boisterous mirth *, such <u 
refresh instead of exhausting the system^ such as occur frequently 
rather than continue long ; such as send back to our daily duties 
invigorated in body and in spirit; such as we can partake in the 
presence and society of respectable friends; such as consists 
with, and are favorable to, a grateful piety; such as are 
chastened by self-respect, and accompanied with the conscious- 
ness that life has a higher end than to be amused. In every 
community there must be pleasures, relaxations, and means of 
agreeable excitement ; and if innocent ones are not furnished, 
resort will be had to criminal." Innocent recreation, to a cer- 
tain extent, of course, counteracts the attractions of the public- 
house, and every hour abstracted from them is a great gain. 

As a kind of mild palliative, we wish success to all measures 
that shall seek to promote the innocent enjoyments of life; but 
this is not a remedy for the gigantic evil of intemperance. It 
should be remembered that the public-house is the rival of the 
place of amusement. 

The gymnasium and the intellectual entertainment are alike 
neglected by the devotees of Bacchus for the public-house and 
those barbarous sports got up in connection with it. In our 
mining districts, a rabbit course will attract hundreds of specta- 
tors, where a literary entertainment, or an instructive lecture, 
will only attract a score. 

Recreations and pleasures of an innocent character are appre- 
ciated and used chiefly by the w6ll-behaved and sober, whilst 
the licentious and the drunken, who most need our reclaiming 
efibrts, keep far from them. To them the public-house and the 
gin-palace have far greater attractions than gymnasium, penny 
reading or excursion. 

3. — Better homes, — "Provide the people with better house 
accommodation, and teach the wives to be thrifty, and to keep 
the home clean and comfortable, and you will soon draw the 
husbands from the tap-room." A great many cheerless and 
comfortless homes may be found among the people ; but what 
has made them so? Intemperance. Comfortless homes are not 
BO much a cause as an effect. 

When the brutalized husband spends at a public-house those 



ADULTERATION. 235 

means that ought to be devoted to increasing the comforts of his 
home-life, and when, in his madness and infatuation, he strips 
his home of furniture and sells it for the sake of drink, how can 
he expect his weeping and despairing wife to make it cheerful 
and comfortable? No doubt there are instances where un- 
thrifty and gossiping wives, careless of their husbands' welfare, 
neglect the duties of their domestic condition ; whose homes are 
never tidy, and who never greet with a genial smile their 
partner returning from daily toil ; homes which husbands 
naturally forsake for the tap-room, in which they meet with con- 
viviality, a smiling landlady, and a cheerful blaze*, but, for 
every drunkard made by a comfortless home, there are a hun- 
dred comfortless homes made by drunkenness. « 

4. — It is the adulteration that does all the mischief, say others. 
Doubtless in this traffic adulteration prevails to a much larger 
extent than in any other. 

Our beer is adulterated, our gin is adulterated, and our wines 
are adulterated. There are enga<];ed in the liquor traffic thou- 
sands of unprincipled manufacturers and vendors, who, callous 
to the miseries and diseases they inflict, resort to the most exten- 
sive and pernicious adulterations. 

Mr. Wadhams, a town councillor of Birmingham, formerly a 
licensed victualler of twenty years' standing, and now president 
of the United Towns Association of Licensed Victuallers, was 
examined on Monday, June 22d, 1868, before the Select Parlia- 
mentary Committee, on J. A. Smith's Bill for closing Public- 
houses on Sunday. He stated, ** That when he was in the trade 
he gave 13«. per gallon for gin, and sold it retail.at 16^., but not 
of the same strength as he received it. He thought he had a 
right to object to tell what he put into it." 

This system of adulteration has become so intimately inter- 
woven with this traffic, that we believe nothing save the destruc- 
tion of the traffic can remedy it. 

But suppose we could succeed in putting an end to these 
villanied, should we by this means cure intemperance? No I 
Alcohol has a certain specific action of its own upon the human 
body, whether it be taken in the form of fermented, vinous, or 
spirituous liquor. It is true the numerous deadly argents added 
to it must enhance its dangerous and destructive properties ; but 
apart from them, alcohol will poison the body, inflame the 
passions, pervert the mind, and deaden the conscience; and 



236 god's behedy fob th£ wobld's great cubse. 

though we were to provide the people -with pareljr alcoholio 
liquors, the tide of dmnkenQess would still roll on. 

5. — Home drinking j say others, will care drunkenness. 

If this remedy be worth anything, we may expect that those 
people who get drink into their own houses, and consume it there, 
will be models of sobriety. But is this the case? It is a most 
indisputable fact, that home drinking is very prevalent among 
the middle and upper classes, especially among the ladies, and so 
is home drunkenness.* Then if home drinking be not a remedy 
for the favored wealthy classes, how can we expect it to be a 
remedy for the toiling millions? Were this plan carried out, it 
would prove an unmitigated curse, greatly enhancing the horrors 
of drunkenness, and corrupting nearly every home in the coon- 
try. If we are to have drunkenness, by all means let us confine 
it as much as possible to the public-house and the beer-shop, and 
keep it as far as possible from the homes of the people. 

6. — ^Another proposed remedy is this: — ^'Drunkenness pro- 
ceeds from the deceitful and wicked heart of man. Preach the 
gospel, and you will strike at the root of the evil and remove it." 

Now if the preaching of the gospel be a remedy for drunken- 
ness, how are we to account for the fact that the nations of 
Christendom are the most drunken nations in the world, after the 
gospel has been preached among them for nearly two thousand 
years ? Also, that thousands of professing Christians who once 
enjoyed the blessings of the gospel, and were made partakers of 
its hopes and joys, have ^aZ/^n through strong drink? Now those 
who put the gospel forward as a remedy for intemperance are 
bound to solve these queries.f If they answer that those who 
fell, never practically enjoyed the blessings of the gospel, we 
reply, that this is a gratuitous assumption which they can by no 
means prove. We have known scores of persons that gave every 
proof of genuine conversion, who yet, misled by doctors, or 
wrongly influenced by ministers, or yielding to the pressing invi- 
tations of friends, have taken strong drink and become drunken. 

The gospel is a remedy for intemperance, if properly under- 
stood and applied; but as at present taught, by a very large 
majority of Christian ministers and Christian men, it is simply 
no remedy at all. 

* See the Saturday Review, Jan. 21, 1871, art. "Drawing Room Alcoholism.'* 

f In this Argument the reader must never forget the difference tetween 
Che preaching of the gospel, and the gospel aeeepted,—Enk 



THE GOSPEIm 237 

What 18 the gospel? In its widest sense it is that com- 
prehensive system of morality and those sublime doctrines 
contained in the New Testament. The whole tenor of the 
gospel, and many of its expressed declarations, enjoin abstinence 
from evil, and from things that tend to demoralize and destroy. 
It is only as we clearly discern this, and tDillit8 application to the 
use of intoxicating liquor, that the gospel can prove a remedy 
for the curse of intemperance. But, if we regard the gospel 
purely as a system of moral suasion, entirely overlooking physical 
circumstances and conditions, then it can by no means prove a 
remedy. Why ? Because we hare great political and physical 
causes to fight against, which, so long as they continue to operate, 
our noblest efforts to reclaim the drunkard must in a great 
measure fail. 

Th9 political cause of intemperance consists of the numerous 
legalized facilities for obtaining intoxicating liquor — thephysical 
cause is the contact of intoxicating liquor with man's physical 
organism, corrupting and perverting it, and inducing mental 
and moral perversion. However eloquently we may preach the 
gospel to the people, however earnestly we may urge its claims 
home upon them, so long as the use of strong drink continues, 
just so long will intemperance and all its deadly fruits abound, 
defying alike the efforts of moralists and ministers. 

Even those who offer the gospel as a panacea for intempe- 
rance, must admit that it can only prove so to those who <xccepi 
it. But how few these are 1 — ^while intemperance itself is the 
great barrier to its acceptance on the part of the many. This 
shows the absolute necessity of our adopting some other means 
to remove this great evil ; and if we look at it purely as a religious 
question, this appears the more binding. If we really wish the 
people to accept the truths of Christianity, and to conform their 
lives to its principles, we must remove out of the way these 
practical obstacles. Who doubts that intemperance is the 
greai barrier f In this sense, a John the Baptist is as necessary 
at the present day as at the dawn of the Christian dispensation. 
The temperance enterprise is this forerunner. It goes before to 
level the mountains and to exalt the yalleys, to make the crooked 
paths straight and the rough places plain, and by clearing from 
the intellect and conscience the fumes of drink, it prepares the 
way for the reception of the gospel, and for the full play of its 
ennobling and spiritualizing power. 



238 god'b bemedy for tbe world's great curse. 

7. — Another says j " Let us have free trade in strong drink, 
and visit all drunkards with condign punishment/' 

This is not even a palliative, for it directly a<;gravates the 
malady. The Liverpool maj^istrates tried it, and with what 
result? Why, the most reckless drunkenness and shameless 
profligacy, attended with crimes the most revolting:, a wide spread 
pauperism, and numerous and fatal diseases. The drink curse 
80 stamped itself upon Liverpool, as to earn for it the descriptive 
epithet — ^^ThcU dark spot upon the Mersey.^* 

When a kind of free trade measure was passed, during the 
reign of George IL (1732), repealing the £20 license, and per- 
mitting the retail sale of spirits in dwelling-houses, thus convert- 
ing every householder into a publican, the most reckless intem- 
perance was the result The parliamentary history of the period 
records the faet, that signs were publicly hoisted : " Drunk for one 
penny : dead drunk for twopence; clean straw for nothing." 

As to punishing the drunkard, allows us to remind the objector 
that he is punished already. Why should we seek to inflict 
upon him further torments? History and experience alike 
declare the futility of " punishment." 

The Rev. W. Caine, M.A., Chaplain of the County Gaol for 
the Salford Hundred, in his Keport for October 25th, 1869, 
makes this staljpment : 

"The most painful sight in the world, for a chaplain, is to 8e« 
prisoners returning frequently to gaol, and especially to see women lo^ 
to all sense of shame, utterly regardless of the disgrace attached to 
imprisonment, and totally abandoned to the horrid vice and crime of 
drinking these poisonous liquors. One woman here is known to have 
been in prison 75 times, and an old man 92 times. Women, after being 
ten times in prison, come back more frequently than men. 159 women 
and 139 men have been previously in gaol more than ten times; 70 
women and 125 men, eight, nine, or ten times; 76 females and 158 
males, six or seven times ; 41 females and 102 males, five times ; 62 
females and 195 males, four times; 91 females and 247 males, three times; 
129 females and 355 males, twice ; and 237 females and 709 males, once." 

Ever since the reign of James I., when drunkenness was made 
a punishable offence by a fine of five shillings, or confinement in 
the stocks for six hours, intemperance has gone on increasing in 
our land, defying all penal enactments that touch the drunkard, 
while allowing the drunkard-maker to go free. 

8. — Inebriate Asylums, — It has been suggested that we should 
treat aU confirmed drunkards as maniacs, and shut them up in 



r 



INEBRIATE ASYLUMS. 239 

asylums. This we consider to be a most impracticable measure; 
but if it could be carried out, it must signally fail. There is an 
asylum of this'kind in New York State ; yet drunkenness is as 
prevalent in that State, as in our own country.* But how shall 
you determine who are habitual drunkards ; or how many re- 
petitions of the act of drunkenness constitutes an habitual 
drunkard ? 

To make this measure of e£fect, it would have to be 
extended to all known drunkards. Now it has been computed 
that there are ^ve hundred thousand of this class in the 
country, and to maintain this great number in asyloms would be 
a burdeiv too great for the already heavily taxed rate-payers to 
bear. Our present accommodation for insane persons would be 
quite inadequate, and would have to be multiplied twelve times, 
at an additional outlay of about £30,000,000 for new erections, 
and of about £18,000,000 per annum for the maintenance of 
dipsomaniacs I 

This insane-measure, after all, wonld leave altogether un- 
touched the cause of the evil. It would make no provision for 
occasional drunkards, that class from which confirmed drunkards 
are immediately produced. Now, certainly, a large proportion 
of the misery, poverty, and crime abounding in our midst, flows 
from those who get drunk only occasionally, as well as from 
those who are habitually drunken. Then this would leave 
untouched that gigantic system of iniquity, the drink system, of 
which both occasional and confirmed drunkards are but the 
riper products. « 

In making this appeal for wise and instant action, the 
author would speak in the first person. — If in my garden 
there was a nest of vipers, rendering that garden and my abode 
unsafe ; if I found that certain members of my household were 

* It is an example of the ignorance of the House of Commons on this ques- 
tion, and of the press generally, that a statement made by Mr. Maguire, M.P., 
in the debate on Dalrymple's Bill for the establishment of "State Inebriate 
Asylums," in July, 1871, went forth to the world uncontradicted! Mr. 
Maguire mid that, *' such Institutions existed in the Maine Law States.'* 
which proved, he argued, that " Prohibition was not so effective as to ))revent 
their neceHsity." Now Dr. Lees has stated, after twelve months examination 
and travel in the United States, that there i& not a single Institution of the kind 
in a Maine Law district Up to April, 1870, there were only four such in ail the 
State? — three in New York State, and one in Pennsylvania^ and only two small 
voluntary Watthingtonian Homes; one in the City of Boston, and one in 
Chicago: in both of which cities the authorities have been hostile to prohi- 
bition. Ward's Island Inebriate Asylum, New York, was declared in 1870, by 
the Commissioners, to have illustrated the impoMiAUiiy of permanently 
r^claf ming any consfderUble nuirtber of the inmates. 



240 god's bemedy fob the wobld's gbeat cubsb. 

Btun^ by these vipers, so that they sickened and died, or went 
raving mad — what should I do with these vipers 7 Why, track 
them to their remotest retreat, and utterly exterminate them. 

Our country is a garden, beauteous and glorious to behold I 
As I gaze upon its fruitful plains, its wooded vales, its romantic 
hills, its meandering streams ; as, passing through her pleasant 
villages and populous towns, I mark the glancing eyes of her 
daughters, and the manly forms of her sons, I feel to love my 
native land ; and, though not insensible to her defects, yet as I 
contemplate her bold and striking virtues, I can truly say, 

" England, with all thy faults, I love thee still." 

Now, in this garden there exists a nest of vipers, and many of 
our relatives, friends, and neighbors have been stung by them. 
In sooth, they have inflicted greater misery upon our people 
than did the fiery flying serpents upon the tribes of Israel. 
What, then, shall we do with these vipers? Some say, set them 
at large, give them perfect freedom of action! This has already 
been tried in a great measure, but the vipers sting the more. 
Others say, let us encourage them to propagate, let us increase 
the breed. This, also, has been tried. It was tried when the 
gin-shops sprang into existence, and when the beer and wine 
shops were multiplied in our midst; they only stung the more. 
Others say, shut them up one day in seven. But this would 
not prevent them from stinging upon the other six days, in fact, 
it might only make them more violent. Some advise us to 
place a strong fence around them, leaving only a few holes here 
and there, for them to put out their heads. But these vipers 
are of the true basilisk kind, and by the glitter of their eyes 
attract the people as with an irresistible charm, and sting 
them as before. Some advise us to punish the people more 
severely for being stung I But this is like beating a child for 
falling down and hurting itself. You only make it the more 
nervous and the more liable to fall. 

What, then, shall we do with these vipers? We must utterly 
exterminate them. This is the only means of remedying this 
great evil, and to this our country must come at last; for, 
unless the viper drink, and all its brood be crushed and de- 
stroyed, they will destroy us. 

The strife is now pending — a strife the issue of which must 
decide whether, as a nation, we shall sink or rise. 



SUCCESS AWAITS US. 241 

We are san/i^uine that success awaits 110, and that too at no 
distant day. For years the strife has been going on between the 
foes and the friends of humanity. At first, our forces were 
weak, and ever and anon were threatened with destruction. Yet 
have we been able not only to maintain our ground, but also to 
drive the enemy from his advanced posts. Every year brings 
fresh accessions to our ranks, so that now we have become 
a mighty army, and, no longer acting on the defensive, are 
advancing to storm the last stronghold of the enemy. The ac- 
complished triumphs of other great moral and social movements 
prophesy of the speedy success of this. Already we behold the 
first faint streaks of the coming dawn, and though we may not 
Uto to revel in the glorious sunshine of the coming day, yet ft 
generation to come shall do so, and 

"Earth shall glisten in the raj 
Of the good time coming." 

2t 



S42 BACCnUB DETHRONED!. 



CHAPTER IX. 

POLITICAL PHIL080PHT AND TB> LIQVOR TBAPnC. 

pROP.X. — ^^That as the truffle in alcoholic liquors is injurious 
to trade and commerce, and is the principal cause of poverty and 
erimCf ii is the duty of the government to put it down by l^isUh 
five enactment J* 

Happilt for the nation, the Temperance movement has at last 
become a great politioal question, and is now acknowledged to 
be so bj politicians — ^politicians of all classes, and of both the 
great parties of this country. 

During our late election contests, candidates for parliamentary 
honors were instructed in the principles of our movement, and, 
in consequence, many of them sent in their adhesion, and 
promised to support our measure in the House of Commons, 
whilst the premier, the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone, declared 
himself as favorable to local option in dealing with the drink 
traffic. 

As preliminary to determining whether the liquor traffic be in 
accordance with the ends of government, or otherwise ; whether 
it is a traffic that ought to be entirely suppressed, merely 
restricted, or allowed to luxuriate in untrammelled freedom, 
we shall briefly trace the great aims for the accomplishment 
of which governments exist, and the reciprocal duties subsisting 
between a government and the governed. 

A nation is an association of individuals on a large scale for 
purposes of mutual protection and benefit, and government is the 
instarument for securing these ends. A government, therefore, 
consists of a body of men who have to govern for the benefit of 
the governed, and not for the aggrandizement of themselves. 
The ends of government are twofold : 

1. — To regulate the equitable relations of men. This it does 
by protecting the weak against the strong, and by securing to 
each member of the community the undisturbed possession of 
of his natural and civil rights. 



NATURAL >ND CIVIL RIGHTS. 248 

The natural and civil rights of man are life, liberty, and 
property (the results of labor). 

Every man has a right to his lifiy and no other person has 
a right to deprive him of it, either directly or indirectly. Every 
man has a right to libertp^ — liberty of thought, of conscience, of 
speech, of action. True liberty includes the right to know, and 
the power to choose. Every person has a right to education; 
his right of existence proves this ; for how can he rightly live, if 
he be kept ignorant ? J. S. Mill says: — ''It is an almost self- 
evident axiom, that the State should require and compel the 
education, up to a certain standard, of every human being who 
is bom its citizen.'' Every man has a right to choose for himself 
in relation to all the concerns of life — his employment, his 
recreations and his pleasures. To all this there is but one 
restriction, vis : that in exercising our right of choice we do not 
interfere with the exercise of that right in others^ In that case, 
liberty may be restricted, or life taken, for protection of the 
unoffending and innocent 

Every man has a right to his property , and no other person 
has a right to deprive him of it, either in whole or in part. 
Property is that to which a man has a rightful claim. Every 
man, for example, has a right to the fruits of his own indus- 
try, whatever form it may assume that is not dangerous to 
others. 

2. — To promote the general well-being. Bentbam says: — 
''The sole object of government ought to be the greatest happi- 
ness of the greatest possible number of the community. This 
end is promoted by the removal of restrictions on commerce, 
where such restrictions are detrimental to the prosperity of 
the community; — by encouraging every industry and institu- 
tion calculated to confer benefit; — by discouraging, and even 
sternly repressing those of a pernicious, imtiloral and dangeroua 
character ; in a word, by. such wise legislation as shall tend to 
promote the physical health, the social comfort and the intel- 
lectual enjoyments and culture of the people. 

The first aim of government is to settle — ^What is just, and 
enforce it This is the science oi politics. 

The second coDciders — What is beneficial, and promotes it 
This is the science of political economy : conjointly they form a 
grand system ot political philosophy. 

Legislation, then, has its sphere and limitations. All legislation 



244 POLITICAL PHIL06OPHT AND THE LIQUOR TBAFFIO. 

ought to be directed to the remoral of some evil, or the confer- 
ring of some benefit. It ought to be impartial ; demanding alike 
the obedience of all classes. Legislation, whilst throwing oyer 
all alike the mantle of protection, must preserve inviolate to 
each indiyidnal the enjoyment and possession of his natural and 
civil rights. Legislation ought to be in harmony with those 
principles of eternal rectitude inscribed upon the hearts and 
consciences of men. Says Patrick Dove: — '* The same moral law 
is incumbent upon man associated in society, that ought to regulate 
their conduct €u individuals. And the acts from which an 
individual is moraUy bound to refrain, no legislation in the 
world is competent to command, and no government to carry 
into execution." — Elements of Political Science, 

Legislation ought to be directed as much as possible to the 
prevention of evil and crime. "To make it as easy as possible for 
the people to do right, and as difficult as possible for them to 
do wrong.'* Douglas Jerrold says: — "When the full-grown 
thief is hanged, do we not sometimes forget that he was the 
child of misery and vice, born for the gallows, and nursed for the 
halter? Did we legislate a little more for the cradle, might we 
not be spared some pains for the hulks T* 

The prosperity of a nation will depend, in a great measure, 
upon the energy and prudence with which the laws enacted by 
the deliberative assembly are carried out and enforced. Hence 
tite necessity of an intelligent and energetic executive. 

There are also duties of a most important character, which 
the governed owe to the government. These are obedience and 
support, — to obey the righteous laws enacted, and to meet 
the expenses of government by submitting to necessary and just 
taxation. 

Should the subject refuse to fulfil his obligations to the State, 
and at the same time iseek to overthrow or thwart by force its 
just decrees, he is guilty of Treason, a crime of very serious 
magnitude, since the overt act involves murder, rapine, disorder, 
and the overturning of society, — in fact, the gravest evils that 
can menace a nation. 

Should the State violate its sacred trust, and instead of bless- 
ing and protecting the people, deprive them of their just rights, 
then that State commits treason against the Subject, whether the 
State be a monarchy, a mixed, or a republican form of govern- 
ment.. Says Patrick Dove: — "If any political truth stands 



THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC POLITICALLY WROKG. 245 

out prominently on the face of Scripture, it is that there are 
limits to the ruler's sphere of.action which he may not lawl'ully 
overstep. He himself, whether he be represented by the person 
of a king, or by an aristocracy, or a popular parliament, can 
only act rightfully within those natural limits of justice in which 
every man's rights are preserved to him entire, w^ithout infringe- 
ment and without diminution. . . . Every State should 
sit in judgment on those enactments that the ruler attempts to 
enforce, and try them by the primary principles of equity, 
written in the constitution of the human mind by the finger of 
the Creator. If the State do. this, its course is a. course of liberty, 
becoming more and more perfect with the lapse of years. If it 
do not, its course is a course of slavery and degradation, of vice, 
and crime, and licentiousness, whose only natural termination 
is the tempest of revolution and bloodshed, by which the disor- 
der of the laws of equity is for a moment superseded by the 
destruction of society." — Elements of FoUtical Science^ pp. 
66, 67. 

Is the liquor traffic, legalized and protected in our midst, in 
accordance with these principles, and subservient to, or in 
direct contravention of the ends of government? 

Now, if the traffic in strong drink be a useful or necessary 
traffic, then it is right that it should be allowed to exist without 
molestation or restriction. For all such molestation and re- 
striction are wrong and tyrannical, and a species of political 
persecution inflicted upon the traffickers. If the evils flowing 
from the liquor traffic are merely accidental to it, springing 
from a source that can be corrected, then it is a traffic to be 
regulated and surrounded by certain safeguards. But if, on the 
contrary, it be essentially evil, then ought it to be suppressed 
entirely. To remove restrictions is but to flood the country 
with drunkenness and every abomination — to heap up restric- 
tions is only a dallying with the evil. 

In Chapters i. and v., we have shown that the traffic is bad in 
its actual effects and bad in its natural tendencies, that it has 
been in all ages of its existence irreclaimably bad. It is, there- 
fore, the duty of the government to entirely suppress it. 

The existence of -the liquor traffic is subversive of equitable 
relations. Upon a few, certain privileges and immunitiob are 
granted that conflict with the rights of the many. Instead of 
the weak being protected against the strong, the strong, licensed 



246 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AKZ> THE LIQUOR TRAFFia 

bj j^vernment, are enabled to oppress the weak. The inebriate 
is (o all intents and purposes a weak man. His p*eat enemj is 
strong drink. The very smell of it is often sufficient to excite 
into terrible action that uncontrollable appetite of which he is a 
poor slave. Yet there is no law in the land to protect that man 
from the cruel rapacity of the publicans. As long as he does not 
become violent or dead drunk upon their premises, they can by 
law serve him any amount From the wording of the law it haa 
been found almost impossible to convict. Under the words 
*' wilfully*' and "knowingly^' permit drunkenness, publicans 
•scape conviction. 

The publican, again, in the exercise of his monopoly, tramples 
on the natural rights of his fellows. 

1. — Upon the shrine of Bacchus, life is ruthlessly sacrificed. 

Many of our laws are enacted for the purpose of preserving 
life, and bringing to punishment those who even place life in 
jeopardy; but here is a law, the license law of our country, 
which virtually destroys life, and protects the murderer. 

Take for instance the law enacted in 1868, and which came 
into operation on the first day of January, 1869, to regulate the 
sale of poisons. According to this law none are permitted to sell 
poisons but registered chemists. Poisons are divided into two 
classes. The most virulent under schedule A., the less virulent 
under schedule B. In vending these poisons, especially the 
former, every precaution most be taken, lest human life . be 
sacrificed. A certain quantity only can be sold at a time. The 
person making the purchase most give his name and address, 
and specify the purposes to which he intends applying the poison, 
All these particulars must be entered into a book, to which the 
person making the purchase must sign his, or her name. Should 
the chemist neglect any of these precautions, he can be taken up 
before the magistrates and punished. The publicans, however, 
can sell poisonous compounds with impunity, though men are 
dying every day of the poisonous liquors dispensed at their 
houses ; and the law, instead of punishing them, protects them 
in their wrong-doing. Take, for instance, the following case 
from the Alliance News, Nov. 27, 1869 : 

"Shortly after twelve o'clock on Monday night last, the attention of 
police constable Barton was called to a man who was lying in the 
street between "Watson's Railway Inn and the Bedford Leigh Station. 
!rhe oo&stftble had him conveyed to* the Town Hall, bat be d^ on the 



LIFE SACRIFICED. Ml 

way there, and the body was conveyed to the George and Dragon 
Inn, King Street An inquest was held on Thursday, before J. 
Broaghton Edge, Esq., deputy coroner, when it transpired that the 
deceased, James Bearbitt, of Sha^erley, had been drinking during 
Monday, in company with a man from Tyldesley. Deceased got 
very drunk; and between eight and nine o'clock at night he went 
into the Railway Inn, where they supplied him with more drink, 
and kept him in the house till closing time, when the unfortunate 
man was turned out into the street. He went but a few yards from 
the door, and then lay down in the gutter. A man named Watson, 
who came out of the beer-house at the same time, tried to arouse 
him, but could not succeed. The watchman at the railway station, 
James Hesketh, afterwards came up, and seeing the state in which 
the man was, immediately sent for a constable, who had him conveyed 
to the station. The coroner severely censured the heer-h<yase keeper 
for having supplied the man with drink tohile he was in a state of 
intoxication. It was staled that the man was so drunk that he was 
refused a ticket at a railway station. The Jury returned a verdict 

of DEATH FROM KATT7RAL CAUSES, ACCELEBATBD BY EXCESSIYB 
DBIKEIHa." 

Here was a clear case of death, not from natural causes, 
accelerated by excessive drinking; but of death from alcohol 
poisoning, accelerated by exposure. Yet the man who poisoned 
this wretched victim of the traffic escapes with a mere censure ! 
Now suppose this man, instead of drinking poison (alcohol) in 
a beer-shop, had drank poison — ^say laudanum — in a chemist 9 
shop, and had then staggered forth, and falling down in the first 
gutter, insensible, had died soon after, — would a coroner^s jury 
have passed a verdict, Died from natural causes, accelerated by 
the excessive use of laudanum? Decidedly not I The verdict 
would have been, Died from the mortal effect of poisoning by 
laudanum, accelerated by exposure; and the chemist who sup- 
plied the poison would not have got off with a mere reprimand, 
but would have been severely punished. 

Thus are the traffickers allowed by license ''to murder her 
Mnjesty's subjects wholesale," without any dread of punishment; 
and thus is violated with impunity, the natural right that every 
man has to his own life. 

2. — The natural right of a man to liberty is also grossly 
outraged. 

The liquor traffic, and true liberty (knowledge and choice), 
are essentially antagonistic. The traffic prevents people from 
acquiring knowledge, and deprives them of tihe inawor of 



248 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC. 

oboice, bj transforaiing tbem into mere ereatares of impulse and 
paaaion. 

A license to do wron^ conferred upon a few, must somewbere 
infrin^^e upon the rights of the* many. The suffering and de- 
gradation flowing from this traffic clearly prove this. Says P. 
£. Dove : — " Wherever we find systematic mfferinff — ^that is, 
suflfbring produced by the order of society, and not merely by 
the ordinary operation of the laws of nature— we may infer, 
and rightly infer, that injustice is operating somewhere, and that 
some men are defrauding their fellows of their rights." When 
we contemplate the degradation and misery surrounding us, we 
must conclude that injustice is operating somewhere; but 
where? Why, in granting licenses to a certain class to engage 
in a traffic essentially mischievous and destructive. It is here 
where the injustice lies, and wherever injustice operates, true 
liberty cannot exist. Politically speaking, liberty is the equal 
distribution of rights to each individual of the community. 
Where injustice abounds, we have not an equal distribution of 
rights. Some people, at the expense of others, get more than 
their legitimate share. We have, then, licentiousness and cruel 
tyranny on the part of the favored few, and oppression and 
suffering on the part of the many. The traffickers being a 
privileged class, are tyrannical and licentious, and the rest 
of the community suffer in consequence. What is the agi- 
tation now going on in the country? Why, it is a vast 
upheaval of the national intelligence and love of liberty, 
against the licentiousness and tyranny of a cruel and remorse ^ 
less traffic. 

3. — Every man has a right to the fruits of his labor, in a 
word, to his property, and no other man has any right to deprive 
him of it, in whole, or in part, or even to depreciate its value; 
laws have, therefore, been enacted against fraud and theft, and 
certain restrictive measures have been passed in reference to 
certain manufactures, the presence of which tends to depreciate 
or injure the property of others. There are laws to restrict the 
manufacture, storage, and carriage of gunpowder, and other 
explosives *, also laws to compel owners of chemical works and 
coke-ovens to use those modern appliances by which they can 
consume their own smoke and gases, so that other people may 
not suffer annoyance and loss, and the neighboring fields may 
not be made barren. 



PROPERTY DEPRECIATED IN TALUS. 249 

• 

From such laws the traffickers hare perfect immanity. Thej 
can depreciate the property of their neighbors, yea, of the 
whole kingdom, to the extent of many millions of money 
annually, yet are they allowed to go free without paying a fine, 
or making compensation. There are two ways in which property 
is depreciated in value by the existence of this licensed wrong, 
I possess a row of twelve houses, letable, say, at £14 each per 
annum. A brewer builds or rents a large house opposite, and 
converts it into a public-house. The consequence is, respectable 
people refuse to rent my houses. I am compelled to accept a 
class of tenants who are irregular patfers of rent; and I am also 
under the necessity of reducing the rentage from £14 to £12 
per annum. This, added to the loss sustained by my moonlight 
flitting tenants who pay no rent, and perhaps leave me the taxes 
and the extra expense of repairs rendered necessary by frequent 
removals, and the carelessness of tenants doing damage to my 
property, will amount to at least a loss of £30 every year. 
Now, though this loss can be clearly traced to the presence of 
that public-house opposite, yet have I no protection, and no 
redress. Or I rent a house, say, at a rateable value of £12 per 
annum. In poor-rates and ]M>lioe-rates I pay Zs, 6d, in the £1, 
or £2 28, per annum. It can be clearly shown that of this 
amount 2«. 6<2. in the pound, or £1 10s. per annum, is levied 
upon me to support the paupers and criminals manufactured by 
the liquor traffic. Now the money I earn is as much my 
property as the house I build, and if I am compelled to pay a 
portion of it to provide for the drink-created paupers and crimi- 
nals, it is equivalent to a depreciation in value of my income^ 
What right has a government to license a system which inflicts 
upon me the most serious losses, without allowing me an action 
at law for compensation 7 

4. — The existence of the liquor traffic is also opposed to the weU' 
being of the community. In removing restrictions from com- 
merce, and in lightening the taxes upon the necessaries of life. 
Parliament has done much to promote the wealth of the nation; 
but,« on the other hand, by extending the ramifications of the 
liquor traffic, it has most effectually neutraliued much of the good 
that might have resulted from such wise and beneficent legisla- 
tion. What are the fruits of this suicidal policy? Notwith« 
standing the extension of our commerce, and the unprecedented 
development of our resources, disorder, crime and pauperism are 



250 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE LIQUOB TRAFFia 

aliirniinp^lj iDcreosing, and to escape beintr ingulfed, a tide of 
eini^ration has set out from oar shores, bearing awaj to far 
distant climes, not oar paupers and criminals, but ovr ablest 
and best conducted artisans and laborers* 

5. — This traffic is also in direct contravention of the principles 
of preventive legislation ; for instead of making it as easy as 
possible for the people to do right, and as hard aa possible for 
the people to do wrong, it just reverses this; and by multiplying 
the difficulties to a virtuous life, and the temptations to a life of 
criminaliiy, it makes it as easy as possible for the people tb do 
wrong, and as difficult as possible for the people to do right. That 
thi) large number of drink- shops in our midst, and the numerous 
facilities for getting drm&and getting drunk, are so many tempta- 
tions thrown in the way of oar people to a life of vice and crimi- 
nality, are now the mournful confession of our noblest and ablest 
men. Dr. Temple, Bishop of Exeter, is fully conscious of this, 
lie says : — '* Lot it be granted, if it be so, that it would be some- 
thing quite wrong altogether to stop the traffic in liquor; let it be 
granted that liberty is of so much importance that wo cannot even 
sacrifice such liberty as this, although it is so plainly a liberty to 
do wrong — let it be granted that even to the last we roust not so 
flir interfere with our fellow-subjects, as to say that there shall 
be no hindorance put upon any man's obtaining that wherewith 
he mny ruin both body and soul ; yet still even those who claim 
this oannot deny that at present it is not a question merely of 
suppressing the trade in liquor, bat that it is the question 
whether or not we shall make some determined effort to remove out 
of the way of the laboring classes a temptation which seems to 
pursue than throughout their lives, and from which it is almost 
impossible for them to escape. If it be true, that still there ought 
to be the means of obtaining intoxicating liquors if a man 
chooses to get them, it does not follow from that, that he should 
always have the temptation, as it were, thrust in his very face— 
that he shall hardly be able to go to his work, or go back from 
his work, without finding the public-house inviting him to his own 
mischief; it does pot follow that he shall find, go where he svill, 
he cannot escape from the allurements; and, at any rate, we 
ought, if we can do no more, very largely to diminish the 
number of public-houses and beer-shops in this country, until 
it may fairly be said in answer to our friends, that the number 
is so few that the temptation is gone. Let us only for a moment 



LEGALIZED TEMPTATIOIT. 251. 

think what the temptation is. Men who are hard at work, 
whose frames are exhausted by their toil, who feel within them 
the natural weariness and lassitude that labor produces, and 
who are then shown something which will giye them a tem- 
porary relief; who know, that, for at any rate a short time, 
they may have something like real pleasure, though it be bnt 
of a vicious kind — men who are worn and weary, and taken a* it 
were at their weakest moment — is it^u^^ to thrust in their faces 
this temptation, which in their own consciences they know they 
ought not to approach? . . . And, observe, it is not 
only that wherever these publio-houses stand, they are a terrible 
temptation, but every such public-house, as it were by a kind 
of operatioti of nature^ gathers around ii a band of mischievous 
missionaries who, hardly knowing the horrible evil they are 
committing, do their very utmost to gather others within the 
net into which they: have been entrapped themselves; who 
cannot let a friend pass without adding to the temptation which 
he feels already in his body, the natural temptation of friendly 
feeling and good-fellowship, and who will urge the unhappy 
man, against his own conscience, to come in and to seek the 
relief which he knows full well will take a terrible vengeance 
afterwards/' — Address, as Chairman of Alliance Anniversary 
Meeting^ Manchester, Oct. 1869. 

Here, then, we see that public-houses are so many centres 
of temptation operating upon men at their weakest moments, 
and when least able to resist their influence. No wonder they 
fall, and bring both themselves and families to poverty and 
shame. 

There has been much cant lately of this sort — " We cannot 
make men sober by <ict of Parliament,^' It is perfectly true that 
acts of Parliament can never change the springs of human 
conduct, or regulate the hearts and dispositions of the people. 
In spite of all acts of Parliament, the selfish man will remain 
selfish still, and the cruel-hearted man, cruel-hearted still. Yet 
such acts of Parliament are required to protect the community at 
large from the baneful actions of selfish, impure and cruel 
people; and since the pure-hearted and the generous are 
exposed to contamination, and liable to fall when severely 
pressed by temptation, we also want acts of Parliament to 
lessen these temptations, and to remove out of the way all 
publio centres of moral contagion. 



252 POLITICAL PBILOSOPHT AND THE LIQUOR TBAFFIG. 

In working out the problem of government, the interests of 
the few must give way to the happiness of the many. Regard 
must ever be bad to the "greatest happiness of the greatest 
po8sible number of the people/' In this legalized liquor traffio 
we find the contrary to this. The well-being and happiness of 
the many are made to yield to the interests of the Jew! By 
means of this ruinous system, a very small proportion of 
the people, — brewers, distillers, and yendors,— obtain large 
incomes which enable them to cut a figure in society; but 
the incomes of the rest of the people suffer a corresponding 
diminution, whilst multitudes of them become demoralized 
and degraded. 

The license laws are eyidence of neither wise, just, nor 
beneficent legislation, but the contrary. For they have given 
a 9tcUus, a respectability, to a traffic which in all ages has been 
thoroughly and incurably disreputable, and which, in its very 
infancy, ought to have been exterminated. 

6. — The liquor traffic, by fostering almost every species of 
abomination, and by depriving men of their intelligence and 
reason, prevents the efficient administration of the laws. How 
can men remember the laws in the heat of excitement or the 
stupor of drunkenness? This traffic multiplies the number of 
law-breakers. 

Says Lord Chief Justice Sir W. Bovill: — "It is frequently very 
painful to find honest and well-disposed and hard-working men. who 
do not belong to the criminal class, placed in the dock for serious crimes 
committed under the influence of drink, and who, if they had been in 
possession of their senses, would never have thought of committing 
Fuch crimes; and still more painful to a judge to have to sentence such 
men to long terms of imprisonment, to the ruin of themselves and 
families." 

Many crimes are also committed, and the criminals escape 
detection, because the attention of the police is directed to 
drunken and disorderly persons. In fact, we may define the 
" police force'' as a body of men specially deputed by govern- 
ment, to wait upon, and to take care of, with tender solicitude^ 
the drunkards manufactured by the licensed houses; and 
certainly the drunkard deserves some little consideration at 
the hands of the government, for if he consumes a quart of 
whisky ere he becomes incapably drunk, 2a, 6d, of the cost is 
piud into the National Exchequer. 



PROHIBITORY LEGISLATION. 253 

This traffic multiplies and renders doablj expensive the 
machinery for preserving peace and detecting crime; while, after 
all, proving the wretched failure of the license-scheme, dranken- 
ncss and violence run riot in our streets, crimes increase on 
every hand, and the executive authority is powerless to stem the 
advancing tide I^ 

Says Archbishop Manning : — " I agree most heartily and 
cordially, that the great curse which withers our people, that the 
pestilence which is devouring them, is drunkenness. I feel that 
to labor to put it down is our duty, and I am convinced that, to 
put it down, legislation is absolutely necessaryj'^ 

But what kind of legislation shall we adopt for its suppression? 
There are two methods of doing this — a " Maine-law," or a 
" Permissive Prohibitory Liquor Law." " A Maine-law," says 
Dr. Manning, ** is an act of supreme legislative authority, im- 
posing upon a whole people an absolute law of prohibition; a 
Permissive Bill is an act to enable localities, or municipal bodies, 
freely, by their own vote, to adopt a power which the legislature 
gives them." The first measure leaves no " local option," but 
issuing directly from the central authority, becomes binding 
upon the whole nation. The other merely grants a local power 
to either extend the traffic, diminish the traffic, or suppress it, 
should the great body of the people so will. Thefformer is a more 
sweeping and effective measure than the latter, for if passed and 
carried into effect, it would at once and completely annihilate 
the evil. 

The latter aims at accomplishing the same end, but in 
a manner more gradual, and by an extension of the popular 
principle of local self-government, a principle already in opera- 
tion in Sanitary Acts, Public Libraries' Acts, and in that 
Act of Parliament conferring a permissive power upon Local 
Boards and Town Councils to close public-houses within their 
jurisdiction, during certain small hours of the morning. The 
measure is founded on the following truisms. (1.) That the 
sale of intoxicating liquor is mischievous, demanding pre- 
cautionary measures, which, to be effectual, must be com- 
mensurate to the evil. This principle hal^, in fact, been 
in operation during more than five hundred years, and our 
entire license system is based upon it. We but desire to 

* Mr. Wetherial, chief constable, Leeds, ia his report for 1870, telU the 
magistrates that he can deal with all sorts of crime t>«t drunkennett, 
22 



254 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE LIQUOR TRAFFIC. 

carry these principles a little further, and to make them adequate 
to effect their avowed objects. 

If it is right to license, it cannot be irron,<r to prohibit J. S. 
Mill says: — **To tax stimulants y^r the sole purpose of making 
them more difficult to be obtained, is a measure differing onfy 
in degree from their entire prohibition^ and would be justifiable 
only if that were justifiable. Every increase of cost is a prohibi- 
tion to those whose means do not come up to the augumented 
price ; and to those who do, it is a penalty paid for gratifying a 
particular taste." 

(2.) That since houses for the sale of intoxicating liquor are 
ostensibly established for the convenience of the people, the 
people have a right to be consulted as to whether they want them 
or not; and if a large majority of the people, or of the rate-payers, 
declare them to be a nuisance and a source of danger, the ob- 
jectionable houses shall be suppressed on the expiration of the 
term of license. 

This measure, or some other equally effective, is demanded by 
the people, not as a privilege, but as a right; and to deny th^xn 
this right to protect themselves, their families and their property 
against a ruthless destroyer, is a cruel mockery of law and 
government. 

1. — ^The Permissive Bill does not propose to close public-houses 
and hotels, but merely to suppress in them the sale of intoxicating 
liquors. ' It would restore them to their ori<];inal and honorable 
Tise, viz : houses providing accommodation of bed and board for 
the traveller. The 2d James I. (1604), has this preamble: — 
*^ The ancient, true, and principal use of ale-houses [hostelries] 
%D€b8 for the lodging of wayfaring people^ and for the supply 
of the wants of such as were not able, by greater quantities, 
to make their provision of victuals, and not for entertainment 
and harboring of lewd and idle people, to spend their money 
and their time in a lewd and drunken manner.*' Now compara- 
tively few of our licensed houses are such places. They are, in 
fact, only tippling-houses ^^for entertainment and harhoring^f 
lewd and idle people, to spend their money and their time in a lewd 
and drunken manner. ^^ 

2. — The Prohibitory Law does not dictate what people shall eat 
or drink. That is the function of moral suasion only. If a man 
believes arsenic in small quantities (as in Styria the people do 
believe) to be a good thing for him, we have no law to interfere 



WHAT THE PERMISSIVE BILL IS NOT. 255 

with him in the use of it. If, however, the free^ public, coiumon 
sale of this, or any other thing, be fraught with great mischief 
and ruin to the people, and threaten even to uproot the Tcry 
foundations of society, then we have a perfect right to determine 
**' that whereas the sale of these things is incompatible with the 
welfare and safety of society, such sale shall no longer be 
allowed." This applies equally to the manufacture and sale of 
intoxicating liquors. We do not wish by law to interdict their 
use, but only their common sale. 

It may, however, be asked, "Where are we to obtain this 
liquor if you interdict its sale?" We reply, that is your look 
out, not ours. Your convenience must yield to the public safety. 
The individual says the sale ought to be allowed for his con- 
venience. The Community responds — it ought to be prohibited 
for our safety and prosperity — for the public good infinitely 
transcends private convenience. 

3. — It is not even proposed to take the power of licensing out 
of the hands of magistrates, or to place it in the hands of local 
boards and town councils, etc. 

In the Scotch-burghs, licenses are granted by the baillies, who 
are elected by the town councils, as our aldermen are elected ; 
but this is found to be no improvement on our own system. The 
Scotch-burghs are as much characterized by drunkenness as our 
own municipal districts. If the licensing system is to continue, 
let the power of granting licenses still remain in the hands of 
magistrates, and let it be their duty to inquire into the character 
of the applicant and the suitability of the house. But when it 
comes to the necessities and conveniences of the neighborhood, 
then let the neighbors themselves be consulted, for they cer- 
tainly ought to know their own wants and conveniences better 
than magistrates who live miles away from the locality. 

4. — Neither is it proposed to amend the present licensing acts. 
As electors and citizens we are always willing to aid any measure 
that really proposes to restrict the present ruinous system ; but 
it is not for us to take the initiative, seeing that this would be to 
compromise with the enemy, and to divert us from the great end 
before us, viz : *'The Total Prohibition of the Liquor Traffic." 
All amendment schemes we leave tp others ] our object is not to 
amend, but to annihilate. All that tends in this direction in 
amendment schemes we will accept as instalments only. 

The Permissive Bill is not our ultimafum. Our ultimatum is 



256 POLITICAL PHIL080PHT AND THE LIQUOB TRAFFIC. 

the destruction of the liquor traffic, root and branch. We belieye, 
however, that the Permissiye Bill is the best measure at present 
before the country, leadin<; in this direction ; we, therefore, most 
faeartilj support it, and earnestly call upon our legislators not to 
refuse us a measure, at.once so Inild, so reasonable, and so har- 
monizing with the genius of the English constitution. 

Wo do not desire, at present, to agitate for a Maine-law, as 
the countrj is not ripe for so sweeping a measure ; for experience 
has taught us that laws affecting the habits and tastes of the 
people, not supported by public opinion, are generally ineffective, 
as witness the Gin Riots in 1736, when a law all but prohibitory 
in effect, but not in principle, was passed, to lessen the consump- 
tion of gin by greatly enhancing its price. We believe, however, 
that the country U prepared to accept the Permissive Prohibitory 
Liquor Law of Sir W. Lawson, and that the present government 
may safely and wisely allow it to pass. 

A variety of objections have been urged against the measure, 
and that, too, by men of great intelligence and philanthropy, 
and who are equally anxious with ourselves to wipe out England's 
shame. We will consider the most important of these objections. 

L — As to the revenue. While the annual revenue from all 
sources for 1868-9 amounted to £72,591,992, the revenue derived 
from intoxicating liquor amounted to £25,603,160, or including 
tobacco, to £32,136,626. Now it is urged that the government 
cannot let .this go, or even that part of it derived from the sale 
of liquor. 

We reply (1) that a revenue from such a source is highly ob- 
jectionable, because it is obtained by destroying the material 
resources, and the morality and energy of our people, on which 
the future financial prosperity of the state is dependent. 

The tax upon intoxicating liquor is a tax upon vice. Now, vice 
ought not to be a taxable commodity. Tax luxuries if you will, 
but let vice be suppressed with a stern hand. Said Lord 
Chesterfield, in the House of Lords (1743) : — ** Luxury, my lords, 
is to be taxed, but vice prohibited^ let the difficulty in the law 
be what it will. Would you lay a tax upon a breach of the 
ten commandments? Would not such a tax be wicked and 
scandalous?" The Daily Telegraph confesses (1862) that *'Our 
revenue may derive some unholy bei|^fi|; from the sale of alcohol, 
but the entire trade is, nevertheless, a covenant with sin and 
death.*' (2) It is a very wasteful and extravagant manner of 



THE QUESTION OF REVENUE CONSIDERED. 257 

raising a revenue. The revenue to the exchequer from this 
source amounted, in 1868-9, to £25,603,160. Now what does ifc 
cost the nation to get at this sum? Probably £259,000,000, 
equivalent to paying 1,000 per cent, for collecting that tax. The 
following are the particulars ' 

1. The retail value of the liquor sold, .... £103,000,000 

2. For the detection and punishment of crime 

caused by intemperance, 3,000,000 

3. In poor-rates and police-rates, extra on ac- 

count of drunkenness, and drink-made 

paupers, 10,000,000 

4. Losses incurred through intemperance to 

shipping (see Chap, i, page 61) com- 
merce, and the productive industry of 
the nation, 112,670,000 

5. Cost of disease, physical and mental, both in 

public hospitals and in private practice, 6,000,000 

6. Voluntary taxes, in support of ragged schools, 

local charities, etc., 6,000,000 

7. Extra expenses incurred through intempe- 

rance in the army and navy, .... 2,422,000 

8. Cost of com imported to replace that de- 

stroyed in distillation, etc., . • • • 16,000,000 

Total, £259,092,000 

This mode of raising a revenue is certainly the most extrava- 
gant, wasteful and foolish that can well be conceived, paying 
about £10 to collect £1. But (3) the burden falls much more 
heavily on the poor, according to their means, than upon the 
wealthy; whereas the only just principle of taxation is to tax 
each class according to its means, always bearing in mind the 
exceedingly narrow margin out of which the working-man has 
to pay taxes, as compared with the broad margin of the wealthier 
classes. 

In the House of Commons, honorable members talk of beer 
as a wholesome and a nutritive beverage, and will not consent to 
*' rob the poor man'' of it. Yet we find this precious commodity 
most heavily taxed 1 The tax on malt is £1 Is, 8d. per quarter. 
This amount of malt can be made into 72 gallons of strong beer ; 
the tax being Zid, per gallon. If bei^ bt necessary to the work- 



258 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE LIQUOB TBAFFia 

in^*roan, two quarts per day cannot be considered an exoessiye 
quantity ; this, then, would jj^iye a consumption of 14 quarts per 
week, or 728 quarts (182 gallons) per annum, the tax amounting 
to £2 13«. Zd, 

The government is certainly very considerate. Most anxious 
that the working-man should not be deprived of his beer, yet 
making him turn over £2 13#. 3(2. a year for the privilege of 
consuming it 1 

In the case of spirituous liquor the imposition is still more 
glaring, every glass of gin or whisky being heavily taxed. A 
gallon of gin, retail, costs the consumer 16^. This, on account 
of dilution, contains only about forty per cent, alcohol. The 
excise duiy on this, at the rate of 10^. per gallon at proof, will 
amount to about 8«. So that the poor man must pay to the 
government 8«. for the privilege of drinking a gallon of gin. Now 
the man who drinks two gills of gin or whisky a day, pays in 
the course of a year £9 2«., as a tax to government, or 3s. 6d. 
a week. Presuming that his average earnings amount to £1 
a week, then in this one article alone he is taxed to above one- 
sixth of his income. 

Let us now consider what proportion of the whole amount 
of taxation is paid by the working class. We give the total 
amount actually collected in 1868-9, including the amount 
received into the treasury, and the cost of collecting, as both 
alike come out of the pockets of the ratepayers. 

Land tax, £1,117,570 

Assessed taxes, 2,369,315 

Proper^ and Income tax 8,623,508 

Stamps, 9,218,000 

Custom's duty on wine, 1,468,993 

Total, £22,797,386 

Nearly the whole of this is paid by the upper and middle 
classes. 

Custom duties (exclusive of wine,) . £24,248,417 
Excise duties, 21,091,915 

Total, £45,340,332 



UKFAIR TAXATION. 259 

Now, dedactinf; one-twentieth of the above as the amount 
contributed by the wealthy classes, it gives the following: 
Total amount of taxes paid by the wealthy classes: 

£22J97,386 
• 2,262,016 



Total, £25,059,402 

Total amount of taxes paid by the working class: 

£45,340,332 
Less, 2,262,016 

Total, £43,078,316 

The proportion of taxation to the sum total of the incomes of 
the two classes will be as follows : 

The annual income of the wealthier classed, as computed by 
Professor Levi, £464,000,000. Taxation upon this £25,059,402, 
or Is, Id. in £1. 

Total annual income of the working class, as computed by 
Professor licvi, £418,000,000. Taxation upon this £43,078,316, 
or 28. in £1; So that the rich man pays 1«. Id. in every £1 he 
receives, whilst the poor man pays 2a. in every £1 he earns. 
Hence we see, that the working clanses contribute just 1*846 
more to the revenue than the wealthy classes; and yet the 
total amount of their income is less by £46,000,000 per annum, 
and the margin out of which they can afford to pay taxes is also 
considerably less. It is sometimes urged that the working 
classes are not compelled to pay these taxes, and that, if they 
but abstain from the articles on which they are levied, they will 
be almost entirely free from taxation. 

We reply (1 ) that several of the taxed commodities are -not 
now luxuries, but necessaries, as tea, coffee, etc., and that to tax 
necessaries is most unjust and tyrannical. (2.) In reference to 
the so-called luxuries, especially intoxicating liquor, it is with an 
ill grace indeed that the government urge that working-men 
are not compelled to tax themselves by the consumption of these 
pernicious liquors, seeing that they have dogged the poor man's 
steps, and placed temptations to entrap him at every corner. 

But would the revenue suffer from the suppression of this 
traffic? No! A permissive prohibitory li(]^uor law would be 



260 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE LIQUOR TRAFFia 

broa;;ht into operation by instalments, and only as different 
districts were prepared to adopt its provisions. The redaction, 
then, in the custom and excise duties would take place yery 
gradually, giving ample time for the revenue to adjust itself by 
an increase in the returns from other sources, or even by the 
imposition of new taxes founded on a policy more just and wisei 
Many students of this subject, however, are of opinion that the 
revenue would improve rather than diminish by the suppression 
of this traffic. The late Canon Stowell, in a lecture at the 
Mechanics' Institution, Manchester, said : — " If the government 
can control drunkenness, it ought to do so. If it does not, it is 
afraid of its revenue. What will be lost will come back tenfold, 
in consequence of the promotion of honest industry.'* 

This opinion received ample confirmation some years ago in 
Ireland, where, through the labors of Father Mathew and other 
great and good men, the consumption of liquor decreased amaz- 
ingly, and yet the revenue improved. In the year ending 
January 5th, 1839, shortly before which period the reforma- 
tion commenced, the produce from licenses was £128,494. Year 
by year this amount was reduced, till the year ending January 
5th, 1842, the produce was only £95,980, being a total reduction 
upon the three years of £32,514. In the year ending January 5th, 
1839, the amount received from the tax on malt was £289,869 ; 
in the year ending January 5th, 1842, it stood at £165,153, mak- 
ing a total decrease in the three years of £124,716. With regard 
to spirits the revenue for the year ending January 5th, 1839, was 
£1,510,092; in the year ending January 5th, 1842, the amount 
was reduced to £964,711, being a decrease in the three years 
of £545,381. The whole decrease of the revenue from spirit 
licenses, malt, and spirits, during the five years ending January 
5th, 1842, amounted to £682,611. Yet notwithstanding this very 
heavy reduction, arising from the success of the temperance 
movement, there was a large increase of revenue, from the in- 
creased produce of other excisable articles ; tlie revenue for 1841 
was £4,107,866, which increased in 1842, to £4,198,689, showing 
a total increase of £90,823. The revenue on tea alone for the 
year ending January 5th, 1842, had increased by £80,639. 

2. — It is objected, that our remedy is a very extreme measure. 

Now, for a remedy to be extreme, it must be more than com- 
mensurate to the evil to be oorrected. Our measure, however, 
is not commensurate with the great evil of drinking, and there- 



VESTED INTERESTS. 261 

fore, instead of being an extreme, it is a Tery mild measure, 
seeking to correct the evil, not in an abrupt and sweeping fashion, 
but in a very gradual and gentle manner indeed. 

3. — It is objected, that our measure would confer upon the 
majority a power to oppress the minority. — A government by 
majority is the very basis of a free government. In all govern- 
ments, either the minority must rule, w the majority. If the 
minority, then you have tyranny; if the majority, political 
freedom. The deeisions in parliament are decided by majority. 
The decisions in meetings of town councils, and the election of 
members to serve in parliament, are all decided by majority, 
and minorities are compelled to submit. The majority, then, 
must rule, in order to avert either tyranny or anarchy. There 
is but one exception. The majority have no right whatever to 
infringe upon the natural rights of the minority, however small 
that minority may be. All such infringements are tyrannical, 
and it becomes a virtue on the part of the minority to resist. 
But no such natural rights are infringed by the suppression of 
the liquor traffic, because that traffic is at war with the most 
sacred rights, both of individuals and communities. 

This bill, if allowed to pass, would indeed be an extension of 
the liberties of the subject ; as their wishes would be regarded 
instead of being shamefully disregarded, as at present. It would 
also, to a certain extent, place the poor man on an equal 
footing with his wealthy neighbor. Magistrates and land- 
owners often exercise a most judicious control over the estab- 
lishment of public houses, for they never, allow a public- house or 
beer-shop to be established next their ovm door. Why, then 
should they seek to thrust the nuisance they do not like them- 
selves, upon their poorer fellow subjects? 

There are two ways in which magistrates and landed pro- 
prietors act in a very arbitrary and tyrannical manner; in 
sweeping away the liquor traffic from their estates without con- 
sulting the wishes of the people, and in forcing the nuisance 
upon localities against the expressed wishes of the inhabitants. 
This tyranny our bill would correct, by placing the veto power, 
and therefore the responsibility, in the hands of the people. 

4. — ^It is objected, that the passing of this bill would be a 
violation of vested interests. We know of no vested interests 
that can be upheld in preference to the rights of the people, and 
the general interests and well-being of the community ; and we 



262 POLITICAL PfllLOSOPHT AND THE LIQUOB TRAFFIC. 

know of no interests that ought to be respected in a crime-pro- 
dooing, demoralizing traffic Farther, no publican or licensed 
Tictualler has a Tested interest in his trade for a longer period 
than one year. His license is renewed annually, and is not 
granted to him in perpetuity; and as he is perfectly aware of 
this, his license can be justly withdrawn at the expiration of the 
agreement F. W. Newman says: — *'A licensed victualler has, 
by special favor, received a privilege of sale which is refused to 
others. It was granted to him for no merit of his own, but for 
the convenience of the community. He knows and always 
knew, that he held it on svfferance, and was liable to have it with- 
drawn. He could in no case complain at its being rescinded, 
without fault on his own part, except it favored a rival at his 
expense." — Considerations for the Educated. 

5. — It is objected, that this measure is impracticable, and that 
if passed it would be evaded on every hand. Hush-shops and 
shebeens would be established, and thus the evil would increase 
rather than diminish. 

But are the present laws obeyed ? On the contrary, they are 
broken on every hand. There are persons still engaged in the 
illicit distillation of spirits, and in their illegal sale. There aro 
hundreds of unlicensed houses in the country engaged in this 
nefarious traffic. There are large numbers of "shebeens*' in 
Edinburgh and Glasgow, large numbers of "hush-shops'' in the 
towns of Lancashire, and large numbers of houses selling cider 
and beer without a license in the cider counties. Now, if this 
objection be at all valid, it is as strong against the pre^^ent 
system as against the proposed measure. Really, however, are 
we to refuse to pass laws of a salutary and wise character, 
because there are certain lawless people in the country who 
make it their interest to evade or break them ? If so, we had 
better refrain, not only from all future legislation, but even 
abrogate the laws now in force, for there is not one that is not 
broken or evaded, sadly too often. If lawless and ill-disposed 
persons, when a prohibitory liquor law is passed, should attempt 
the illegal sale, what would be our duty? Not certainly to 
refuse legislation upon this subject, but to make the law^ as 
stringent as possible, and, by strengthening the arm of the execu- 
tive, make that law "a terror to evil-doers." 

6. — The Right Hon. John Bright, M. P., in receiving an Alliance 
deputation in Birmingham, January, 1870, objected to the 



BIGHT HONORABLE JOHN BRIGHT's OBJECTION. 268 

measure in the following words : — ^* It is not the custom in this 
country, and it it not constitutional, to refer great questions 
separately, by themselveB, individually, to the votes of the great 
nKiss of persons, that they may determine great questions of 
policy. What is referred to them is, that they may determine 
the persons by whom questions of legislation shall be considered 
and decided upon." 

We reply, that it is the custom, and has been ever since we 
had a representative system, for the large mass of voters to 
appoint representatives (with a certain latitude of discretion), 
not for carrying out their own views, but the views and policy 
of the constituency. Before a suitable candidate is chosen, 
that candidate must inform the constituency what measures 
he proposes to advocate and vote for, or to oppose, in parlia- 
ment; many questions are put to him, and if he refuses 
to promise the large mass of the voters to go in for their 
measures, they either leave him to his fate or look out for a 
more suitable person. A member of parliament, then, is the 
trusted servant of the constituency, and is sent to parliament not 
surely to represent himself without the constituency, but to 
carry out their wishes as best he can. So, from time to time, 
the honorable niember must address his constituents and give an 
account of his stewardship. Hence, if it be the profound and 
earnest conviction of the large mass of voters that the liquor 
traffic is an evil in itself, a traffic not to be regulated but to be 
swept away, and that the mildest method of doing this is a 
permissive bill, it is perfectly constitutional for those constitu- 
encies, where permissive bill voters predominate, to elect only 
those candidates who promise to vote for the measure. 

True, there is no other measure of a similar character which 
requires the annual or triennial assembling of the rate-payers 
of a district to determine whether the law shall be applied or 
not ; but legislation is drifting in this direction, as witness the 
Health of Towns' Acts, and Public Libraries' Acts, etc. It does 
not signify, however, whether the exact parallel can be found or 
not, for if the measure be unique, the evil it seeks to suppress is 
also unique. Were men but properly informed on this question, 
and were our legislators not blinded by oustom, appetite, and 
interest, we should not need to ask them for a Permissive Pro- 
hibitory Liquor Law, for without delay, by an imperial enact- 
ment, the liquor traffic would be annihilated at a stroke. 



264 POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY AKD THE LIQUOB TBAFFIO. 

7. — It 18 objected, that, thoa^h the principle of the bill be 
just, its maohinerj is bad, and ir(tnld produce embarrassment, 
riot and confusion, and it is urged that it is a much safer and 
wiser method to rest the TCto power in the hands of Local 
Boards and Town Councils, 

If town councillors were appointed solely with regard to 
the issue of this question, you wouM have as much disturbance 
and riot as by referring the measure directly to the votes of the 
rate-pnyers. As to the riot and disturbance, we had far better 
have a riot once a year, if needs be, than that state of chronic 
riot and disorder which we are now called upon to endure. If 
the liquor-shops were to be closed. on the polling day, there 
would be little or no disturbance. 

8. — '* If this bill were enacted into law, many families would be 
turned out of employment." Did the government consider this 
when the late " Beer Bill" was passed ? Are we to have no 
regard whatever for the 600,000 yictims of this cruel traffic, for 
the 50,000 slain by it every year, and for the tens of thousands 
of children now suffering all the wrongs of neglect and starvation 
in consequence of it? Are we really to pay more regard to the 
pecuniary interests of (say) 150,000 persons, than to the material 
and moral interests of 30,000,000, composing the population of 
this country? No law of a salutary character, no law calcu- 
lated to benefit the nation as a whole, can be passed without 
some persons sustaining injury and loss. The abolishing of the 
corn laws, the success of free trade principles and their embodi- 
ment in law, inflicted severe and heavy losses upon a great many 
people, but the nation at large was vastly benefited ; and this is 
what we ought always to consider. Any law that aims at correct- 
ing the present abnormal state of society, must occasion suffering 
to a few, and principally to those who have been fattening upon 
the wrongs and injustice sought to be remedied. The greatest 
good of the greatest number must be the end of all legislation 
and reforms, and this end we must steadfastly seek, even though 
we inflict inconvenience and loss upon the few interested in old 
standing abuses. 

The legislative prohibition of the liquor traffic has become a 
stern necessity. The safety of this great nation imperatively 
demands it. Salus popvli suprema lex! The welfare of the 
people is the supreme law. The enemies most dangerous to a 
nation are not those without and beyond its own borders, but 



IKTEBNJLL FOES THE MOST DAKGEBOUS. 265 

those within ; and if it be the daty of a goyemment to protect 
as against the invader, it is equally its duty to protect us against 
the incendiary. 

The great empires of antiquity might still have been flourish- 
ing, but for certain destructive agencies cherished within their 
own bosoms. Babylon was conquered, not so much by the arms 
of the Medes and Persians, as by drunkenness and revelry. 
Had it not been for the debauchery of her king and princes, 
and the general effeminacy of her people, she might long have 
reared her lofty brow among the nations, with her hanging gar- 
dens and fair palaces, the admiration and delight of all beholders. 
Persia fell, not so much by the energy and valor of the Greek 
army, as by the drunkenness of her kings and people, Had it 
not been for this, that wonderful people might still have been a 
power in the world. 

Greece, in her turn, fell, not so much by the prowess of tho 
Boman arms, as by her own discord and effeminacy. Save for 
this, Athens, in art, science and manners, might still have been 
the world^s wonder and example. Rome fell, not so much by 
the hordes of Goths, Huns and Vandals descending upon her 
plains and assaulting her cities, as by the careless ease and 
sottishness of her people. Wine and spoil took away the heart 
of that great empire, and unnerved its mighty arm. But for 
this, Bome from her seven hills might still have been control- 
ling the destinies of the world, or at least, leading in the van of 
nations. 

Yes I the enemies most to be dreaded by the nation are those 
harbored within its own borders, those evil Institutions and 
destructive Combinations that aim a death-blow at the National 
Heart, and hence it becomes the sacred duty of government to 
seek their suppression. But among the evil institutions that 
threaten the integrity and safety of a state, the liquor traffic 
stands preeminent 

The greatness of a nation depends not merely upon its location 
and resources (though these are important items), but chiefly on 
the number, the vigor, the morality and the intelligence of the 
people. The liquor traffic wastes and destroys the productive 
industry of the nation. By destroying life, it lessens ihe 
number of its subjects ; by inflicting disease, it detracts, from 
the vigor of the people; by intensifying all that is low and 
animal, it lowers its moral tone ; and by its debasing and 
28 



266 POLITICAL PHIL060PHT AND THE LIQUOR TBAFFia 

blighting action upon the brain, it weakens a nation's intellec- 
tual force. Thus, then, does it strike a direct blow at the pros- 
perity and safety of the nation. With such an enemy in its 
midst, no nation can be permanently great and powerful. It may 
have splendid resources at command, and almost boundless 
wealth ; yet if luxury, licentiousness, and drunkenness prevail, 
its strength and greatness will be undermined, and its integrity 
and safety threatened. 

The safety of the nation, we repeat, demands the prohibition 
of this traffic, for it is most dangerous. The beverages vended 
are poisonous ; the active and fascinating element of them all is 
a deadly poison of the narcotico-acrid class.r— See Chap. iii. 

True, this poison is sold diluted, so that it does not kill at 
once; yet it does kill, and that too with unerring certainty. 
Every year fifty-thousand victims are slain by it, thousands are 
made insane by it, and tens of thousands stricken with painful 
and loathsome diseases. 

Now suppose we were to take Pruasic aeidf which is a deadly 
narcotic poison, and to commence the sale of a diluted prepara- 
tion of it, variously disguised and flavored, so as to make it a 
most palatable and fascinating beverage. To promote the sale 
of our compound, we take a large and commodious house in some 
crowded thoroughfare, which we decorate with glass and paint, 
and announce the sale of our beverage under some new and 
imposing name. Suppose, however, that having commenced the 
sale of our drink, it is soon discovered that some who take 
very largely of it fall down dead suddenly ; that others acquire 
an uncontrollable appetite for it, and reduce themselves and 
families to the greatest poverty and misery by expending their 
means in procuring it, — ^that a great many become deranged in 
intellect and maddened by its use, — that many persons tinder 
its influence are excited to the perpetration of the most revolting 
and unnatural crimes, whilst a still larger number become 
afflicted with baneful diseases. Suppose that, in consequence, 
coroner's inquests are of daily occurrence, that gaols and work- 
houses are crowded with victims, and that the local rates of the 
parish in which the sale is conducted are greatly augmented,— 
what, we ask, would be the action of the people? Would they 
not demand protection f The authorities would come down 
upon us, our liquor would be seized, and we should be tried and 
punished as wholesale poisoners of her majesty's subjects. 



GIYILIZATION DEMANI>B PROHIBITION. 267 

The liquor traffic is a parallel ease. Dr. Mackenzie, in his 
** Condensed Facts for Christians,'' declares alcohol to be a more 
deadlj sedative than Prusaic acid^ and that, given in its pure 
state, it will kill almost as suddenly. The different liquors 
Tended by those engaged in the traffic are only so many variously 
flavored and disguised preparations of alcohol. Of these the 
people drink, and some of them falL down dead suddenly with 
the dram-glass in their hand ; others become horribly diseased 
and mutilated; some again demented and maddened; others 
are excited to commit crimes the most odious and revolting, 
whilst thousands become so strangely infatuated by the habitual 
use of these liquors, as to reduce their families to the greatest 
distress and misery by squandering their means in procuring 
them ; in consequence of all this, workhouses, gaols, and lunatio 
asylums have tb be erected, and are speedily crowded, and 
heavy demands are made upon the rate-payers to support and 
uphold them — while, monstrous inconsistency! the government, 
instead of suppressing this traffic, legalizes and protects it, and 
the people look on, apparently oblivious to the work of ruin 
going on around them 1 

Civilization demands the suppression of this traffic. 

What is the difference between a civilized man and a savage ? 
The civilized man has acquired the power of self-control, of 
bringing his passions and impulses into obedience to the autho< 
rity of reason. The savage has not acquired this power, or to 
the same extent. His passions and impulses govern him. Un* 
less we exercise this power of self-control, and allow reason, 
not impulse and passion, to direct our actions, we can lay no 
claim to being civilized. Strong drink uncivilizes a man, and 
transforms him into a savage. It so weakens his power of self- 
control that he becomes the slave of a monstrous appetite. 
The liquor traffic, in fact, stands in the way of a progressive 
civilization. It also undoes all that is accomplished by civilizing 
agencies. Education shall refine a man. His mind shall be 
garnished with useful knowledge, and his eyes beam with 
intelligence. Moral philosophy shall come, and his mind shall 
expand to the beauties of rectitude, virtue, benevolence, and 
truth } and above all, religion shall shed its mild, pure, and 
genial radiance, spiritualizing his nature, and realizing, to the 
mental eye, the eye of faith, the glories of the heavenly kingdom ; 
and thus shall that man stand before us, civilized in the highest 



268 FOLITIGAL PHILOSOPHY AND THE LIQUOR TBAFFIC. 

iense of that tenn, being guided and directed in all his actions 
by conscience and reason. Bat exposed to the temptations of 
the liquor traffic, and the social drinking usages of society, his 
oivilization and culture shall fade before the blighting power of 
the passion which strong drink has evoked, the work of Jesus 
shall be rendered of no avail, and his dream of a lofty civilization 
Bhall be lost in the sensuality and degradation inflicted on him 
by our National Drinking-system. 



THB BND. 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF THB 





ational temperance 

And Publication House. 

'T'HE National Temperance Society, organized in 1866 for the purpose 
of supplying a sound and able Temperance literature, have already 
stereotyped and published three hundred and fifty publications of 
all sorts and sizes, from the one-page tract up to the bound volume of 500 
pages. This list comprises books, tracts, and pamphlets, containing 
essays, stories, sermons, arguments, statistics, history, etc., upon every 
phase of the question. Special attention has been given to the department 

For Sunday-School Libraries. 

Over fifty volumes have already been issued, written by some of the best 
authors in the land. These have been carefully examined and unani- 
mously approved by the Publication Committee of the Society, represent- 
ing the various religious denominations and Temperance organizations of 
the country, which consists of the following members : 

PETER CARTER, Rev. J. B. DUNN, 

Rev. W. M. TAYLOR, Rev. A. G. LAWSON, 

A. A. ROBBINS, Rev. ALFRED TAYLOR, 

Rev. M. C. SUTPHEN, R. R. SINCLAIR, 

T. A. BROUWER, Rev, C. D. FOSS, 

J. N. STEARNS, JAMES BLACK, 
Rev. WILLIAM HOWELL TAYLOR. 

These volumes have been cordially commended by leading clerirymen 
of all denominations, and by various national and State bodfies, all over 
the land. 

The following is the list, which can be procured through the regular 
Sunday-School trade, or by sending direct to the rooms of the Society : 

Bev. Dr. Willonghby and his Wine. i2mo, 458 pages. By Mrs. Marv 
Spring Walker, author of " The Family Doctor," etc, . . . $1 60 

This thrlllinriy Interestir. - hook deplcU in a vivid manner the terrible influence eierteA b; 
thoM who atafta as the tervanu or Goi), and who sanction the social rattoin of wine-drinklnf 
It is fair and faithful to the trath. It is not a bit^r tirade afcainxt the church or the ministry 
On the contrary, it plainly and earnestly acknowledges that the ministry is the friend o! inorali y, 
and the great bulwark of practical virtue. 

At Lion's Month. lamo, 410 pp. By Miss Mary Dwinell Chellis, author 
of "Temperance Doctor," '^Out of the Fire," "Aunt Dinah's 
Pledge," etc., $1 25 

This is one of the best books ever Issued, writt<>n in a simple yet thriUinf; and interest- 
lofi^ style. It speaks boldly for the entire suppression of tho liquor tralilc, depicting vividly th« 
misery and wrongs resulting from It. The Christin Alton e is most excellent, showii)(r the neeee. 
dtv of God's srace in the heart to overcome temptation and tlie power of appetite, and the 
Siflaence which oneiealoas Christian can exert upon his companions and the eouimunity. 



Tlie I^attonal Temperance Society's Books, 



AiBt Diaah*! Pledre. ismo, 3x8 
pages. By Miss Mary Dwinell 
Ch ELLIS, author of " Temperance 
Doctor,'' "Out of the Fire." 
etc., $1 26 

Aunt Diunb wu Kn eminent Christiiin wo- 
ifiMi H«r pUdge ioi-Iuded •wwiiig and imok- 
ine, M wdl mt drinking. It savod her boys, 
wno lived useful lives, and died happy ; ana 
by quiet, yet loving anti penitt«nt work, rnuues 
of many u'tbers were added who seemed almost 
beyond hope of salvailon. 

The Te«penuire Doctor. lamo, 370 
pages, by Miss Mary Dwinell 
Chellis, $1 25 

This is a true ■tonr, replete with interest, 
•od adapted to Suoday-schuoi and family read- 
lag In it we have gntplilcaily depicted the 
■ad ravages that are cauied bv the use ol intox- 
icating beverages ; also, the blessings of Tem- 
perance, and what uiay be accouiplished by one 
earnest soul for tliat reform, ll ought to find 
leader I in every household. 

Oat of the Fire. lamo, 420 pages. 
By Miss Mary Dwinell Chellis, 
author of " Deacon Sim's Pray- 
ers," etc., $12© 

It is one ol the most effetHive and impressive 
Teniperuice books ever published 1 lie evils 
o the drill liing customs of society, and the 
bleMiiigs of sobriety and tolal abstinence, are 
strikingly developed iu the history of various 
fjiiuilitft !n the community. 

Hhtory of a Threepenny Bit. iSmo, 
216 pages, $0 75 

Thi4 u ii tlirilling story, beaniifiilly illus- 
tntteJ witli five clioiue wood enj^ravinKS. The 
((ory of little Fegj;y, the drunkard's daughter, 
is told in kueh a siinple yet interesting manner 
that no OU3 can read it without realizini; more 
than ever before the nature and extent of iii- 
temiMrance, and syiiipatliizin^ more than ever 
wiih the patient,*sHneriiig victim, it should 
bM In every Sunday-school librstry. 

A** opted. i8mo, 236 pages. By 
Mrs. E. J. Richmond, author of 
" The Mc.\Ilisters," . . . $0 60 

This book it wriktan in an easy, pleasant 
yie, seems to lje true to nature, true to itself, 

and withal ' ' " ' '•-- '"* ' - -" "' 

ance 



ib full of the Gospel and Temper- 



The Red Bridge. i8mo, 321 pages. 
By Thrace Talman, . . $a 90 

We have met with few Temperance stories 
ruDtaiolQ -* so many evidences of decided ability 
imd high literary excellence as this. 



The Old Brown Pitcher. x2mo. 
res. .By the Author of 
Six Birthdays," '^The 



332 

Flower of the Family,''' etc., $1 (H» 



Beautfally illustrated. This admirable vol- 
ame for boys and ifirls, containing original 
stories by some of the lUMt gifted writer^i tor 
the yoaug, will be eagerly welcomed by the 
children. It is adxpte i alike roi- th^ JaiHily 
circle and the tiabbatn -school library. 

Our Parish. i8mo, 252 pages. By 
Mrs. Emily Pearson, . . $0 7o 

Th« manifold evils resulting i'runi tue " still " 
to the owner's family, rs well ns t>i the famil tea 
of his customers, are truthfully presented. The 
character* introdnce<l, siu-h :i& are found in 
ulmost every good-kizt-d \!Iliige, are well por- 
traved. We can unhesita ingly commend it, 
and bespeak for it a wide circulatiun. 

The Hard HaHter. i8mo, 278 pages 
By Mrs. J. E. McConaughy, au- 
thor of " One Hundred Gold Dol- 
lars," and other popular Sunday- 
School books, $0 8d 

This interei>llng narrative of the temptationa, 
trialo, hardships, and fortunes of poor orphan 
b»y illustrates iu a most striking manner the 
vnlae of " rij^ht principles," especinlly of 
honesty 



rikcht principl 
truthtidneHf, ancf Tkmpbrancb. 



"^ 



Echo Bank. i8mo, 269 pages. 
Ervib, $0 

This is a well- written and deeply interesting 
narrative, in which is clearly shown the suffer- 
ing and sorrow tiiattco often follow and the 
dangers that attend boys and young men at 
school and at oollege, who suppK»e tney can 
ensily take a glass or two occasionally, with- 
out i^ar of ever being angiit more than a mode- 
rate drinker. 

Rachel Noble's Experience. i8mo, 
125 nacres. By Bruce Edwards. 
"^ * $U 90 

This is a story of thrilling interest, ably and 
eloquently tol'* id is an excellent boolc tor 
Sunday-school librariis. It is jnst the book for 
tlie home circle, and cannot b^ read without 
benefiting the reader and advancing the cause 
of Tempefante 

Gertie's Sacrifice ; or Glimpses at 
Two Liyes. i8mo, 189 pages. By 
Mrs. F. D. Gage, . . . . $0 60 

A story of great interest and power, firings 
'* glimpse at two lives," and showing ho« 
Gertie sacrificed herself as a victim of fasoloa, 
custom, and law. 



The National Temperance Societfs Boohs, 



.^ 



es. 
00 



Time irill TelL i2mo^ 307 
By Mrs. Wilson, . . . 

A Temperance tale of thrtlHn^ interest and 
uiiexueptiouable moral and rtrligious tone. It 
U full of Incidenti and characters of everyday 
lite, while its lessons are plainly and forcibly 
set before the reader. The pernirioos results 
of the drinking usa^s in the Taiuily and social 
circle are plainly set fortli. 

Philip Ecliert'8 Straggles and 
Triumpiig. i8mo, 216 pages. By 
the author of " Margaret Clair, 

$0 60 

This interesting narrative of a noble, manly 
bov. ii) au iuteuiperate iiouie, fighting with the 
wroiig and -battling for the right, should be 
read by every child in the land. 



i2mo, 346 pages. By 
McNair Wright, author 



Jug-Or-Xot. 

Mrs. J " 

of *'John and the Demijohn," 
*'Almost a Nun," "Priest and 
Nun,"etc., $1 26 

Itisoaeof her best books, and treats of the 
physical ami bereditrtry effects of drinking in a 
':iear,. plain, and familiar style, adapted to 
topaiar I eailing, ani which should be read by 
allt lasses iu the community, and find a place 
iu every Sunday-school library. 



The Broken Bock. iSmo, 139 pag 
ithor of *^Lift 



es. 
By Kruna, author of ** Lift a 
Little," etc., $0 60 

it oeauti nlly illustrates the silent and holy 
influence of a meek and lowly ipirit npou the 
heartless ruuisetler until the rocky heart was 
uruken. 



Andrew DonglasH. i8mo, 232 pa; 



W^i 



A new Teinperanre story for Sunday-schools, 
written in a lively, energetic, and popular 
jtyle, Adapted lo the Saboath-sehool and the 
family circle. 

Vow at the Bars. i8mo, xo8 pages. 

ItcoiitainK four short tales, illustratingfonr 
important principles connected with the Tem- 
perance uiovenieut, and is well a-lapted for the 
family circle and Sabbath-schoollibraries. 



1 332 

$1 26 



Job Tafton'§ Best. x2mo 
pages 

A story of life's struggles, written by the 
g!t'te<l author, Clara Lucas Balvouk, depiet- 
mg most Bk'lfiilly and truthfully many a life- 
struggle with the demon of intenpenuice oo- 
cumng all along life's patiiw >y. It isa finttly 
written atorv, and full of interest Irom the \n- 
ftnnin}( to tLe end. 



Frank Oldfleld j or, Lost and FovnA. 
xsmo, 408 pages, $1 60 

This excellent story received the prise of 
jCIOO iu England, out cf eighty-three manu- 
scripts submitted ; and by an arrangemeoi 
with the publishers we publish it in thiit coun- 
try- with all the original illustrations. It Is 
admirably adapted to Sunday-school libraries. 



Tom Blinn's Temperance Society, 
and other Stones. i2mo, 316 
pages, $1 26 

This is the title of a new book written by 
T. M. A&THDK, the well-known author of " Tea 
Nights in a Bar-room," and whose fame as an 
author should bespeak for it a wide circulation. 
It is written in Mr. Abthub's best style, con) 
pesed of a seriet o tales adapted to every family 
and library In the land. 

The Barker Family. lamo, 336 
pages. By Emily Thompson, 

$1 26 

A simple, spirited, and interesting narrative, 
written in a style especially attractive, depic*- 
ing the evils that arise from intemperance, and 
the blessings that followed the earnest efforts 
of those who sought to win others to the paths 
ot total abstinence. Illustrated with three en- 
gravings. The book will please all. 



Come Borne, Mother. 

pages. By Nblsie Brook. 



z8mo, 143 
Il- 



lustrated with six choice engrav- 
ings, $0 60 

A most effective and Interesting book, de- 
scribing the downward course of tne mother, 
and giving an accouutof the sad scenes, but ef- 
fectual endeavors, of the littleonein bringing 
her mother back to friends, and leading her to 
God. It should be reml by everj'body. 



Tim's Troubles. i2mo, 350 pages. 
By Miss M. A. Paull, . . $f 60 

This is the second Prise Book of the United 
Kingdom Band of Hope Union, reprinted in this 
country with all the original illustrations. It 
is the companion of" Frank Oldfield." written 
in a high tone, and will be found a valuable 
addition to our Temperance literature. 

The Drinking Fountain Stories. 

lamo, 193 pages, .... $1 00 

This book of illustrated stories for children 
odntains articles from some of the best writers 
for children in America, and is beautifnlly il- 
lustrated with forty choice wood engravings. 

The White Bose. By Mary J. Hedg- 
es. i6mo, 320 pages, . . $1 26 

The gift of a simple white rpse was the means 
of leading those who cared fur it to the Saviour. 
How it was done is very pleasantly told, and 
also the wrongs resulting lu the use of strong 
dr'ok forcibly sliowu. 



Tlie Nnttonal Temper 

l»t DIuli't PMn. iimc. 118 
mgM, By Mm Mahv Dwinrll 
Chillis, autbor of ■'Tcmpennce 
Doctor,'' ■'Out of Ihe Fire," 

elf ai is 



''""'^'""'■■'";S'^'sf;!J 



x":i'LM hi 



TiM Teapmote Doctor, iimo, 370 
nges. Bjr Miss Mary Dwihill 



Oit of tks rin. Tirno, 410 pages. 
Ely Miss Maiv Dwi!<sll (Jhbllis 
■uLbor of "Deacon Sim's Hray- 
ers." etc »1 is 



lll>itoi7 afa Threeptaajr Bi 
gi6 pages, 



A^ontel. iBmo, 336 pages. By 
Jits. E. J. RicHHOwo, author oT 
"TheMcAlliaers." . . . W W 

The IM Britec. i8mo, ji. pbem. 
By T hkacsTalman, , . MW 



^i^'Va/wWrm^^^^...^^ 






•rt fete feU^^ft^i^-. .rjtir. - • ^ 



the lutiior oM^!!'^ >t ■■ ^ •iCT^*^ 






'Ȥ 



v: 
















'•»» 



Kiety's Books. 



^'igliten. xamo, 294 pages. 
p. J. E. McCoNAUGHv, au- 
*' The Hard Master," 

$1 25 

ftble story, showing hoir a number 
4 banded themselves iuto a society 
1st Alcohol, and the good they did 
lunity. 

^lled Serpent. 12010, 27 z 
, By Mrs. E. J. Richmond, 
iDf ^' Adopted," " The Mc- 
K'etc, $1 00 

written earnestly. The charao- 
1 delineated, and taken from the 
fashionable portion ofa 1 irge city, 
ich flow from fashionable drluk- 

portrayed, and also the danger 
the use of intoxicants when usedas 
ming an appetite which lasi'as 
leadly hold upon its victim. 

in the Bag, and Other 

By Mrs. J. P. Ballard. 
of '^The Broken Rock/^ 
Little," etc. lamo, $1 00 

»n of well-written stories by this 
r author on the subject of temper- 
iting many valuable lessons in the 
readers. 

Cable, xamo, 388 pages. 

KGARET £. WiLMER, aU- 

The Little Girl in 
'' £va*s Engagement 
letc, $1 25 

ff this book is good, the characters 
, and Its temperance and religious 
xcellent. Tue moral of the story 
who sneer at a child's pledge, 
Is strength to a glass cable, that It 

tses strong enough to brave the 
mptatlons of a whole lifetime. 

lard Fight. i2mo, 334 
By Miss Marion How- 

: $1 25 

■ 

tows the trials which a j'oang lad 
Aigh the temptatious and entice- 
I him by those opposed to bis firm 
tnnd religious principles, and 
der against th« nse of every kind 
limulant, it points also to Jesus, 
source of strenirth, urging all to 
»mises of strength and salvatien 
y one who will seek it. 



r (. 



i2ino, 336 pp. 

fi.WlLMER, $1 25 



Traitor. 

:arbt 

nterestinej showing bow the 
well-to-do New England family 
through the intrt^uction of a 
iven in fi-ieodship, used as me- 
iving a dumb traitor in the end. 



The National Temperance Society s Books. 



HoMdftl* Tarern, «id What it 
wnMyJit. xaino, 35a pages. By 
J. William Van Namee, . $1 00 

it shows tbe ladmulti whk-h followed th« 
taitfiHluction of R Tavern aii«l Bur in » b«ftiiti- 
ful aotl qui«t ooantry town, whoM InhitbitMiti 
bad hitnerto lived In peacv and enjoyment 
The contrast Is too pUiuly preaented to fail to 
produce an impression on the reader, making 
ail more desirous to abolish the «ale of all in- 
toxicants 

R07*f Seareh ; or, Lost In the Cam. 
lamo, 364 pages. By Helen C. 
Pearson, $1 25 

This new Temperance book is one of the 
meat intersstinf ever published — written in a 
fresh, sparkling style, especially adapted to 
please tne boys^ and contains so much that 
will benefit as well as amuse and interest that 
we wlah all tlia boys in the land might read it. 

How Could He Escape! xamo, 324 
pages. By Mrs. J. NcNair 
Wright, author of "Jug-Or- 
Not." Illustrated with ten en- 
gravings, designed by the au- 
thor, $1 25 

This is a ti-ue tale, and one of the writer's 
best productions. It sDows the terrible effects 
of even one glau of Intoxicating liquor upon 
the system of one onable to resist Its influences, 
and tne necessity of irrace in the heart to resist 
temptation and overcome the appetite for strong 
drink. 

The Best Fellow !■ the World. 

lamo, 352 pages. Hy Mrs. J. 
McNair Wright, autnor of" Jug- 
Or-Not," " How Could He Es- 
cape?" " Priest and Nun," %\ 25 

**Tlie Best Fellow," wkote course Is here 
portrayed, is one of a very large clasi who are 
fed astray and mine J simply because they are 
s«ch " good fellows." To nil such tlie volume 
speaks in thrilling tones of wnrnin<r, shows the 
Inevitable consequences of imiulg.ng in strong 
drink, and the necessity of divine t:r<ice In the 
heart to interpose aud save Iruui ruin. 

Frank Spencer's Bute of Lifn. 
i8mo, 180 pages. By John W 
KiRTON, author of " Buy Your 
Own Cherries," " Four Pillars of 
Temperance," etc., etc., .$0 50 

This ts written in the author's best style, 
making an in lerestiug and attractive stoi 7 lor 
children. 

Work and Reward. iSino, 183 pp. 
By Mrs. M. A. Holt, . $0 50 

Itiliows thatnut tlie smnllest effuit to do 
good is lost sight of by the all-knowinc Father, 
and thatfitith and prayer must accompany all 
temperanee efforts. 



The Pitcher of Cool Water. i8mo, 
180 pages. By T. S. Arthur, 
author of" Tom Blinu's Temper- 
ance Society," " Ten Nights in a 
Bar-room,"^ etc., . . . . $0 50 

This little book consists o*^ 1 fi ries of Tein 
perance stories, handsomely ilhisl rated, written 
in Mr. Abthub's beslstyfe, ami ia altogether 
one of the best books which can l>e placed in 
the hands of children. Every Sunday-school 
library should possess it. 

Little dirl !■ Black, xamo, 313 
pages. By Margarbt E. Wil- 

MER, $0 90 

Her strong faith in God, who she believes 
will reclaim an erring father, is a lesson to the 
reader, old as well as young. 

TemperBDce Aneedotes. i2mo, 288 
pages, $1 00 

This new book of Temperance Anecdotes, 
edited by Gborob W. Bunuay, contains near- 
ly four hundred Anecdotes, Witticisn^^, Jokes. 
Conundrums, etc , original and selected, nod 
win meet a want long feJt and often cxpress«tl 
by a very large numt^ of the numerous friends 
of the cause m the laud. The book is hand- 
somely illustrated with twelve choice wood 
engravings. 



The Temperance Speaker. 

N. Stbarns, 



$£75 



The iHiok con tains 588 pages of Declamations 
and Dialogues sulUtble lor Sunday and Dnx - 
^M:hools^ Bands of Hope, and Temperani-e Or- 
gauiaations. It consists of choice selection* 
of prose and poetry, both new ami old, roni 
the Temperance orators and writers of the 
country, uian^' of which have been written ex- 
pressly for this work. 

The McAllisters. i8mo, an pages. 
By Mrs. E. J. Richmond, . $0 50 

It shows the ruin brought on a family by the 
father's intemperate habits, and the strong 
faith and trust of the wife in that Friend abov* 
who alone gives strength to bear oar earthly 
trials. 

The Sermonrs. lamo, 331 l>ft^es 



By Miss L Bates, 



^ 



00 



A simple story, showing how a refined and 
cultivated family are broufkt low through the 
drinking liabits ut' tlie fatlier, their ioy and sor- 
row as he reforms only to fall apun, and his 
final happy release in a dlttaal city. 

£oa Rodman. lamo, 262 pages 
By Mrs. E. J. Richmond, $1 00 

Adafited more espe«-ially to voung girls' 
ri>ad!ng, showing the influence tnry wield in 
society, and 4heir responsibility for much of 
its drmking usages. 



The National Temperance Society s Books. 



fiya's Engmgement Ring. lamo, 189 
pages. By Margaret E. Wil- 
MKR author of " The Little Girl 
in Black," $0 90 

In tbia Interesting volame ia traced the career 
of the moderate drinker, who takes a glaaa In 
the nameoffrlendthip or courtesy. 

Packinrton Parish, and The Direr's 
Daughter. 121110, 327 pages. By 
Miss M. A. Paull, . . . $1 So 

In this Toluine we sea theraTacrea which 
the Hqnor traffic caused when introduced in a 
hitherto quiet village, and how a minister's eyes 
were at length opened to its evils, thongh he 
had always declared wine to be a "good 
creature of God," meant to be used in modern 
tion.- 

Old Times. lamo. By Miss M. D. 
Chellis, author of '* The Tem- 

Perance Doctor," "Out of the 
'ire," " Aunt Dinah's Pledge," 
**At Lion's Mouth," etc., . $1 25 

It discusses the whale subject of modera^^ 
drinking in the history of a New England vil- 
*■««• The incidents, various and amusing, are 
all facts, and the characters nearly all drawn 
from real lifr. The five deacons which figure 
so conspicuously actually lived and acted as re- 
presented. 

John Bentley's Mistake.' tSmo, 
X77 pages. By Mrs. M. A. Hoi.t, 

$0 60 

It takes an Important place among our tem- 
perance books, taking an earnest, bold stand 
against the use of cider as a beverage, proving 
that It is often the first step toward stronger 
drinks, forming an appetite for the more fiery 
liquids which cannot easily be quenched. 

Nothing to Drink. 12010, 400 
pages. By Mrs. J. McNair 
Wright, author of '*The Best 
Fellow in the World," ** Jugr-or- 
Not," " How Could He Escape ?" 
etc., $1 60 

The story is of light-honse keeper and 
thrilling adventures at sea, being nautical, 
■dentine, and partly statistical, written in a 
ehanning, thriUing, and convincing manner. 
It goes out of the ordinary line entirely, most 
of the characters being portraits, its scenery 
all from absolute facts, every scientific and 
natural-history statement a verity, the sea in- 
'ridenta from actual experience from nuvine 
llMatera for the laat ten years. 

Nettle Loring. zamo, 352 pages. 
By Mrs. Geo. S. Downs, $1 25 

It graphii*ally describes the doings of sev- 
eral young ladies who resolved to use their 
influence on the side of tt*mperance and banish 
wine from their entertainments, the scorn they 
•zcited, and the good results which fallowed. 



The Fire Fiarliters. 12010, 294 pages. 
By Mrs. J. E. McConaughy, au- 
thor of The Hard Master," 

$1 26 

An admirable story, showing how a number 
of young lads banded themselves into a Ko<iety 
to light against Alcohol, and the good they did 
in the community. 

The Jewelled Serpent, lamo, 271 
pages. By Mrs. E. J. Richmond. 
author of ^' Adopted," " The Mc- 
Allisters," etc., $100 

The story i i written earnestly. Tlie cliarac- 
ters are well delineated, and taken from the 
wealthy and fashionable portion ofal -x^q city. 
The evils which flow from fasbiuuable drink- 
ing are well portrayed, and also the danger 
arising from the use of intoxicants when used as 
medicme, forming an appetite which lastaa 
itself with a deadly hold upon its victim. 

The Hole in the Bag, and Other 
Htorles. By Mrs. J. P. Ballard, 
author of "The Broken Rock.'^ 
'• Lift a Little," etc. lamo, $1 00 

A collection of well-written stories by this 
most popular author on the subject of temper- 
ance. Inculcating many valuable lesaona in the 
minds of its readers. 

The Glass Cable. 12010, 288 pages. 
By Margaret E. Wilmer, au- 
thor of '-The Little Girl in 
Black." *' £va*s Engagement 
Ring," etc., $1 25 

The style of this book la good, the charactera 
well aelected, and its temperance and religleus 
truths most excellent. The moral of the story 
shows those who sneer at a child's pledge, 
comparing its strength to a glass cable, that It 
is in many cases strong enough to brave the 
storms and temptations of a whole lifetime. 

Fred's Hard Fight. x2mo, 334 
pages. By Miss Marion How- 
ard, $1 25 

While It shows the trials which a young lad 
endured through the temptations and entice- 
ments offered him by those opposed to his firm 
temperance and religious principl«s, and 
warns the reader against the nae of every kind 
of alcoholic stimulant, it points also to Jesus, 
the only true source of strength, urging all to 
accept the promises of strength and salvatien 
offered to every one who will seek it. 

The Dumb Traitor. 12010, 336 pp. 
By Margaret E.Wilmbr, 9I 25 

Intensely intereetinir, showing how the 
prospects of a well-to-do New England family 
were blighted through the intn^uction of a 
box of wine, given in fi-iendship, used as me- 
dicine, but proving a dumb traitor in the end. 



The National Temperance Society's Books, 



HiscellaneouB Publications. 



Fort7 Yean* Piyhtwith the Drink 
DemoB* xamo, 400 pages. Ky 
Charlbs Jbwbtt, M.D., . $1 50 

Thit volume rmuprisM the history of Dr 
Jewett'a public anil private labors frum IM:^6 U> 
the pment time, with tketchra of tlieiiiovl 
popular and diBtinguUbed advocates of the 
caaM in ita earlier atagee. It alto records the 
fwnlts of forty years obaervatloo, study, and 
reflections upon tne use of intoxicating driii lis 
and drugs, and suggestions as to the best 
methods o< advanciug the cause, etc. The l»<><>k 
Is handsomely bound, and ruiiiains illustrated 
portratii of early champious oftlie cause 

Drops of Water. 121110, 133 pages. 
By Miss Ella Wheeler, $0 76 

A new book of fifty-six Temperance Poems 
by thisToung and talented authoress, suitable 
for reading In Temperance Societies, Lodge 
Rooms, Divisions, etc. The simplicity of man- 
ner, beauty of expression, earnestness of 
thought, and noMenesa of sentiment running 
through all of them make this book a real 
gtm, worthy a place by the aide of any of the 
poetry iu the cooutry. 



Tracts. 500 
... $1 00 



Bonad Yolnme of 

pages, .... 

Tbta volume contains all the four, eight, and 
twelve page trtcta published by the National 
Temperance Society, including all the prixe 
tracts leaned the last two years The book 
comprises Anuments, Statistics, Sketches, and 
Essays, which make it an invMluable collection 
for every friend of the Temperance Reform. 

Sorlptvre Testimony Against In- 
toxicating Wine. By Rev. Wm. 
Ritchie, of Scodand, . . $0 60 

An unanswerable refutation of the theory 
that the Scriptures favor the idea of the 
use of intoxicating wine as a beverage. It 
takes the different xin'is of wines mentioned in 
the Scriptures, investigates their specific na- 
ture, ana shows wherein I hey differ. 

Alcoliol: Its Place and Power, by 
James Miller ; and Tlie Use and 
Abuse of Tobacco, by John Li- 
ZARS, $1 00 



Zoological Temperance Conrention. 

By Rev. Edward Hitchcock, 
D.D., of Amherst College, $0 7^ 

This fable gives an interesting and entertain- 
ing account of a Convention of Animals held 
in Central Africa, and reports the 
made on the occasion. 



Delavan's Consideration of the Tem- 
perance Argument and iilstorr, 

$1 50 

This condensed and comprelieustve worti loii- 
ta ns Essays and Selection* from different au- 
iliors, collected and edited by Edwabd C. L>k- 
I.AVAN, Esq., and is one oi tlie most vaiu- blu 
t«xt-books uu the subject of Temperance tvur 
iuneil. 

Bible Rule of Temperance; or. 
Total Abstinence from all Intox- 
icatiug Drinks. By Rev. Geokge 
puFFiELD, l>.\y., . . . . $0 60 

This is the ablest and most relial%e work 
which h>is been issued on the subject Tlie im- 
morality <if tite Its , sale, an I manufacture of 
intoxicating liquurs as a i>«vrra«;e u cons dered 
In the light ot M>e i>H-ripture», uod thu will and 
law of Uod clearly presented 

Alcohol: Its Nature and Effects. 

By Charles A. Storev, M.U., 

$0 90 

This is a tltoraugiily ncieiilific work, \et 
written in a fresh, vigorous, and jiopnlar style, 
in langUiige that tlie masses can uudentMud. 
It couiists of ten lectures carefully prepared, 
and is an entire! >' new work l>y onti amply eum- 
petent to present the subject. 

Four Pillars of Temperance. Bv 
John W. Kirton, . . . $0 7 d 

The Four Pillamare, Reason, Science, S«Tip- 
tnre, and Experience. The book is nrgnmt ntn- 
ttve, historical, and stat stical,i nd tliu tai-t>, 
appeals, and arguments are presented in a most 
convincing and masterly manner 

Communion Wine ; or, Bible Tem- 
perance, By Rev. William M. 
Thayer. Paper, 20 cents ; cloth, 

$0 50 

An unanswerable argument against tlic use 
of intoxicatlne wine at Communion, and ]>re- 
sentlng the Bible argument in favor of to^ai 
abstinence. 

LaiTS of Fermentation and Wines 
of the Ancients. i2ino, 129 pag^es. 
By Rev. Wm. Patton, D.D 
Paper, 30 cts. ; cloth, . . $0 60 

It presents the whole matter of Biltle Ti-m- 
perauce and the winuM of and- nt tiiiies in a 
new, 1*1 ear, and satis actory mm iier, develop- 
ing the laws of fermentation, andgiving a laree 
number of references and statistics never l>efor<' 
collected, showing conclusively the existence of 
unfenoented wine iu the olden time. 



The National Temperance Society s Books. 



The Bases of the Temperance Be- 
form. zamo, 324 pages. By Rev. 
Dawson Burns, . . . . $1 00 

TliU Is also an English prize essay, which 
took the secoud pi Ixe under ttie liberal offer of 
James Teare for the best essay on tlie entire 
temperance question. A very able and tho- 
rough exposition of the foondations oh which 
the temperance cause is tounded and npbuilt. 
The author establishes in a clt>ar and satisfac- 
tory manner the propositions that the drinking 
system is the fi:reatest social evil in the land; 
that intozicatini; liquors are aiele»s and injuri- 
ous as articles of diet; that intemperance is a 
true pliMTue which can onlv be effectually sup- 
pressed by the exclusion of intoxfcatinfr drinks : 
that violence Is done to the will of God and 
the welfare of man by approximating the 
Iruits of the earth to the production of intoxi- 
cating drinks: that the sacred Scriptures do 
not afford sanction to the use of intoxicating 
liquors. 



Bacchus 

pages. 



Text-Book of Temperance. By 
Dr. F. R. Lees, . . . . $1 50 

We can also furnish the above book, wliicli i» 
di^rided Into the following parts: 1. Temper- 
ance as a Virtue, 'i. Tbe CluMuic-sil History of 
Alcoiiol. 3 The Dietetirs of Temperance. 4. 
Tlie Pathology of Intemper »b e. 6. The Medi- 
cal Qutfstion. 6 Temperance in Relation lo 
the « ble. 7. Historical. 8. The National 
Question and the Remedy. 9. The Philosophy 
of Temperance. 

Bagle Notes for the Temperance 
Army. Price, paper covers, 80 
cents; boards, $0 85 

▲ Hew collecCion of Songs, Quartets, and 
Glees, adapted to the use of all Temperance 
gatherings, Glee Clubs, etc., together with the 
Odes «f the bons of Temperance and Qocd 
Templars. 

Temperance Chimes. Price, in 
paper covers, 80 cents, single 
copies ; $25 per hundred. Price, 
in board covers, 86 cents- per 
hundred, $80 00 

A Temperance Hymn and Tune- Book of 128 
pagex, comprising a gre^t variety of Glees, 
Songs, and Hymns desisriied for the use of Tem- 

Eeraiice Meetings and Organizations, Bauds of 
lope, Gleo Clubs, and the Home Circle. Many 
of the Hymns have been written expressly for 
this book by some of the best writers iu tVe 
countr)-. 

Bound Tolnmes of Sermons, $1 50 

Seventeen sermons delivered upen the Invi- 
Ution of The National Temperance Society, 
and published in the National Series, have all 
been bound in one volume, making 400 page* 
of the best temperance matter of the kind ever 
published. The sermons are by Revs. Henrv 
Ward Beecher, T L. Cuyler.T. De Witt Tal- 
majre, J B. Dunn, John Hall, J. P. Newman, 
J. W. Mears, C. D. Foss, J. Rom evn Berry, 
Herrick Johnson, Peter Stryker, C. H. Fowler, 
H C. Fish, H. W. Warren, S. H. Tyng, and 
W. M. Taylor. 

The National Temperance Orator. z2mo, 288 pages, . . . $1 00 

This is issued in response to the many urgent calls for a book similar to the " New Tempe- 
rance Speaker," used widely throughout the country. It contains articles by the best temperance 
writers of the day, poems, recitations, readings, dialogues, and choice extracts from speeches of 
some of the ablest temperance speakers in the country, for the use of all temperance workers. 
Lodges, Divisions, Bands of Hope, etc., etc 



Dethroned. xamo, 348 
By Frederick Powell, 

$1 00 

Tills is an English prize essav, written in re- 
sponse to a prize offered by James Teare, of 
^gLind, for the best temfterance ssay. It is 
one of the ablest and most convincing works 
ever issued. The question is presented in all 
its phases, physiological, social, political, 
Tno;-al, and religious It I very oomprehen> 
sive, multiplying facts, abonnding in aisa- 
ments, answering objections, and enroKing 
powerful And jathetic appeals. The author 
considers !■ The great national curse. 9. 
The supposed dietetic . value of alcoholic 
beverages. 8. The physiological relations of 
intoxicating liquors 4. Tbe social and poli- 
tlcrtl argument. 6. The- manufaotare of in- 
toxicating liquor an immorality. «. Teetotal- 
Ism a scientific truth. 7. Teetotal ism in 
relation to the Bible. 8. God's great remedy 
for the world's great curse. 9. Legislation 
VI d the liquor traffic. 



Twenty-four Paye Pamphlets. (With Covers.) 

« 

Fire Cents each ; 60 Cents per Doz. 



Is Alcohol Food ! 

Physiological Action of Alcohol. 

Adolteration of Liquors. 

Will the Coming Man Drink Winef 

History and Mystery of a Glass of Ale. 

Bible Teetotalism. 



Medicinal Drinking. 
Drinking Usaees of Society. 
Fmits of the Liquor Truffle. 
Is Alcohol a Necessary of Lift t 
A High Fence of Fifteen Ban 
The Son of My Friend. 



The National Temperance Society s Books. 

Pamphlets. 



JohB Swiff. A Poem. By Edward 
Carswbll. lamo, 34 pages. Il- 
lustrated with eij^ht characteristic 
engravings, printed on tinted 
paper, $0 15 

The Bam Fiend, and Other Poem^. 
By William H. Burleigh. lamo. 
46 pages. Illustrated with three 
wood engravings, des gned \>y 
Edward Carswell. ... $0 20 

Snppresnion of the Llqaor TralBc. 
A Prize Essay, by Rev H. D. 
KiTCHELL, President of Middle- 
bury College. lamo, 48 pp., $0 10 



Bound and How; or. Alcohol a* % 
Narcotic. By Charles Jewett, 
M D. zamo, 34 pp., . . . $0 10 

Scrlptnral Claims of Total Abstin- 
ence. By Rev. Newman Hall. 
lamo, 63 pp., $0 15 

Bur Tonr Own Cherries. By John 
W. KiRTON. II mo, 33 pp., $0 20 

National Temperance Almanac and 
Teetotaler's Year Book for 1874, 

$0 10 

niostrated Temperance Alphabet. 

$0 25 



The Youth's Temperance Banner 

The Natio&Al Temperance Society imd Publication Houm publUh a lieantlfnlly lllnitrated 
Monthly Paper, especially adapted to children and youth, Sunday-tchool and Juvenile Tem- 
perance OrgHnisationi. Each number contain! aevem] choice enarravinga, a piece of mnaic, and a 
p'eat variety ofartlrlea from the pent of the beet writers for children in America. It should be 
piarcd in the hands of every child in the land. 



Sinrle copies, one year,' - 
Eight copies, to one address, • 
Ten A ' «* «' ' ^ 

Fifteen " " 

Twenty *« " 



« 



TbRMS— IK 


Adtamcs. 


• |0S5 


Thirty copies, tor (me address, 


- 100 


Forty " " *« 


. 1 85 


Fifty " « " 


- 1 t» 


One Hundred «♦ « 


. 3M 





$S 7S 
fi 00 
6 23 

19 0« 



Tho Total Abstainer's Daily Witness and Bible Terdict. 75 Cents. 

This is a series of Scripture Textsprinted on thirty -one larse sheets, arranfred so that one can 
b&nsed for each dav in the month. The sin of each sdeet Is 19 oy 19 inches, ail fastened toj^ether 
with roller and cord, so as to be easily hung up in room, office, workshop, etc. ; and turning over 
a sheet day by day as required. 



Kew Temperance Dialogues, 



The First Glass ; or. The Power of Wo- 
man's Influence. 

The Young Teetotaler, or, Saved at 

Last. 15 cenU each. Per dosen, . |1 50 

Reclaimed : or. The Danger of Mod»> 
rate Drinking. 10 cents. Per 
doMU, 1 00 

Marry No Man if he Drinks ; or. Laura's 
Plan and How it Succeeded. 10 
cents. Per doicn, • • . . 1 00 



86 pages. 
15 cents. 



Which Will You Choose! 
By Miss M D. Chellis. 

Per dosen, 

Annt Dinah's Pledigre. Dramatized, 
The Temperance Doctor. Dramatised, 
Wine as a Medicin^. lOc. Per dosen. . 
The Stnmbhnir-Block. lOe. Per dozen, 
Trial and Condemnation of Judas Woe- 
maker. 15 cents. Per docen, . . 
Temperance Exercise, . • • . 



♦1 


1 



PO 
15 
15 
00 
00 

KO 
10 



Band of Hope Supplies, 



Band of Hope Manual. Per dosen, 
Temperance Catechism. Per dosen, 
Band of Hope Melodies. Paper, 
Band of Hope Badge. Enamelled, |1 9S 

per dosen; 12 cents singly. Plain, 

|l per dosen ; 10 cents singly. 

Silver and Enamelled, 50 cents 

each. 



|0 60 

. 60 

10 



|0 9i 



Juvenile Temperance Speaker. 
Illuminated Temperance Cards. Set of 

ten, - ... 85 

Juvenile Temperance Pledgee. Per 100, s 00 
Cfrtiiicates of^ Membership Per 100, - 8 00 
The Temperance Speaker, . . - 75 
Catechism on Alcohol. By Miss Julia 

Colman. Pw dosen, - • ^ 60 

Ser t by mall, post-paid, on receipt of price. Address 

68 READS STREET, NEW TORK.^